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Fruit, Vegetable, and Flower Garden, 


Greenhouse, Conservatory, and Window Garden. 







0. JTDD CO., DAVID W. JUDD, Preset, 



Entered, accoraing to Act of Congress, in the j-ear 1887, by the 


In the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washintrton. 


J d — v^^ — 

oO Preface to Second Edition 7 

. Introduction to First Edition 8 


^ Location and Soil 9 


Drainage 10 

Preparation of the Ground 13 

Walks.-.. 14 


^ Manures 17 

Special Fertilizers for Particular Plants - . 20 

The Lawn 23 

Designs for Garden 27 

Plantin.ii' of Lawns and Flower Beds 31 

Fall or Holland Bulbs, etc.. 44 

Propagation of Plants by Seeds 61 

Propagation of Plants by Cuttings - 64 

Propagating by Layering 68 

About Grafting and Budding - 69 

How Grafting and Budding are Done - 74 

Treatment of Tropical Bulbs, Seeds, etc 80 

The Potting of Plants 83 

Winter-Flowering Plants 85 

Unhealthy Plants— The Remedy 104 

Plants Suited for Summer Decoration 106 




Hanging^ Baskets 112 

Window Gardening - 116 

Culture of Water Lilies and other Aquatic Plants - - 118 

The Chrysanthemum 147 

Parlor Gardening, or the Cultivation of Plants in Rooms 153 


Wardian Cases, Ferneries, and Jardinieres. 159 

Greenhouses Attached to Dwellings - ..161 

Detached Greenhouses, Modes of Heating, etc 165 

Greenhouses or Pits without Artificial Heating. 184 

Combined Cellar and Greenhouse. 186 

Hardy Shrubs, Climbers, and Trees.. 189 


Hardy Herbaceous Perennials 193 

Flowers which will Grow in the Shade 199 

Insects and other Parasites In j urious to Plants 200 

Frozen Plants 208 

Mulching - 209 

Shading ---- 211 


The Law of Color in Flowers --- 215 

Humbugs in Horticulture - 216 

PiTjning. -- - 233 

Hardy Grapes - - 238 

The Cold Grapeiy - 247 


The Hothouse or Foreinj? Grapery 253 

The Strawberry 256 

Cottage Gardening — A Digression .301 

The Vegetable Garden 303 

Garden Implements 359 

Monthly Calendar of Operations -. 385 


1. Rubble Drain 11 

2. Horse-shoe Drain Tile 11 

3. Triangular Board Drain.. 12 

4. Approach to a House — 

Drive and Path 15 

5. Section of Road with Drain 

each side 18 

6. Design for Laying out 

Grounds '. 38 

7. Design for (i rounds with 

Carriage Drive 30 

8. Diagram of Flower Bed.. 32 

9. Section of Flower Bed .... 33 

10. Carpet Bed as Planted 37 

11. Design for Flower Bed 37 

12. Design for Flower Bed 38 

13. Design for Flower Bed 39 

14. Design for Flower Bed 40 

15. Design for Flower Bed 41 

16. Design for Flower Bed 42 

17. Fancy Bedding at Lincoln 

Park, Chicago 43 

18. Group of Holland Bulbs.. 46 

19. Pot Culture of the Bermu- 

da Lily. 49 

20. Lily of the Valley.. 51 

21. Lilv of the Valley " Pip " 

— Good. 53 

23. Amaryllis (Vittata Type).. 58 

23. Cyclamen 60 

34. Proper and Improper State 

of Cutting 65 

25. Saucer Propagation 67 

26. Propagation by Layering.. 68 

27. Cleft Grafting (the Cklt). 76 

28. Cleft Grafting? (the Cion).. 76 

29. Cleft Grafting (Graft fitted) 76 

30. Whip Graft 77 

31. Side Graft.--. 77 

33. Grafting the CamclUa ... 78 

33. Budding (the Bud). 79 

34. Buddiui,^ (the Cut) 79 

35. Budding(the Bud in place) 79 

36. Buddin2:(the Bud tied)-. 79 

37. Rustic Hanging Basket. -.113 

38. A Veranda Garden 115 

39. Plain Window Box 116 

40. Window Box Ornamented 

with Tiles 117 

41. Aquatic Plants in Central 

Park. 134 

43. Water Lily Bed 136 

43. Amazon Lily, Victoria regia\28 

44. Nympha?a De voniensis 133 

45. ChrysanthemumMrs. Brett 150 

46. Chrysanthemum Culliug- 

fordi.. :.153 

47. Folding Plant Stand. 157 

48 Wardian Case 159 

49. Fernery with Glass Shade. 159 

50. Base-burning Bo'ler. 163 

51. Base-bui'uing Boiler (Sec- 

tion) 163 

53. Conservatory attached to 
Dwelling (Elevation) 163 

53. Conservatory attached to 

Dwelling (Ground Plan). 163 

54. Conservatory attached to 

Dwelling 164 

55. Greenhouse with equal 

Spans .166 

56. End View and Plan of 

Greenhouse or Grapery.. 167 

57. Elevation (in pail) of De- 

tached Greenhouse or 
Grapery 168 

58. Three-quarter Span Green- 

house 171 

59. Greenhouse, Rose House, 

and Potting Room 173 



60. Greenhouse, Rose House, 

or Vinery 174 

61. Conservatory with Win2:s-175 

62. Greenhouse heated by Flue 

under the center Bench. .178 

63. Section of Greenhouse 

heated by a Flue-.. 180 

64. Sunken Pit .185 

65. Greenhouse and Cellar 

Combined 188 

66. Where to Cut in Pruning 

(too close to Bud) 236 

67. Where to Cut in Pruning 

(too far from Bud) 236 

68. Where to Cut in Pruning 

(the proper place) 236 

69. Pruning for Shape (where 

to Cut) -237 

70. Pruning for Shape (to 

throw branches in). 237 

71. Pnining for Shape (to 

throw branches out) 237 

72. Grape Vine with Two 

Shoots - 240 

73. Grape Vine with Arms 240 

74. (jrrape Vine Spiu'-Pruned- -241 

75. View of a Vineyard. 242 

76. Grape Vine Cutting 243 

77. Niagara Grape in Fruit 245 

78. Greenhouse or Grapery 

(Section) 247 

79. Lean-to Grapery (Section) 249 

80. Forcing Grapery (Plan) 254 

81. Front Elevation of Forcing 

Grapery 255 

82. Section of ForcinuGrapery 255 

83. Strawberry (Striking in 

Pots) 258 

84. Strawberry,the Henderson 261 

85. Strawberry, Crimson Clus- 

ter.. --.262 

86. Strawberry, Jersey Queen 263 

87. Strawberry, Sharpless 2M: 

88. Strawberry, the J ewell 265 

89. Strawberry Forcing House 267 

90. Raspberry, Laying down 

Canes 271 

91. Raspberry, Training to a 

Wire.-..' 271 

92. Raspberry, the Hansell 272 

93. Raspberry, Golden Queen. 274 

94. Black Cap Raspberry 

(Thimbleberry), the 

Gregg - . .275 

95. Blackberry, the Early 

Harvest. --.277 

96. Blackbeny, the Wilson, Jr. 278 

97. Blackbeiry or Dewberry, 

Lucretia 279 

98. Blackberry, Crystal White. 280 

99. Currant, Fay's Prolific. --.281 

100. Currant, Black Champion. 281 

101. GJooseberry, The Industry. 283 

102. Cherry, Black Tailarian ..287 

103. Persimmon, Japan 290 

104. Apple, FaU Pippin 294 

105. Pear, The Keifler 295 

106. Pear, Cordon Training. --.296 

107. Pear, The Bartlett 297 

108. Plan for Fruit and Vege- 

table Garden 304 

109. Asparagus, Plant With 

Roots^ .-.305 

110. Asparagus, The Palmetto. 306 

111. Artichoke, Globe 308 

112. Artichoke, Jerusalem 308 

113. Brussels Sprouts .313 

114. Cauliflower, Henderson's 

Early Snowball 315 

115. Cabbage, Savoy .316 

116. Carrot, Varieties of 317 

117. Celery. '' HandUng " 320 

118. Celery, Banked Up 321 

119. Celery, Stored in Trenches 

for Winter 323 

120. Celery, Henderson's White 

Plume 323 

121. Corn, Varieties of Sweet.. 326 

122. Bryant's Plant Protector.. 327 

123. Lettuce, Black-seeded 

Simpson .332 

124. Lettuce, Paris White Cos .333 

125. Musk Melon, Baltimore ..334 

126. Musk Melon, Montreal 

Market . 334 

127. Water Melon,' Scaly Bark .335 

128. IMushrooms 337 

129. Onion, Southport White 

Globe 341 

130. Pea, American Wonder.. -343 

131. Pea, Champion of Eng- 

land 345 

132,- Rhubarb, St, Martin's ----348 

133. Sea Kale 350 

134. Squash, Essex Hybrid 352 

135. Squash, Hubbard - 353 

136. Tomato Perfection Grown 

on Trellis.. 354 

137. Tomato Perfection 355 

138. Turnip, White Egg 356 

139. Turnip,Extra Early Milan. 357 
140-203. Garden Implements, 


Tail Piece, a Cluster of Grapes . .298 


Twelve years have passed since the first edition of 
" Gardening for Pleasure " was published. lu that time 
vast strides and changes have been made in all depart- 
ments of horticulture, so that it has been found necessary 
not only to greatly enlarge the scope of this work, but 
also to make many changes. The newest and best 
methods of culture have been substituted for such as 
a farther experience has shown to have been faulty, so 
that it is believed that in all matters pertaining to 
amateur gardening, or ^^ gardening for pleasure," the 
ground is as well covered as is practicable in a book of 
this size treating on such a great variety of subjects. As 
in the first edition, 1 have endeavored to use the plainest 
and simplest language I could, avoiding as far as possible 
all technical and scientific terms used by the professional 
gardener, the use of which would only tend to coniuse and 
befog the beginner. Although this Avork is written only 
for such as garden for pleasure, yet I am well aware that 
hundreds every season, who have a taste for horticulture, 
branch out from private into commercial gardening, 
either from necessity or for a love of making a business 
'of the work. To such, if the business of growing flowers 
or plants for sale is to be begun, my new edition of 
** Practical Floriculture" is recommended. If growing 
fruit or vegetables for market, I advise *' Gardening for 
Profit." If the work of the farm is wanted to be made 
profitable, I flatter myself that my recent work on that 
subject, '^ How the Farm Pays," will help to that end. 


Jersey City Heights, N. J., Jan. let, 1888. 



I HAVE endeavored, in writing " Gardening for Pleas- 
ure," to divest it, as far as I was competent to do so, of 
the technical terms and phrases which professional gar- 
deners use in writing or talking on matters relating to 
horticulture, and to use the plainest language at my 
command in describing the simplest methods of culture. 
Whether I have succeeded in making the subject as clear 
as I have desired to do, those who read the work must 

My aim in writing the book was to make it such as 
would be useful to the occupant of a city lot, or to the 
possessor of a few window plants, as well as to the owner 
of a country residence that is fully appointed in all mat- 
ters relating to the cultivation of flowers, fruits, and 
vegetables. The necessity for such a book has been 
made evident to me by inquiries from hundreds of 
amateurs in gardening ; inquiries to many of which 
neither of my previous works ("Gardening for Profit" or 
"Practical Floriculture") furnished proper replies ; the 
one being written mainly for information for the market 
gardener, and the other for the commercial florist. 

Jersey City, N. J., Oct., 1875. 




"Whenever practicable the location of tlie garden 
should be such as is sheltered from the north and west, 
either by hills or belts of timber. Where there is no such 
shelter naturally, it is of the first importance to plant belts 
of evergreens, such as Norway or Hemlock Spruce, in 
double or treble lines, at distances of six or eight feet 
apart, or if close enough to form hedges, all the better. 
When this is not done, a high board fence for shelter will 
answer a temporary purpose, but is neither so ornamental 
nor so effective as the shelter given by growing trees. 
Evergreens, such as Norway or Hemlock Spruce, can 
be bought from two to three feet high, at from 115 to 
$25 per hundred, and should be planted, according to 
size, from three to four feet apart, making a cheap and 
ever-improving screen or fence, which may be trimmed 
to any required hight or thickness. 

It is rare, in determining the site for a residence, that 
the soil is taken into consideration, and, in consequence, 
we sometimes find that the garden surrounding the house 
presents a barren appearance, that nothing can remedy 
short of placing a foot of good soil over the whole surface. 
This condition is not so often due to the natural poverty 



of the soil, as to the grading o2 the surface soil, or 
to filling Lij^ to the desired grade with the material 
thrown out in excavating the cellars, or other subsoil, 
clay, or gravelly material, and placing these over the 
soil intended for the garden. This is often done for 
the convenience of contractors, to the great injury of the 
proprietor, without either being aware of the bad results. 
As a good soil will tend more than all else to give satis- 
factory results in garden operations, it is all important to 
secure it. When discretion can be used in deciding on a 
location, one should be chosen that has naturally a suit- 
able soil, rather than to attempt to make it so by carting 
a foot of good soil over the bad, which would be found 
not only very expensive, but, in many situations, next to 
impracticable. I have before said, in some of my writ- 
ings on this subject, that the soil best suited for all gar- 
den purposes is what is known as '^ sandy loam," not 
less than ten inches deep, with a subsoil of sand or 
gravel. Such a soil rarely requires drainage, is easily 
worked, and gives better results than that known as 
" clayey loam," with a putty-like subsoil of blue or 
yellow clay, which must be drained thoroughly before 
a seed is sown or a plant set out, or there will be no 
satisfactory reward for the labor. 


As drainage will be in many instances indispensable to 
success, I will briefly state a few of the simplest methods 
that may be adopted, premising that it is utterly useless 
to expect to cultivate any soil satisfactorily that does not 
freely and rapidly carry off the surface water. An expert 




in soils can determine almost to a certainty, by digging 
down two or three feet, whether or not a soil requires 
drainage ; but the safest guide for the inexperienced is to 
judge by the growing crops in his 
neighborhood. If on a similar soil 
good crops of corn, potatoes, or 
hay are found on undrained land, 
then it is certain there is no ne- 
cessity to drain; for no matter how 
cultivated, or how heavily manured 
land is, there can never be a good 
crop raised in any season, if the 
soil is water-logged. If the place 
to be drained is of large extent, 
and the ground nearly level, it will 
always be safer to call in the services 
of an engineer to give the proper levels and indicate the 
necessary fall, wliich should never be less than half a foot 
in the hundred, and if more can be had, so much the bet- 
ter. In heavy, clayey soils, we make our lateral drains 
three feet deep and fifteen feet apart. Where there is less 
clay in the subsoil we make them from twenty to thirty 
feet apart and four feet deep. If stones are plenty on 
the ground, they may be profitably used in filling up the 
excavated ditch to half its depth, as shown in figure 3, 



and which is known as a rubble drain, using the larger 
stones at the bottom and smaller at top, and covering 
over with inverted sods, or six inches of shavings or hay, 
to keep the soil from being washed in among the stones, 
and thus choking up the drain. But when they can be 


obtained at a reasonable price., the best and most durable 
draining is that done by tiles. It makes but little differ- 
ence whether the tile used is the round with collars, or 
the horse-shoe. We rather prefer the latter, particularly 
if the bottom of the drain is ^^ spongy/"' when we use a 
board for the bottom of the drain, as shown in figure 2. 
Here, again, great care must be used in covering up the 
tile with sods, shavings, or other covering, so as to pre- 
vent the soil being washed into the crevices and choking 
up the drain. This board is a common one of hemlock 
or spruce, cut in four pieces. It is ripped through the 
middle, and then these parts split in two, making boards 
of five inches wide by half an inch in thickness, thus 


making the common hemlock board stretch out to a 
length of fifty feet. It is often a very troublesome mat- 
ter to get the few drain tiles necessary to drain a small 
garden, and in such cases an excellent and cheap substi- 
tute can be had by using one of boards. Take ordinary 
rough boards, pine, hemlock, or spruce, cut them into 
widths of three or four inches, and nail them together 
so as to form a triangular pipe, as represented in fig- 
ure 3, taking care to " break the joints " in putting the 
lengths together. Care must also be taken that the boards 
are not nailed together too closely, else they might swell 
Eo as to prevent the water passing into the drain to be 
carried off. These drains are usually set with a flat side 
down, but they will keep clear better if put with a point 
down, though it is more trouble to lay them. Drains 
made in this way will last much longer than might be sup- 
posed. In excavations recently made we found wooden 


drains in perfect order that had been in the ground for 
twenty-five years. 


After draining (if draining is necessary) comes the 
preparation of the soil. Presuming that the ground 
where the new garden is to be made is an open space, 
clear of trees or other obstructions, there is no cultiva- 
tion so cheap and yet so thorough as plowing and har- 
rowing. To do this properly, the ordinary plow should 
be followed by the subsoil plow, stirring the subsoil up 
about fifteen inches deep, so that the water will pass 
through to the drains, natural or artificial, freely. After 
the plow and subsoiler, follows the harrow (the Acme is 
the best ; see Implements), which should be weighted, so 
that the teeth sink six inches into the soil, in order to 
completely pulverize it. In Europe, it would be consid- 
ered sacrilege to use a plow or harrow in the preparation 
of a private garden, and most of old-country gardeners 
among us will stand aghast at such advice ; but I have 
been through all parts of the work, and am well satisfied, 
from no limited practice, that plowing and harrowing 
will not only do the work at one-fourth of the cost, but 
in a better manner than the ordinary digging or trench- 
ing with the spade. Let me here caution that great care 
be taken never to plow, dig, harrow, rake, or hoe ground 
when wet. If work must be done, pull out weeds, or set 
plants, if you will, but never, under any circumstances, 
stir the soil in preparation for a crop until it is dry 
enough not to clog. If stirred while wet, the particles 
stick together, and the crop is not only injured for the 
season, but in some soils the bad effects show for years. 



It is no unusual thing to see the owner of a neat cot- 
tage make himself perfectly ridiculous by the way in 
which he lavs out the walk from the street to his front 
door. There is a prevailing opinion that such walks 
should be curved ones, and gentlemen, often otherwise 
shrewd and intelligent, place themselves without ques- 
tion in the hands of some self-styled ^^ garden architect/' 
and thus manage to make themselves the laughing stock 
of a neighborhood. There was a well-marked instance 
of this in a garden occupying a block in almost the cen- 
ter of Jersey City, where a man pretending to have a full 
knowledge of the subject, induced the proprietor to have 
a walk running about one hundred yards from the street 
to the house, made so curved that its length was nearly 
twice that distance. It was hard on the butchers and 
grocer's boys, and it was said that even book-peddlers, 
sewing-machine agents, and lightning-rod men looked 
ruefully at it and left him in peace. Some old authority 
on this subject says that there "never should be any 
deviation from a straight line unless from some real or 
apparent cause." So if curved lines are insisted on, a 
tree, rock, or building must be placed at the bend as a 
reason for going around such obstacles. It will be evi- 
dent to any one who reflects upon the matter, that a 
curved walk running a distance of a hundred yards or so 
from the street to the house, across an unplanted lawn, 
is utterly absurd. All short foot- walks from the street 
to the house should be straight, entering from the street at 
as near right angles as possible, and leading direct to the 
front door. There should be no necessity for a carriage 
road to the front entrance of a house, unless it is distant 



at least 100 feet from the street, and tlien a drive is best 
made by having an entrance at each side of the lot, as 
given in figure 4, presuming that the width of the 
ground is 500 feet, and the distance from the street to the 
front door is 150 feet. Even here the foot-walk should 
be direct. The width of the roads or walks must be 
governed by the extent of the grounds. For carriage- 
way the width should not be less than ten feet, and for 
foot-walks, five feet. Nothing is more annoying than to 



have a shower-batli in early morning from the dew from 
an overhanging branch in your narrow walk. We often 
see gardens of considerable pretensions where the walks 
are not more than three fet wide, where it is utterly im- 
possible for two persons to walk abreast without getting 
their dresses torn or faces scratched by overhanging 
branches. Besides, it argues a narrowness in the 
owner, particularly if the grounds are at all extensive, 
and looks as if he were determined to cultivate every 
available foot of land. Of course, it is another matter 
when the garden plot is limited to the width of a city lot 
(20 or 25 feet) ; then such economy of space is perfectly 
excusable. The character of the soil must in a great 
measure determine tlie manner of making roads or walks. 
Every one must have noticed that, after a heavy rain, un- 
paved streets in some districts remain next to impassable 



for many hours, while in others, after the same amcnnt 
of rain, the roads will seem firm and comparatively dry. 
In the former all carriage roads, and even foot-walks, to 
have any satisfaction from them, should have their foun- 
dations formed something like that shown in figure 5. 
This gives thorough drainage for the water at each side, 
and a depth of from one foot at center to two feet on 
sides of rubble stone and gravel to form the bed of the 
road or walk ; but in sandy or gravelly soils, through 
which the water passes quickly, no such expense is nec- 
essary, as an equally good road may be made by five or 
six inches of gravel. In foot-walks on such soils, I have 


found that three or four inches of gravel mixed with one 
fourth its bulk of cement to ^^bind," when w^atered and 
w^ell rolled, makes an excellent smooth walk, and one in 
which, because of its hardness, there is no trouble with 
weeds. Let me here say, that when weeds are trouble- 
some on walks, or more particularly in paved gutters, 
that the quickest way to get rid of them is to sow salt 
over the surface about as thick as sand is strewed on a 
floor, and then sprinkle with water. Care must be taken, 
however, that the salt does not get on the grass or other 
plants, as, of course, it would be as quickly destructive to 
these as to the weeds. 



Whether one wishes to cultivate vegetables, fruits, or 
flowers, all soils, to give good results, sooner or later need 
manure; and this is more particularly the case with what 
are known as '^^ vegetables," these being usually quick 
growing, succulent plants. No ^'fertilizer" answers so 
well for all purposes as thoroughly decayed stable ma- 
nure ; whether from horse or cow stable makes but little 
difference, except that that from the horse stable is best 
suited for heavy soils, while that from the cow stable 
suits best for light soils. The quantity used for vegeta- 
bles or fruits should not be less than would cover the whole 
surface of the ground at least three inches deep, and it 
should be mixed with the soil as thoroughly as possible 
by plowing or spading. In the absence of stable manure, 
recourse must be had to concentrated fertilizers, the best 
of which are Peruvian guano and bone dust. Here a 
word of caution is necessary as to the quantity to be 
used, as their fertilizing qualities are concentrated in- 
stead of being diffused, as in stable manure. If either 
guano or bone dust, or fertilizers of similar character, 
come directly in contact, in large quantities, with the 
roots of plants, it injures them beyond remedy ; hence in 
the use of these the necessity for caution. In our large 
field practice in vegetable growing, we use about 2,000 lbs. 
per acre of guano, sowing it on the surface of the ground 
after plowing, and then harrowing it in so as to mix it 
with the soil to the depth of five or six inches. Now, as 
there are 4,840 square yards in an acre, it will be seen 
that something less than half a pound of guano or bone 
dust is required for every square yard of surface to be 
fertilized. This quantity will just nicely cover the sur- 


face about as thick as the sand on a sanded floor. After 
spreading on the dug surface, it should be mixed with 
the soil with a spading fork or long toothed rake to the 
depth of five or six inches, bearing in mind that the more 
thorouo-hly it is mixed with the soil the better will be the 
result. If used in " hills " for corn, tomatoes, melons, 
etc., the same proportionate quantity is to be applied, 
and the mixing must be equally thorough. Wood ashes 
are often a convenient fertilizer, and will be found to give 
excellent results if used as advised for guano and bone 
dust ; but three or four times the quantity will be re- 
quired to obtain the same results. 


Whatever kind of concentrated fertilizer may be used, 
I find It well repays the labor to prepare it in the follow- 
ino" manner : to every bushel of fertilizer add three bush- 
els of either leaf mold (from the woods), well pulverized 
muck, sweepings from a paved street, or, in the absence 
of either of the above, common garden soil. In every 
case the material employed must be as dry as it is possi- 
ble to procure it. When guano is used, be careful to 
have it thoroughly pulverized and broken up before mix- 
ing with the other ingredients. The fertilizer must be 
well mixed with the soil or mold used by turning it at least 
twice. This mixing should be done in winter, or early 
spring, and the material packed away in barrels in a dry 
place for at least a month before using it. The main ob- 
ject of this operation is for the better separation and di- 
vision of the fertilizer, so that, when applied, it can 
be more regularly distributed over the land ; besides this, 
no doubt the fertilizing qualities of the leaf-mold or 
other substance are developed by this treatment. Experi- 
ment has shown that this method of using concentrated 
fertilizers of nearly all kinds materially increases their 
value. One of the most successful market gardeners in 


our neighborhood has adopted this method for years, 
and in extensive experiments with different kinds of fer- 
tilizers, with and without being mixed, finds a saving of 
quite one third in quantity in thus treating tiiem. He 
finds that 1,200 lbs. of guano, mixed with two tons of 
garden soil, and sown over the surface after plowing, and 
then harrowed in, is eqnal in effect to 2,000 lbs. of guano 
used without mixing. 

We have ourselves experimented with guano, blood 
and bone, and bone flour, with nearly like results, and 
as a top dressing for grass we think the advantage of mix- 
ing is even more marked. AVhen fertilizers are applied 
to corn, potatoes, tomatoes, etc., in hills or drills, it is 
not only more economical to mix in this manner, but 
much safer in inexperienced hands; for when any strong 
fertilizer is used pure, injury is often done to the roots by 
their coming in contact with it in too great quantity in the 
raw state, owing to imperfect mixing in the hill or drill, 
while, if composted as advised above, the danger is much 

In regard to which of the fertilizers is most desirable, 
we find but little difference, provided each is pure. 
Guano at $80 per ton is relatively as cheap as blood and 
bone fertilizer at $65, bone flour at $50, or superphosphate 
at $40 ; for in the lower priced articles we find we are 
obliged to increase the quantity to obtain the same results, 
so that the cost is nearly alike whichever be used. The all- 
important point is the purity of the article, a matter that 
few working farmers or gardeners ever attempt to decide 
except by the results in culture; hence we advise each one 
who has been using a fertilizer that has proved satisfac- 
tory, to experiment but lightly with another until the 
new article has proved its merits. The competition in the 
manufacture of articles so much in use as fertilizers, has 
in many instances forced down prices below the point at 
which they can be profitably produced in a pure state; hence 


the widespread adulteration with "salt cake," "plaster," 
and other articles utterly worthless but to make weight. 
Next in meanness to the quack who extracts money from 
a poor consumptive for his vile nostrums, is the man who 
compels the poor farmer or gardener, maybe a thousand 
miles away struggling for an existence, to pay freight on 
the sand mixed with his guano, or the plaster in his bone 
dust. In this relation I am reminded of a retribution 
that fell on the "Sands of Life" man, who figured so 
conspicuously a few years ago in New York. The adver- 
tisement of this philanthropic gentleman, it will be re- 
membered, was that "A retired clergyman, whose Sands 
of Life had nearly run out," would, for a consideration, 
tell how the "running out" could be stopped in others. 
A kind-hearted fellow in Illinois, deeply sympathizing 
with the old gentleman on account of his loss of "sand," 
sent him by express — but forgot to prepay — a thousand 
pounds of the article I It is reported that the "' retired 
clergyman," on opening the cask, expressed himself in a 
manner not only ungrateful, but utterly unclerical. We 
counsel no vengeance, but if some of these sand-mixing 
guano men could have the sand sifted out by their vic- 
tims with compound interest added, and returned to them 
under the fostering care of an express company, it 
would be but even-handed justice. 


A MAX called at my office a few years ago with some 
dozen bottles as samples of special manures, indispensa- 
ble, he said, as fertilizers for certain kinds of plants. 
He had those with him that he claimed to be specially 
prepared for cabbage, corn, potatoes, wheat, grass, lawns, 


beets, etc., etc. He even invaded Flora's realm, and de- 
clared that his nostrum for Eoses was a specific for any 
languid capers of this sometimes rather coquettish queen 
of flowers. His own arguments, which were rather 
plausible and glibly uttered, were backed up by numer- 
ous certificates — authentic, I have no doubt — where nis 
*' potato fertilizer'' had worked wonders with some, 
with others his ^'corn manure" had been of undoubted 
benefit, and so on all through the list. 

Now, I have no reason to say that the vender of these 
fertilizers was a quack, except the broad fact, gathered 
from an experience of nearly forty years, that has shown 
me that it makes but little difference with what fertilizer 
a crop is treated, provided the soil is properly pulverized 
and the fertilizer applied in proper proportions according 
to its strength. Had all his separate kinds of fertilizers 
been taken from the same bag (provided that bag con- 
tained a good article of bone dust or guano), the result 
to his patrons would have been the same, whether he had 
used it on one or all of the crops that he had special pre- 
scriptions for. 

There are few market gardeners in the vicinity of New 
York who have not, at one time or another, been obliged 
to take anything they could get for fertilizing purposes, 
and the difference has never been specially perceptible 
when manure from horse stables or cow stables have 
been applied, or when $100 per acre have been expended 
for bone dust or Peruvian guano, and these all used 
on a dozen different crops without any discrimination. 
Agricultural chemistry may be all very well in some 
respects, but if it gets down to such hair-splitting 
niceties as analyzing scores of special plants, and telling 
us that we must feed each with only just such food as 
the analysis shows it to be composed of, then our common 
sense, born of practical experience, must scout and ridi- 
cule such nonsense. 


Plants, like animals, are not so much kept in good 
health by the special kind of food given as by the proper 
quantity and conditions surrounding the individual when 
the food is received ; and what proper temperature and 
pulverization of soil are to the plant, air and exercise, 
and also proper temperature, are the corresponding con- 
ditions necessary for healthy animal life. Who will say 
that the beef-fed English laborer is in any way the phys- 
ical superior of the Irishman or Scotchman whose daily 
food has only been potatoes and oat-meal ? You get 
usually fine and nearly equal development in each case, 
but it is a condition due to a natural use of the muscles 
in the open air in a congenial climate rather than to 
anything special in the food. It would be quite as rea- 
sonable tj tell us that a special food, chemically consid- 
ered, is necessary for each class of our domestic animals 
as for our domestic plants, and none but the veriest 
charlatan or ignoramus will do either. 



Since the introduction of the lawn mower, the keep- 
ino- of the lawn has been so simplified that no suburban 
residence is complete without one, and there is now no 
more excuse for tall grass '' going to hay " in the door 
yard than there would be for cobwebs taking possession 
of the rooms inside the dwelling. We occasionally see 
some parsimonious individual, even now, who remembers 
that in his grandfather's days grass was allowed to grow 
for the food of the ''critters," and he leaves it for food for 
his ''critters " still ; though at the same time his furni- 
ture inside, that nobody but himself ever sees, or has an 


opportunity to admire, for such men are not usually trou- 
bled with friends, may have cost him ^5,000 or $10,000. 
We have two or three notable examples of this kind in our 
immediate neighborhood, but it is gratifying to know 
that such neighbors are not numerous, for the example 
of the majority will soon shame them into decency. To 
have a lawn in first rate condition, the ground must be 
put in order in the way described under the heads of 
*' Draining " and '^Preparation of the Soil ;" for if these 
are necessary anywhere, they are still more necessary for 
the lawn, the soil of AA^hich should be as thoroughly pul- 
verized and enriched by manure as any ground intended 
for the cultivation of either vegetables or fruits. 

Great care must be taken to have the surface of the 
ground for the law^n (unless a very large one) made 
perfectly level ; for if this is not done before the lawn is 
sown, it cannot be altered except at great expense and 
inconvenience. After the surface is made level roughly, 
it should be further smoothed with the rake, or, what is 
even better, the disc harrow (see Implements), and all 
stones of any considerable size removed, so that the surface 
will be smooth for the action of the lawn mower. Wher- 
ever the extent of the lawn does not exceed 2,500 square 
feet, and where sods can be obtained from a suitable pasture 
near at hand without much cost, the quickest way to make 
the lawn is to sod it ; but before doing so, the ground 
should be rolled or beaten down, particularly if any por- 
tion of it has been filled in, so that there may be no 
*' settling" to form hollows or inequalities. A conven- 
ient size of sod to lay down is twelve by eighteen inches, 
and of a thickness of tw^o inches. In laying see that the 
edges are neatly laid together, and the whole firmly 
beaten down with the back of a spade. If it is dry 
Aveather when the work is done, it may be necessary to 
thoroughly drench the newly-laid sod for a week or so 
after, every other evening. When the lawn is too ex- 


tensive to be soddei, it can be sown with grass seed, which 
will produce a good lawn in three or four months. 

Some of the fine lawns seen at Newport, R. I., are 
composed almost entirely of Ehode Island Bent Grass 
mixed with about one-sixth of white clover ; but the hu- 
midity of the atmosphere there has no doubt more to do 
with the richness of the lawn than the variety of grass it 
is composed of. I may add a caution against the use of 
spurious seed for this purpose. It is no uncommon thing, 
either through ignorance or short-sighted economy, for 
" hayseed " to be taken direct from the hay loft and sown 
to form the lawn. If from good hay, the seed will be prin- 
cipally orchard grass or timothy and red clover, and vain 
would be all the attempts to get a smooth lawn from such 
a source. It would be about as reasonable to expect figs 
from thistles. The mixtures of grasses prepared by the 
seedsmen for the purpose are the simplest and safest to 
use. If the soil is rich, and has been thoroughly pre- 
pared, three bushels of the lawn grass mixture per acre 
will be sufficient; but if thin and poor, from four to five 
bushels had better be sown. If for small areas, sow at 
the rate of one quart for a space twenty by fifteen, or three 
hundred square feet. If sown in early spring, as soon as 
the soil is dry enough to work, a good lawn will be 
formed by midsummer the first year, if it has been mown 
regularly at intervals of eight or ten days. The seed 
must be sown as evenly as possible, and for this reason 
a calm day must be chosen, as a very slight wind will 
throw the seed into heaps. After sowing, the ground 
may be lightly harrowed if the surface is large ; if not, 
give it an even raking ; but in either case the ground 
should be smoothed down with a roller or patted with a 
spade, so as to form a smooth surface to be mowed. Al- 
though, if a choice can be had, it is best to sow the lawn 
seed in early spring, in this latitude in March, April, or 
May, yet it can be sown nearly as profitably in September, 


or in the more southerly states in October. To keep tlie 
lawn in proper condition, it should be mowed over once 
every week if the weather is moist, and not less than once 
in two weeks even in dry weather ; for if the lawn has 
been properly made in the first place, and "top dressed" 
with a good coat of well-rotted manure in fall, and the 
rough parts raked off in spring, the weather must be dry 
and hot indeed to prevent its growth. 


It is exceedingly difficult to get a growth of grass from 
seed on a sloping bank at an angle of even fifteen degrees, 
because a heavy shower of rain on the sloping bank would 
wash off the fresh soil before the grass seed has formed 
enough roots to hold the young grass in place. To 
remedy this the following plan will be found most 
effective. To an area fifteen by twenty — three hundred 
square feet — or in this proportion, be the area large or 
small, take two quarts of lawn grass seed and mix it with 
four bushels of rather stiff soil, to which add two bushels 
of cow manure ; mix the whole with water to the con- 
sistency of thin mortar. This mixture is to be spread on 
the sloping bank, first having scratched the surface of the 
bank with a rake. It should be spread as thinly as will 
make a smooth and even surface ; in short, just as plaster 
is spread on a wall. The grass seed will start rapidly, 
and quickly make a sod of the ri»'hest green, its smooth, 
hard surface preventing its beinf^ furrowed out by the 
rains. It will be necessary, until the grass has fully 
covered the surface, to keep the plastered bank covered 
with hay or straw to prevent the covering from drying or 
cracking. If the weather is dry a gentle watering will 
hasten the growth of the seed. If sown at a season when 
the temperature averages seventy degrees, a green sward 
will be obtained in fifteen days. By this method, using 
orchard or other strong growing grasses, no cheaper or 


better plan could be adopted for keeping up railroad or 
other embankments. 


Lawns that have been worn oat by neglect or other 
causes, or where it is not convenient or desirable to renew 
them by plowing up, will be greatly benefited by running 
a light harrow over them if the surface is large, or by a 
sharp steel rake for smaller areas. After stirring the 
surface by such means, judiciously, so as not to injure the 
roots too severely, lawn grass should be sown over the 
surface, using about half the quantity of seed required 
for new lawns, and over this, for each acre, or m the same 
proportions for lesser areas, sow five hundred pounds of 
some good '•' lawn enricher ;'* again harrow er rake, and 
roll down firmly. 


such as thistles, dandelions, dock roots, etc., can only be 
removed by cutting them out with a knife. Thistle and 
dock roots should be removed as far as possible ; but as 
to others, there is no necessity for cutting the whole root 
out. If cut beloiv the crown the root will not start again. 


are a pest that we are almost powerless to cope with. 
Xothing seems to poison them, as either tiieir instinct 
teaches them to avoid the ordinary insect poisons, or 
their constitutions are proof against them. Every thing 
we have tried has failed, except Pyrethrum or Persian 
Insect Powder. This applied by a bellows quickly suffo- 
cates them ; but every insect needs to be struck by it, or 
it is useless, as it only kills them by suffocation. They 
can also be captured by placing fresh bones or molasses 
in plates around their haunts ; they attack these before 
any thing else. By persistently thus catching and de- 
stroying them two or three times a day, they may be 
permanently got rid of. 



As this book is intended to comprehend all the wants 
of a cottage or suburban garden, including flowers, fruits, 
and vegetables, it would increase its size too much to 
give a great variety of designs for the flower garden. 
Those that require such should consult some intelli- 
gent landscape gardener. Intelligent, I say, for nine 
out of ten that pretend to be landscape gardeners are 
not ; but consult a man able to draw a neat design, for 
if he canno^ do that he is not a very safe person to be 
intrusted with the working out of the plan of another. 
You are careful to ascertain that the architect for your 
house is a man of education and intelligence before you 
entrust yourself in his hands, but when it comes to de- 
signing the lawn and flower grounds, the veriest bog- 
trotter, who styles himself a ^Handscaper," is too often 
allowed to display his "art," and at the same time make 
you ridiculous. Rest assured that if such a pretender 
has not had ambition enough to become fairly well in- 
structed, he is not likely to show much taste in designing 
your grounds. 

The design (fig. 6) shows an area of 200 feet by 350, or 
a plot of nearly two acres. About one third of the whole 
facing the street is used for flower garden and for dwell- 
ing, the two-thirds in the rear for fruit and vegetable 
grounds. There is a point in this sketch to which I 
wish to call attention, as it is one too often lost sight of. 
The flower garden and lawn face the street, while the 
fruit and vegetable grounds are at the rear. The view of 
these from the street is shut out upon one side by a 
screen or tall hedge of evergreens, f, and upon the other 
by a curvilinear glass structure, G^ which may be used 


200 Feet Front. 



either as a grapery or a greenhouse. The walk, w, passes 
on each side of the house to connect with other walks at 
the rear. The beds, f, may be planted in ribbon lines 
either with flowering plants or those with brilliant and 
strongly contrasting foliage. The flower beds, f, each 
side of the entrance near the front, may be made of any 
form that may be preferred. A simple circle, planted as 
suggested in the next chapter, will produce a good effect, 
and be more easily cared for than beds of the style here 
given. Most persons, where the floral ornamentation is, 
as in this case, confined to a few eflective masses, prefer 
to change not only the manner of planting such beds 
each year, but to alter their form occasionally. The 
unbroken area of lawn at c is intended for a croquet 
ground. At the rear of the house the central walk is 
spanned by a grape arbor, g a, if one wishes the vines 
to afford shade, or a simple trellis may run on each side. 
The borders next the fence on each side and at the rear 
(not shown in the plan) may also be used for grapes, or 
will be convenient for raspberries, currants, and other 
small fruits. The large plots, v f, are for the main 
crops of vegetables and fruits. Asparagus, rhubarb, straw- 
berries, and such other crops as remain year after year 
without being disturbed, should be so placed at the out- 
set as to be interfered with as little as possible in the 
frequent working of the soil necessary for other crops. 
A lot of this size will require the labor of one man, whose 
time must be exclusively devoted to the garden, and to 
nothing else, to keep it in proper order. Such is the 
extent and something near the design of the grounds I 
use for such purposes. I generally have selected one of 
my most active men to take charge of it, and find he has 
plenty to do to do it well. A second design (fig. 7) 
shows a lot of the same dimensions, with a different 
arrangement. There bemg a stable, s, and no rear en- 
trance, it is necessary to provide one from the front ; 



200 Feet Front. 


and ill order to secure a greater breadth of lawn, the 
house is placed at one side of the centre of the grounds. 
The drive, d, in the design is made to turn around a 
group of flower beds of fanciful pattern; but this may be 
replaced by a single circle, planted as suggested in the 
next chapter, or by a group of ornamental evergreen or 
other shrubs. In this design the croquet ground is at c, 
and the grape arbor, G a, is used to shut out the view 
of the vegetable grounds from the street. A row of 
closely planted evergreens at h serves to break the force 
of the winds. The suggestions as to the other details in 
the preceding plan (fig. 6) apply to this also. 



The subject of lawn planting, including the proper 
setting and grouping of trees and shrubs, and their most 
effective disposal, is too extended for the scope of this 
book. These matters belong to works upon landscape 
gardening, and are ably treated in those by Downing, 
Kemp, Weidenmann, Scott, and others. But the plant- 
ing of flower beds comes properly within our limits. The 
old-fashioned mixed borders four or six feet wide alons: 
the walks of the fruit or vegetable garden, were usually 
planted with hardy herbaceous plants, the tall growing at 
the back, with the lower growing sorts in front. These, 
when there was a good collection, gave a bloom of varied 
color throughout the entire growing season. But the 
more modern style of flower borders has quite displaced 
such collections, and they are now but little seen, unless 
in very old gardens, or in botanical collections. Then, 



again, we have the mixed borders of bedding plants, a 
heterogeneous grouping of a]l kinds of tropical plants, 
still holding to tlie plan of either placing the highest at 
the back of the border if it has only one walk, or, if a bed 
has a walk on each side, the highest in the middle, and 
the plants sloping down to the walk on each side. The 
mixed system still has its advocates, who deprecate the 
modern plan of massing color as being too formal, and 
too unnatural a w\ay to dispose of flowers. But be that 
as it may, we will not stop to argue the matter further 
than to state, that on a visit to England in 1872, and 
again in 1885, it was most evident that the '' Carpet 
Styles " of massing plants, as done at Battersea Park and 

other public gardens in 
London, were interesting 
to the people in a way that 
no mixed border con Id 
ever be. Any one who 
has not yet seen the won- 
derful effects produced by 
the massing of plants in 
this way, has a treat before 
him. Nearly all the pub- 
lic parks in and about 
London are so planted, 
and thousands of cottage 
gardens vie with each other in imitation of the parks. 
But to plant m patterns or in ribbon lines requires for 
immediate effect a large number of plants, for the reason 
that they must be so set out that they will meet to form 
continuous masses shortly after planting. 

An illustration in circles (for convenience) is given in 
figure 8, to show what plants can be massed together to 
give a pleasing effect. Of course, it will be understood 
that a bed of any shape can be planted in this manner as 
Y»-ell as circular beds, only keeping in view the icidth of 




the bed. For example, a bed having a diameter of ten 
feet may require eiglit or ten different kinds of plants to 
form the necessary contrast, while that of five feet will 
not require more than half that number. The following 
named plants are well suited for planting in masses or 
ribbon lines. They are named as nearly as possible in the 
order of their hight, number one in each case being the 
tallest. Many will require to be ^^ pinched back " to keep 
them at the proper hight, so that the outline will form 
a regular slope from the center, or highest point, down 
to the front or lowest point. Thus, in list No. 1, Canna 


Indica zebrina will grow six feet high, while Lobelia 
Paxtoni, the lowest, is less than six inches. The section 
given in figure 9 will give an idea of the arrangement of 
a bed of this kind. 

TiTST Xn 1 Average hight 

ijiox i.\\j. X. in feet. 

1 . Canna Indica zebrina, leaves trreen and brown striped .6 

2. Salvia splendens, flowers scarlet.. 5 

3. Golden Coleus, leaves orange and brown 4 

4. Achyranthes Lindeni, leaves rich crimson 3 

5. Phalaris arundinacea var. , leaves white and green .2i 

6. Achyranthes Gilsoni, leaves carmine ...2 

7. Bronze Geranium, leaves golden bronze. .li 

8. Centaurca Candida, leaves white ...1 

9. Alternanthera paronychioides major, leaves crimson and^yellow % 
10. Lobelia Paxtoni. flowers blue i 


List Xo. 2. Average hlght 


1. Caladium esculentum, leaves large green .-. 5 

2. Japanese Maize, leaves striped white and yellow. 5 

3. Coleus Verschaffeltii, leaves chocolate crimson. A 

4. Delphinium bicolor, flowers blue and white 3 

5. Cypenis altemifolius var., leaves white and green 2i 

6. Achyranthes Verschaffeltii, leaves crimson 2 

7. Mountain of Snow Geranium, leaves white and gi-een \k 

8. Tropfeolum Ball of Fire, flowers flame color .__1 

9. Echeveria metallica, leaves gi'ay, metallic lustre I 

10. Altemanthera paroBychioides aurea, carmine i 

It will be understood that these lists of plants can be 
transposed in any way necessary to suit beds of all widths, 
keeping in view, that where small beds are placed near 
w^alks the lower growing kinds are most sniiable, while 
for beds at greater distances from walks, or other points 
of view, the taller growing kinds must be used. Very 
fine effects are produced by planting on a lawn a single 
specimen of stately habit, such as some varieties of the 
Ricinus, or Castor Oil Bean, which grow ten and twelve 
feet in hight in one season, and are particularly striking 
plants. Or, instead of this, a mass of six, eight, or twelve 
plants of Scarlet Sage will form a group six feet high by 
as many in diameter, and its dazzling scarlet color, con- 
trasting against the green of the lawn, is superb. Many 
of the Amaranths are also well suited for planting in sin- 
gle groups. Amarantiis tricolor gigantea (Joseph's Coat) 
grows to the hight of six feet, and its leaves, in the late 
summer and fall months, exceed in brilliancy of color any- 
thing we know of in foliage ; scarlet, crimson, and golden 
3^ellow predominating. Another, the Amaraiitus ticolor 
ruber, grows to the hight of five feet, and is plumed with 
scarlet crimson. In contrast to these, plants of a more 
somber tint may be used, in individual specimens or in a 
group of such as Pampas Grass {Gynerium argenteiim), 
or the Ravenna Grrass {Eriantlius Ravennce), Each of 
these attain a hight from six to ten feet, and have a 


graceful appearance. The Japan Ribbon Grass {Eulalia 
Japonica variegaia) and the Zebra Grass {EiilaliaJapoiiica 
zehriiia) each grows to a hight of seven to nine feet, are 
j)erfectly hardy, and are grand plants for grouping or 
planting singly on the lawn. Besides being ornamental 
in foliage, their flower spikes, which, when developed, 
somewhat resemble ostrich plumes, add much to their 
beauty. These flower spikes are easily dried, and can be 
kept for years, making unique parlor ornaments. The 
Tanyah {Caladium esctilentum) is a tropical looking plant 
growing three or four feet in hight, and producing leaves 
sometimes eighteen inches across. 


is now done largely in nearly all the public parks of 
the large cities in Europe, also with us, particularly in 
Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, and Alleghany City. But 
in the great Central Park of New York and the Prospect 
Park of Brooklyn, all such ornamentation is mostly con- 
spicuous by its absence, or is in quantity so meagre and 
in style so wretched as would disgrace a village of 5,000 
inhabitants. But if we of New York suffer by the incom- 
petency or want of taste in the management of our public 
parks, we have certainly reason to be proud of the efforts 
of some private gentlemen here. The private grounds 
of William B. Dinsmore of Staatsburg, N. Y. , and John 
Hoey of Long Branch, N. J., have been noted for years 
for their grand display of carpet bedding — unequalcd, 
perhaps, by anything else in the world. Mr. Hoey's, 
from its proximity to the famous summer resort of Long 
Branch, is vi>ited daily by thousands, the private grounds 
of the munificent owner being thrown open as a public 
park. In the season of 1886, four beds in the grounds 
of Mr. Hoey were said to contain a million and a half of 
plants, arranged so artistically that at a distance they 


might easily be mistaken for carpets laid out to air on 
the green lawn. In fact, a story is told of a thrifty 
old Jersey farmer and his wife, who had never seen 
these living carpets before, and who, happening to be 
driving in the grounds one day when a shower came 
up, drove up to Mr. Hoey's residence and told the ser- 
vants to get in the carpets, as they were getting ruined 
by the rain ! The example set by Mr. Hoey in clothing 
his grounds in this gorgeous coloring, where it is seen by 
tens of thousands annually, has had more to do with ex- 
tending the taste for the lawn decoration of flower beds 
than perhaps all other sources combined. The car- 
pet style, so called, consists in using plants that can be 
kept down to a few inches above the level of the lawn. 
A great variety of succulent plants are used, such as 
Echeverias, Sedums, Mesembryanthemums, etc., together 
with numerous low-growing Alpine plants, such as 
Ajugas, Cerastiums, Lysimachias, Lobelias, Ivies, Alter- 
nantheras, etc., etc. This style of bedding requires an im- 
mense number of plants. One bed in the carpet style at 
Battersea Park, London, containing less than 1,000 square 
feet, required 4,000 plants to produce the desired effect 
in the design, and not a leaf of these was more than six 
inches above the lawn. Planting in this style admits of 
unlimited variety in the form of the beds and contrasts 
of colors. So great is the care exercised abroad in arrang- 
ing the designs that colored papers, giving the exact tints 
of the leading flowers and colored foliage, are supplied 
by the dealers, in order that colored designs maybe made 
and studied before putting them into execution ; for a 
single misplaced color may sjDoil the effect of the whole. 
In works of this kind the parts of the design should be 
separated by well-defined portions of turf, as the color of 
each member of it is brought out more clearly and dis- 
tmctly, and the whole has a much better effect if a liberal 
amount of green is introduced. Figure 10 is introduced 



1. Alternantheraparonychioidesma- 1 3. Echeveria Californica, Deep 
joror Rainbow Plant, Crimson | Sea Green 
shaded. 4. Alteinanthera versicolor, Car- 

2. Alternantheraaurea nana, Golden mine and Rose 
Yellow. 5. Echeveria secunda, Pale Bluish 


: i: 



' N, 


V> ->-...--- 




; / ; 










1. Crimson Coleus. 2. Golden Coleue. 


to give an idea of some of the simpler designs, as they 
appear when planted to produce the best effect. The 
planting of ^' Carpet Beds," when succulent plants are 
used, is costly from the necessity of setting them so 

! ^ ^ 

I « 


\ \ J 

V -IK > 

^ ,•♦• 


1. Coleus Verschaffeltii, Crimson. 2. Geranium General Grant, or 
other Scarlet. '6. Geranium Queen Olga, Pink. 

close that the whole ground has to be covered, as the 
growth of these is comparatively slow. 


are in more general use than Carpet Bedding, not only 
for being much cheaper — the plants used being less 
costly — but, as they are of more vigorous growth, they can 



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1 •• -^ * 


1 1 

» V 

^ ♦ 


. I'^v ' » *"■»< • 

r' \ — '.-. '-'-'"' .; \ 

* ^ ' "^ "». ' - 

,'-"->-' / * V'-' "^^ 


I • 



I. Altemanthera paronychioides major (Rainbow Plant). 3, Alter- 
nanthera aurea nana. 3. Dwai-f Scarlet Tropaeolum. 4. Blue Lobelia. 



^1/ : 



; ^ 

\ t 'v : 

/ 2 ^/" 

» I " - . * — 

t ^ 


^ //- 


1. Coleus Golden Bedder. 

2. Geranium General Grant, or 

other Scarlet, 

3. Coleus Versehaffeltii, CrimsoD. 

4. Draesena indivisa. 



be set much farther apart, usually from nine to twelve 
inches each way. All such planting must necessarily be 
largely a matter of taste, although, of course, sharply con- 
trasting colors make the most striking effects. As a rule, 
it is best to have comparatively few colors, and this will 





\ • 

\ » 

6 ^; 

y I 











/ .'-'. 


1. Grass. 

2. Blue Lobelia. 

3. Dwarf Scarlet Tropaeolum. 


4. Grass. 

5. Alternanthera paronychioides 
(Rainbow Plant), Crimson. 

6, Alternanthera aurea nana, Yellow. 

account for our recommending comparatively few varie- 
ties of plants for the designs here given as examples. 
One important point in all planting of this kind is to 
trim the plants so that they shall form clear defined 
lines ; that is, if they, in growing, overlap one another, 
they must be pinched back so that each color shows 



\Z N 

..-' '"'3 


» / 


:. 4 ^ ' 2-: 


/ : 

1, Blue Lobelia. 

2. Altemanthera aurea nana, Yel- 


3. Achyranthes Lindeiiii, Deep 


4, Geranium Mountain of Snow, 


5. Anthemis coronaiia, Double 

Yellow Marguerite. 

6. Pink Geranium. 

7. Dracaena indivisa, or Fountain 


8. Geranium General Grant, Scar- 




clearly and distinctly where they meet, also that the top 
growth be so pinched back that the bed presents a smooth 
and even surface. 

*' Ribbon lines," so called, are where two or more lines 

\ \ 

b ; 

\ \ \,,5 ---'^'-'-r,j.y / — \ "*-- "z. - ••■ / . 



1. Vase. 

2. Coleus Bacon. 

3. Coleus South Park Gem. 

4. Achyrantlies metallica. 

5. Coleus Mary Stewart. 

6. Geranium Wonderful. 

7. Geranium Madame Thebaud. 

8. Geranium Mountain of Snow. 

9. Gnaphalium lanatuni. 
10. Coleus VerschalTeltii. 

of color are planted along margins of drives or walks. 
''Massing in colors" is shown in the designs here 
given, figures 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17. These 
illustrations were designed by George A. Solly & Son, 
Springfield, Mass. 




These bulbs are mainly such as are imported from 
Holland in the fall, and consist of Hyacinths, Tulips, 
Crocuses, Jonquils, Narcissuses, Snow-drops, Lilies, and 
various other less known kinds. With few exceptions, 
all these bulbs are hardy in our most northern states, 
though all are benefited by a covering of two or three 
inches of rough litter or leaves spread over the beds be- 
fore freezing: weather. The soil best suited for all bulbs 
is a rich, but rather sandy loam. All these bulbs may be 
planted at any time from the middle of September until 
the ground is closed by frost in December. Hyacinths 
shou*ld be planted at distances of six or eight inches apart 
each way, and from three to four inches deep. Tulips, 
the same distance apart, but a little less deep. Crocuses 
three inches apart- and two inches deep. Jonquils and 
Narcissuses may be planted four inches apart and four 
inches deep. Snow-drops the same as Crocuses. 

Very fine effects are produced by planting Hyacinths in 
lines each of one color, but when mixed colors are placed 
in the lines, care must be taken to have them arranged 
so that the bed will give a harmonious blending of color. 
Crocuses have nearly the same range of color as the 
Hyacinth, and may be planted either Avay. 

All these bulbs are easily grown in pots. The Hya- 
cinth requires a pot six inches in depth and diameter. In 
potting it is only necessary to fill the pot rather loosely 
to the brim, and press the bulb down, so that only about 
one-fourth of it appears above the soil. The pot should 
then be struck smartly on the bench to give tlie soil the 
proper degree of firmness, leaving it, w^hen finished, 
about an inch or so below the rim of the pot. Then 


water freely to still further settle the soil. When pots 
are not convenient, boxes four inches deep, setting the 
bulbs six inches apart, will do quite as well. The pots 
or boxes should then be placed where it is cool and dark, 
which will encourage a strong development of roots 
before the bulb starts to grow at the top. Such a situation 
can be made by covering up the pots or boxes with four 
or five inches of sand or leaves in a cool cellar, under the 
stage of a cool greenhouse, or in a sunken pit, or in -some 
sheltered spot in the open air, in each case covering with 
sand or leaves, so as to exclude heat and frost ; for it 
must not be forgotten that a strong development of root 
can only be had at a low temperature, say from forty to 
fifty degrees, and any attempt to force bulbs to make 
roots quicker by 2)lacing them in a high temperature, 
will most certainly enfeeble the flower. If we only 
observe how nature points out to us this necessity, we 
will see how safe it will be to follow her. In all hardy 
plauts, the roots in spring (when the temperature is 
low) begin to form the rootlets before a leaf or flower is 
developed. To show the bad effects when this is not the 
case, take a root of any of our hardy Lilies and plant it in 
March, and take a similar bulb and plant it in May; it 
will be found that the early planted bulb, that had an 
opportunity to slowly develop its roots before there was 
heat enough to start the top, will give a finer growth and 
finer flower than the bulb that was planted in May, and 
ran up into growth before it had an oi)portunity to suf- 
ficiently push its roots into the soil. The culture of all 
the bulbs before named, in pots, is the same as that of 
the Il3'acinth, only the Narcissuses and Tulips should be 
planted three or four in a six or seven-inch pot, and Cro- 
cuses ten or twelve in a pot. All these bulbs may like- 
wise be grown in moss, or even pure sand, provided that 
it is kept damp ; the necessity being a medium wherein 
the roots can revel in moisture. But whether potted in 



'^'iiii ijlii 


soil, sand, or moss, there will be no need to further water 
in this semi-dormant state (if they have been well watered 
at the time of potting), provided the pots have been cov- 
ered up as directed, and kept cool and dark. If potted 
say the first week in October, they may be removed from 
their dark quarters in seven or eight weeks, only, before 
doing so, turn a few of them out of the pots to see 
whether they have rooted around the ball of earth. They 
may then be placed in full light and watered freely. 

Holland Bulbs are also very effective in groups planted 
in the open border. The accompanying illustration, fig. 18, 
shows a group of about thirty bulbs, consisting of Hy- 
acinths, Tulips, Narcissuses, and Crocuses, arranged so 
as to give the greatest contrast in colors. 


Although Jonquils and Narcissuses can be grown in 
water in glasses as well as the Hyacinth, they are not 
often so treated. Hyacinths being the only bulbs largely 
flowered in that way. The glasses for growing the lat- 
ter bulbs in water, are made in various styles, from the 
plain old-fashioned Belgian to the ornamental Bohemian, 
and are either plain glass or colored green, amber, claret, 
and other shades. The glasses, which are best of a dark 
color, are filled with water just high enough for the base 
of the bulb to touch it. The glasses must be placed in a 
cool and dark place. Care must be taken that the water 
does not freeze, else the glasses will be broken, and the 
Hyacinths more or less injured. Single Hyacinths are 
better than double ones for glasses. The water should 
be changed every six or eight days. 


This is a grand variety of the well-known Lilinm 
longiflorum, or Trumpet Lily. It was introduced seven 


vears ago from Bermuda, where it was found under culti- 
vation. It differs from the old variety in being much 
larger in size ; but its most valuable quality is, that it 
can be grown to flower in the greatest profusion from the 
Christmas Holidays throughout all the winter months 
until spring, according to the time it is planted and the 
temperature at which it is kept. Tens of thousands of 
it are now grown for church decoration at Easter ; hence 
the name. The manner of cultivation is very simple, and 
need never fail in the hands of even the most inexperi- 
enced amateurs. The bulbs should be planted in what 
are called five-inch pots, that is, five inches deep and five 
inches wide at rim. The soil should be rich, at least 
one-third old, well-rotted manure. The pot should be 
rather loosely filled with this soil, and the bulb pressed 
down deep enough to cover the bulb merely. This may 
be done any time from the middle of August until De- 
cember. Those potted in August will be in fiow^er by the 
Christmas Holidays ; those in October, November, and 
December correspondingly later. 

After potting, one of the most important things to 
observe is the proper placing of the pots containing the 
bulbs. Like all other bulbs, to get the best results in 
flowering, the pots must be filled with roots before the 
tops start to grow ; and, to do this, they must be placed 
in some cool place and excluded from the light. Those 
potted in August, September, or October can be placed 
outside, in the open air, and covered completely up with 
leaves or litter to the depth of four or five inches, until, 
on examination, the roots are found to be formed around 
the ball of earth. They should then be placed in the 
greenhouse or sitting-room, and if kept in a temperature 
of from sixty to seventy degrees, will come into bloom 
throughout January and February. Those potted later 
— say in November or December — should be placed in a 
cool cellar or cold frame, and covered up in the same 





way as recommended for those placed out of doors, until 
they also form roots, when, if placed in the light, in green- 
Tiiouse or sitting-room, they will flower from February to 
April, if kept in a temperature of sixty or seventy degrees. 
Each bulb will give from three to twenty flowers, accord- 
ino" to size, and not one in a hundred will fail if these 
simple directions are followed. The flowers are four or 
five inches in length, and frequently much longer, of the 
purest white, and of the most delicious fragrance. 

The Bermuda Lily is entirely hardy, when planted in 
the open ground, south of AVashington, and will stand 
our winters in nearly all parts of the A^orthern and West- 
ern States, if covered up with four or five inches of 
dry leaves or litter, on the approach of cold weather in 

Lilium candidum was formerly known also as the 
Easter Lily, but the Bermuda Lily {L. Harrisi) has so 
superseded its use for Easter decoration, that it is hardly 
now known as such. It is entirely distinct from the 
other, and grows from two to three feet in hight, pro- 
ducing from six to ten flow^ers in a whorl at the top. Its 
culture, both for forcing and growing in the open ground, 
is almost identical with the Bermuda Lily, and it is well 
worthy of cultivation. 

LILY OF THE VALLEY ( Convallavia majalis) 

is one of the most chaste and beautiful of all flowers. 
When planted in the open ground, where it is entirely 
hardy, its flowers are one of the first harbingers of spring. 
It is forced in immense quantities for winter flowers. 
The treatment is almost identical with that for Hyacinths 
and Lilies, only, whether the *' pips" — the single *' eyes" — 
or clumps containing a dozen or more ''eyes" are used, 
they should be packed closely together m shallow boxes, 
and placed out of doors or other cool place for eight to 
nine weeks before being brought in to force for flowers 



in winter; but, unlike bulbs, the Lily of the Valley 
does not make any root growth while outside. The 
object of placing it outside at all is to giye it a period 
of ^'rest," which is absolutely necessary before it can be 
forced into flower. Lily of the Valley roots are not usually 


to be had before the first of November ; and if placed in 
boxes then and set outside, they should not be brought 
in to force until the end of December. If then put in a 
temperature of from seventy to eighty degrees, they will 
come into bloom in from ten to fifteen days. It is best 
to bring in a few at a time, so that they can be had in 
bloom throughout the winter ; or, if wanted at any partic- 



nlar time after New Year, they can safely be relied on to 
flower in ten or fifteen days after being placed in a heat 
averaging eighty degrees. It is a good plan to cover the 
boxes slightly over with moss, so as to keep as moist an 
atmosphere as possible around the crowns while forcing 
them into flower. 

There is one rather discouraging feature to amateurs 


in forcing Lily of the Valley, and also with most bulbs, 
in the fact that, after being thus artificially treated, the 
crowns are of no further use, to force at least. They may 
be planted out in the open ground in spring after forcing, 
and will recuperate to some extent in a year or two, but 
the same crowns once forced will hardly ever do again for 
that purpose. An exception among bulbs is the Bermuda 
Lily, which seems to be in no way injured by being forced. 
The crown, or *^pip," as florists sometimes call it, of the 


Lily of the Valley, when sufficiently developed to flower, 
should be of the size and shape shown in figure 21. 

THE TUBEROSE {PoUanihes tiiierosa), 

when grown outdoors, should never be planted until the 
ground is warm. A good test (which our country readers 
can usually always avail themselves of) is never to plant 
the Tuberose until the corn crop is up two or three 
inches high, which, in the latitude of New York, is 
always about the first week in June. Dry bulbs or tubers 
then planted will usually flower in October. If wanted 
earlier, the dry bulbs should be started in moss or soil, 
in small pots or boxes, in a greenhouse or warm room, 
where there is plenty of light, about the first of May. 
Thus forwarded, if planted out by the first week in June, 
they will come into flower two or three weeks earlier. 

Forcing the T tiler ose — so as to have flowers during 
the winter months from January to April — cannot be done 
unless there are appliances of heat in the greenhouse 
that will keep up an average of eighty degrees, and that, 
too, with a moist atmosphere, as this bulb is of a nature 
that requires at all times a high temperature for its 
growth. It is, however, comparatively easy to have it 
produce flowers during November and December in the 
greenhouse by retarding the bulbs in some cool place until 
August. Planted then they make growth enough in the 
warm months of the fall to give them sufficient start to 
throw up the flower stems by the end of October. The 
greenhouse then, however, must be kei)t warm (say sixty- 
five at night with fifteen degrees higher in the daytime) for 
the proper development of the flowers during November 
and December. They should be set six or eight inches 
apart. The Pearl is the best for forcing, while the tall 
double is best for outdoor blooming. A new" single variety 
of Tuberose, ^* The Albino," originated in St. Louis, Mo., 


in 1887. It has the peculiarity of throwing up from t\TO 
to four shoots from each bulb, and occasionally two to 
three branches on each stalk. The flow^ers are of the 
purest white, star shaped, being more reflexed than the 
old sort. It is altogether a valuable variety, and is cer- 
tain to be largely used for cut flowers. It is not yet 
offered for sale. 

THE LILY (Lilmm). 

I have already alluded to varieties of the Lily that are 
used for forcing in Avinter, which at present is confined 
to the white varieties, L. candidiim, L. longiflorum, and 
L. Harrisi. The hardy garden Lilies, which embrace a 
great range of color, are of the easiest cultivation, and, 
from the regal beauty of most of the species, are perhaps 
the most desirable of all our hardy perennial plants. 
They will flourish in almost any soil^ though, like all 
other plants, a deep, rich, sanely loam is the best. Lily 
bulbs can be set out either in fall or spring. When planted 
in fall thev should be covered with three or four inches 
of leaves or other litter ; for, although perfectly hardy, 
withstan diner the severest winter, all new plantations 
of any kind of plant are helped by a protection the first 
winter after planting. In spring planting they should 
be set out just as early as the ground is dry enough to 
work. The bulbs may be set, according to size, from 
three to four inches deep, and, if beds are to be formed of 
them, from nine to twelve inches apart. Although they 
will not bloom in complete shade, yet a position of partial 
shade is congenial to them ; and they will do equally 
well in open sunshine. The finest species are from 
Japan, though we have some very beautiful native kinds. 
The following list comprises the best known kinds : L. 
aurat'um, or Golden Banded ; L. speciosum and its va- 
rieties ; L. Krameri, L. Leichtlinii, L. tigrinum flora 
plena, L. Tliunhergiannm in variety, L. longifloriim. 


L, candidum, the oldest known species, comes from the 
Levant. Asia furnishes L. Clialcedonicum ; Siberia the 
beautiful little L. tenuifolium, which is there grown as 
an article of food. The United States contributes L, 
suyerhum, L. Canadense, L. Pliiladelpliicum, L. Cates- 
hcei, L. Carolinianum, and L. Columhianum, together 
with L. Washingto7iianum, L. Humholdtii, L. parvum, 
L. Californiaim, L. pardalinum, L. Roezlii, L, Parry i, 
and L. Walkeri, from California. It may be added here 
that the California Lilies often remain in the ground a 
whole year before starting to grow. 


or Lily of the Nile, is now known to botanists as Ricliardia 
^tliiopica. It is largely grown for winter flowers, and is 
of the easiest culture, the only attention being an abund- 
ance of moisture, and an average temperature of seventy 
degrees, whether grown in tlie greenhouse or sitting- 
room. Although it will grow and flower during the 
entire season without resting if sufficiently fed by being 
re-potted, yet it is more profitable to dry it partly off, 
say from June 1st to September 1st. This is best done 
by placing the pots on their sides outdoors, so as to pre- 
vent the rains from wetting the soil, and covering them 
slightly with hay or moss, so as to keep the sun from 
drying the roots too much ; or, if a position of partial 
shade can be had, there will be no need of covering the 
pots. The roots thus rested will flower more abundantly 
and produce fewer leaves, and thus twice the number of 
flowers may be obtained from the same space. The bulbs 
are now being grown largely in California, where they are 
dried like Tuberoses and purchased by florists in the East- 
ern States. Thus dried, far more flowers are produced 
than when the bulb is kept growing. 

It is not well to give the Calla too much pot room, else 


too much foliage is produced. We have found the best 
method to be not to use too large pots, and to use liquid 
manure freely, made from one bushel of cow dung to 
twenty-five or thirty gallons of water, or one pound of 
guano to ten gallons of water. When an excess of leaves 
occurs, cut them off freely, withholding water somewhat 
for a w^eek or so after cutting the leaves off. By this 
method the plants can be grown closely together, and a 
larger crop of flowers obtained from the same space. 

The Calla is one of the best of winter-flowering plants 
for room culture, needing little care be3'ond abundant 
water, and an occasional syringing or washing of the 
leaves to keep them free from dust and red spider. It 
is also a good plant for a large aquarium. The Divarf 
Calla, a sport from the original species, is identical in 
all respects except that its flowers and leaves are about 
half the size of the original. E. alba-maciilata, a species 
v/ith beautifully variegated or spotted foliage, makes a 
showy plant. The flowers are smaller than the Calla, and 
white, with purple throat. It comes into flower in May 
and June, making it valuable for a succession. It is also 
desirable in a collection of plants with variegated foliage. 
Another species, R. hastata, is somewhat similar to R. 
alhct-maculata, except that the flowers are a deep yellow 
with a purple throat. There is still another kind of 
"Calla," sometimes called the '^ Black Calla," from the 
very dark crimson of its velvet-like flowers. It is really, 
however, a plant of another genus, known as Arum 
Palcstinum. It is quite a scarce plant as yet, but will 
be a great acquisition from its unique and novel color. 
Unlike most species of the genus Arum, the flowers of 
this are of a pleasing fragrance. The species are all 
propagated by offsets, which should be taken off when 
the plant is at rest, and grown on in small pots for one 



There is perhaps no bulb that is so satisfactory or so 
easily cultivated as the Gladiolus; no other bulb embraces 
such a variation of color, comprising nearly every shade 
except blue. With the simplest culture there is an abso- 
lute certainty that they will flower, provided they are 
planted in fairly good soil and where they will not be 

Time to Plant. — During the winter, Gladiolus bulbs, 
whether large or small, should be kept in a dry, cool 
cellar. As the bulb is nearly hardy, plantings may be 
made as soon as the ground is fit to work in spring ; 
and even should the ground be slightly frozen after, 
they will sustain no injury. 

Bulbs set out during April will be usually at their best 
flowering in August, but '* succession i)lantings" may be 
made every ten days until the middle of July, which will 
give a succession of bloom the entire season. It is a 
common practice, with the New York florists, to reserve 
Gladiolus bulbs until August, which are then planted in 
boxes four or five inches deep, in rich soil. The boxes 
are kept out-doors until frosty when they are placed in a 
cool greenhouse, where they flower in November, at a 
time when everything is done outside. 

Whether planted in the open ground or in boxes for 
forcing, they should be set at from six to seven inches 
apart, and about two to three inches deep, that is, so that 
the top of the bulb will be covered an inch or an inch 
and a half. 

Gladiolus are admirably suited for cut-flower work, as 
they will keep for eight or ten days, and the unexpanded 
buds, if showing color, will develop fully when the stem 
is cut and placed in water. In addition to the fine hy- 
brid varieties long in cultivation, M. Lemoine, of France, 
in 1884 succeeded in producing a new class, entirely 



novel and of wonderful beauty. Each petal is spotted with 
crimson, carmine, scarlet, or rose, somewhat resembling 
the finest kinds of the Fancy Pelargoniums or Orchids. 

THE AMARYLLIS {Amaryllis). 

All the kinds are eminently ornamental and easy of 
culture, the great secret being to give them alternately 

Fig. 23.— AMARYLLIS. (Vittata Type.) 

a season of excitement and a season of repose. To do 
this effectually, the plants should be abundantly sup- 
plied with water and heat, and placed near the glass 
when they are coming into flower, and water should be 
withheld from them by degrees when they are done flow- 
ering, till they have entirely ceased growing, when they 
should be kept quite dry and in a state of rest. When 
in this state they may be placed in any obscure part of a 
greenhouse or in a cellar where it is dry, and of a tem- 
perature not under forty degrees. If kept in such a 


situation during winter, some kinds may be turned out 
into a warm border in spring, where they will flower ; 
and if the season be fine, they will ripen their bulbs in 
time to be taken up before the approach of frost. 

The chief value of these plants, however, is to produce 
flowers in the winter season, which they readily do if 
they are kept dry and dormant during the latter part of 
the summer and autumn. Indeed, by having a large 
stock of these bulbs, a regular succession of flowers may 
be obtained during the year. AVhen the dormant bulbs 
are wanted to be thrown into flower, they should be fresh 
potted in sandy loam and leaf mold, and put in a hot- 
house, hot-bed, or warm sitting-room, at any date from 
October to January, when the dry bulbs can be had. 
They should be kept rather dry, and covered up with 
leaves until the pot is well filled with roots, just as is 
done in forcing Hyacinths or Lilies, except, in the case 
of Amaryllis, the temperature requires to be kept ten 
degrees higher, the heat beginning at fifty degrees, and 
ascending to sixty or seventy degrees ; and when the 
leaves or the flowers appear, the plants should be abund- 
antly supplied with water. Our long and warm summers 
enable us to cultivate many of these beautiful bulbs in 
the open air, by merely protecting the roots in winter in 
some dry, warm cellar, as we do Dahlias or Potatoes. 


Many amateur florists have an ambition to grow this 
beautiful bulb, and it is often done well even in an ordi- 
nary sitting-room, though, as it requires a season of rest, 
it is often injured by this not being given properly or at 
the right time. Cyclamen bulbs, in the dry state, can be 
procured usually from seedsmen in September or October. 
When received they should be potted in five, six, or seven 
inch pots, according to the size of the bulb. The pots 
should be well drained and filled loosely with rich, soft 



soil, sucli as is composed of one-third leaf mold being 
best. Press the bulb into the earth so that its top is 
level with the surface. Give it a good watering, and then 
place it in some dark closet or cellar for three or four 
weeks, when it may be brought into the light. The 
bulbs can often be bought already started from the flor- 

Fig-. 23.— CYCLAMEN. 

ists, when they may be placed among a general assort- 
ment of plants that are kept at fifty degrees at night with 
ten to fifteen higher in the daytime. The Cyclamen 
flowers usually from January to April. When done flower- 
ing the plants should be dried oft by laying the pots 
on their sides, as recommended for Callas, say from May 
to September, and then started again in the w^ay advised 




Nature provides abundantly for the reproduction of 
plants, and the difficulty of multiplying by one method 
is compensated by the ease with which it may be done by 
another. Whenever we find a plant that takes root with 
difficulty from " slips" or cuttings, in nine cases out of 
ten we find that it seeds freely, and gives us a ready 
means of increase. Thus we find that the much-admired 
Centaureas, one kind of the '* Dusty Millers" (the white- 
leaved plants now so much used in massing and for 
baskets) are exceedingly difficult and slow to root from 
cuttings, but are readily raised from seeds. Our fine 
strains of blotched Petunias are also troublesome as cut- 
tings, but make plants quickly from seeds. The Cycla- 
men, with its turnip-like stem or bulb, could only be 
propagated by cutting it in pieces, disfiguring its shape, 
and requiring years to form a circular bulb again ; but 
here we have seed coming to our help, which germinate 
freely, and make flowering plants in one year. The 
Apple Geranium never affords proper cuttings from 
which to make a plant, but it seeds freely, from which 
splendid plants can be produced in a few months. So 
the Primulas and Cinerarias, both slow and uncertain 
from cuttings, seed freely. Echeveria metallica, one of 
the beautiful plants of the Houseleek family, produces 
no bud from the base of the leaf, as nearly all the other 
species do; but, to make up, it seeds abundantly, and so 
with hundreds of other plants to which our space will 
not permit us to refer. There is no rule by which we 
can designate what plants are best propagated by seeds, 
and what by cuttings, experience being the only teacher, 
and even the experience of a lifetime is too short for 


those of US that have had the largest practice. The de- 
scriptive catalogues issued by seedsmen and florists are 
now excellent practical guides in this matter, as the 
seeds of all plants best propagated from seeds are offered 
in the seed department of the catalogues, while those that 
are usually propagated by cuttings are offered in the plant 

Seedling plants can be nearly as well raised in the win- 
dow of a sittmg-room or parlor, provided the tempera- 
ture is right, as in a greenhouse, for seeds do not need a 
strong direct light while germinating ; in fact, that is 
often a difficulty in a greenhouse, as the surface of the 
seed-bed dries up too quickly in the direct sunshine, ne- 
cessitating watering, which bakes the surface. The best 
thing wherein to sow seeds is a shallow box, which need 
not be more than two inches deep, with open seams at 
the bottom through which water will drain quickly. Fill 
the box within lialf an inch of the top with liglit rich 
earth. If it can be procured, nothing is better than black 
leaf mold from the woods, or light sandy soil mixed with 
an equal bulk of stable manure, so rotted as to resemble 
leaf mold ; but it will not answer unless rotted as fine as 
dust. In the absence of either of these, sweepings from 
a paved street are excellent, mixed with light sandy soil, 
the object in all cases being lightness of the soil or mold 
in which the seed is to be sown ; for if tiny seeds, as 
many of our flower seeds are, are embedded in a stiff soil, 
the germ in many of them is too weak to push its way to 
the light. When the proper soil has been secured, pat it 
down with a smooth board until it is as smooth and level 
as it well can be; then sow the seed carefully over the sur- 
face, distributing it evenly, and with a common kitchen 
sieve sift just so much earth evenly over the seed as 
will cover it and no more, pressing it down again with the 
smooth board ; next take a watering pot with the finest 
kind of a rose, and shower the earth with the spray. 


Keep the box at a temperature as near sixty degrees as 
possible at night, with ten degrees higher in the daytime, 
taking care to give it a shower of spray only when the 
surface appears to be dry. But few seeds will fail to 
germinate under such conditions. This temperature will 
suffice for the germination of seeds of nearly all annuals 
and general assortment of greenhouse plants, which may 
be sown in greenhouse, hot-bed, or sitting-room, from 
January until March; by that time, as the season gets 
warmer, seeds of tropical plants, such as Coleus, Egg 
Plant, etc., may be sown. But after the seeds have 
**' brairded," as the Scotch gardeners say, comes another 
difficulty. In quite a number of plants, particularly if 
sown in the house, just as soon as the seed leaf has de- 
velopsd, and before the first rough or true leaves have 
formed, the seedling is attacked by a minute fungus, 
that will often sweep off the whole crop in forty-eight 
hours if not attended to. The required attention is, that 
as soon as there are indications of t?ie '^ dam})ing off" of 
these tiny seedlings, they must be carefully taken up and 
planted out in similar boxes, prepared exactly as the 
seed-boxes have been. They may be planted quite closely, 
not more than half an inch apart, and let their further 
treatment be exactly the same as in germinating the seeds. 
In the course of a few weeks they will have grown freely, 
and they may then be lifted and j^laced in simihir boxes, 
but wider apart, say three or four inches, or potted singly 
in two and a half or three-inch pots, as most convenient, 
until such time as they are to be planted out in the 
open ground, or used otherwise. In this way as great 
a number of plants may be raised from a twenty-five 
or fifty cent packet of seed as would cost $25 or .$50 
to purchase in plants, besides the far greater satisfaction 
of their being the product of your own hands. 




There is no more interesting operation to the amateur 
gardener than that of increasing his stock of plants by 
cuttings or slips. Heretofore it was accounted a great 
mystery, and unless with some of the commonest kinds 
of Geraniums, few amateurs ever presumed to invade the 
territory of the professional gardener. Nearly all writers 
on the subject had so befogged this simple matter with 
technical nonsense, that few, not regularly brought up to 
the business, presumed to attempt it. We now consider 
it one of our simplest operations; far simpler than raising 
many kinds of plants from seed. Though we raise over 
two millions of plants annually, and kee^) a professional 
propagator with three assistants doing nothing else the en- 
tire year but propagating plants from slips, yet we could 
take any careful, intelligent man from iimong our garden 
laborers, and install him as a competent propagator in a 
year, and for many of the commoner things in half that 
time. Where plants are propagated from cuttings in 
large numbers, we elevate a bench, usually four feet wide, 
above the flue or hot- water or steam pipes, to within a foot 
or so of the glass at the front, and on this table or bench 
we place three or four inches of sand, of any color or tex- 
ture, provided it is not from the sea-shore (which contains 
salt). This bench is boarded down in front, so as to con- 
fine the heat from the flue or pipes under it, and give 
what is called ''bottom heat." The sand on a bench so 
formed will indicate a temperature of perhaps seventy 
degrees, while the atmosphere of the greenhouse, partic- 
ularly during the night, will be ten degrees less. ]N"ow, 
if the cuttings are in the right condition, and are inserted 
an inch or so in the sand, freely watered, and shaded 



from the sun from 9 or 10 A.M. to 3 or 4 p.m., cuttings 
of nearly all kinds of plants are certain to take root in 
from ten to twenty days. But the cutting must be in 
the right condition, and this is best shown by the engrav- 
ing (figure 24). It will be observed that the upper 
portion of the shoot is snapped or broken, while the 


other is only kneed or bent. Tliis " snapping point," as we 
now term it, is a true indication of proper condition of 
the cutting. Where it bends and does not break, it is too 
hard ; and though a cutting will root when in that con- 
dition, it w^ill be slower in doing so, and the roots thrown 
out from it will be weaker and more wiry than when 
emitted from a cutting taken in the condition in which 


it breaks. Besides, the plant grown from the older cut- 
ting is not likely to be so healthy or vigorous as one made 
when the shoot is in the proper state. 

In propagating woody plants, such as Roses, Azaleas, 
or Camellias, this test of breaking or snapping of the 
cutting does not in these indicate the proper condition. 
Although they also will root if taken in the soft state, 
yet we find it is not quite so well to do so as to wait until 
the cuttings of these woody plants get harder. What 
this proper hardness is, it is not very easy always to deter- 
mine. In Roses the best condition for taking the cutting 
is reached when the young shoot (of which the cutting 
is made) develops the flower bud to about the size of a 
large pea. Although the shoot on which the flower bud 
shows will make a j^roper enough cutting, yet, if it is not 
desired to waste the flower, cuttings had better be made 
of the ^^ blind" shoots, i. e., such 5'oung shoots as do not 
flower. In making the cuttings of Roses, or, in fact, of 
almost all plants (with a few exceptions hardly worth 
noting), there is no need to cut at a joint, although nine 
gardeners out of ten still do so, particularly those who 
have learned the business in Europe, where, in this as in 
many other things in horticulture, they still follow the 
dictum of some savant of a century ago, never question- 
ing why. But our business necessities here have caused 
us to ride rough-shod over many of their set rules, and 
in nono more ruthlessly than in this matter of propa- 
gating. But as this book is written mainly for amateurs 
in gardening, I will proceed to give a simple method by 
which any one can propagate plants from cuttings or 
slips, even when no greenhouse or hot-bed is at hand. 
It is called 

THE ''mud" or ''saucer SYSTEM" OF PROPAGATIN^G. 

Take any common saucer or plate, into which put 
sand to the depth of an inch or so ; then prepare the cut- 


tings in the usual manner, and insert them in the sand 
close enough to touch each otlier, as in figure 25. The 
sand is then to be watered to bring it to the condition of 
mud. The saucer with the cuttings is then placed on 
the shelf of the greenhouse, in the hot-bed, or in a sunny 
window of any room in the dwelling-house ; in each case 
fully exposed to the sun and never shaded. But one 
condition is essential to success : until the cuttings be- 
come rooted, the sand must he Icepl continually saturated 
with loater and always in the condition of mud. To do 
this the saucers must ])c watered at least once a day with 
a very fine rose watering pot, and the watering must be 
done very gently, else the cuttings may be washed out. 
There is every probability that ninety per cent, of all cut- 
tings put in will take root, 
provided they were in the 
proper condition, and the 
temperature has not been 
lower than sixty-five de- 
grees nor above one hun- 
dred. By the saucer sys- 
Ficr. 25.— SAUCER propagatiok. i^,^^ ^ i,;_i.^,. i.^^.,^^ l 

^ rem a higher temperature 

may bo maintained without injury, as the cuttings are in 
reality placed in water, and will not wilt, provided the wa- 
ter is not allow^ed to dry up. Still the detached slip, until 
rooted, will not endure a long continuance of one hundred 
degrees, and we advise that propagation be done at such 
seasons that the cuttings, wherever they may be placed, 
will have, as near as possible, an average temperature of 
seventy-five or eighty degrees in the sunlight. The cut- 
tings will root (according to kinds and the temperature) in 
from six to twenty days. Verbenas, neliotro2:)es. Fuchsias, 
etc., root in a week, while Roses, Carnations, or Azaleas, 
take two, three, or four weeks. When rooted they should 
be potted in light soil (such as recommended in the 
article ^' Propagating of Plants by Seeds"), in pots from 



two to three inches in diameter, and treated carefully by 
shading and watering for two or three days. The shad- 
ing is best done by covering the cuttings, after they are 
potted off, with paper kept damp by sprinkling, say from 
9 A.M. to 3 P.M. if the sun is shining on them. To such 
as desire more extended information on the subject of 
propagating plants by cuttings, I would refer to my work, 
^'Practical Floriculture." 



Although florists now rarely resort to propagation by 
layering, yet now and then it may be desirable for ama- 
teurs to increase the 
number of some fayorite 
plant during the sum- 
mer season, where no 
other method of propa- 
gation can be used. The 
only difference between 
a layer and a cutting is, 
that the cutting is en- 
tirely detached from the 
parent plant, while the 
layer remains partly con- 
nected with it. Al- 
though layering may be 
done with the ripened wood of vines or shrubs of the 
growth of the previous season, yet it is preferable to use 
the shoot of the present year in its half-green state. For 
example, a rose or flowering shrub is pruned in the usual 
way in spring ; by midsummer it will have made strong 
shoots one, two, or three feet in length from or near the 



base of the plant. Take the shoot then in the left hand 
(after having stripped it of its leaves for a tew inches on 
each side of where it is to be cut), keep the fingers under 
the shoot, and make a cut on the upper pari, an inch or so 
in length, and to about half the thickness of the shoot ; 
then slightly twist the ''tongue" or cut part to one side, 
as shown in the engraving, figure 26. Having opened a 
shallow trench, fasten the branch down with a hooked 
peg, and cover with earth. It is a good plan to place a 
liat stone over the layer to prevent the soil from drying 
out. This plan of cutting the shoot in layering is rarely 
shown in illustrations on the subject, the cuts usually 
being represented at the under side of the shoot. When 
cut at the lower side, the shoot can not be laid down 
without danger of breaking it. 


It is often desirable to be able to bud or graft one va- 
riety of plant on another entirely different variety; and 
it is an interesting fact to know that the bud taken from 
one plant and inserted so that it grows in another, and 
is entirely sustained by the plant into which it has been 
budded, in no way changes its character. This fact is so 
well known to gardeners that they rarely think it neces- 
sary to mention it in WTiting on the subject, and many 
amateurs interested in horticultural matters have very 
confused notions on budding. To illustrate : if a leaf 
bud is taken from a wiiite Rose, and inserted in the stem 
of a red Rose, all the branches that proceed from this 
bud, leaves or flowers, will be identical with the white 
Rose from which it was taken. Or if a leaf bud of the 
red Rose be inserted in the white, the same result will 


follow ; it will be identical in all respects with the red 
variety. Or you may take a bnd or graft from the sour- 
est Crab Apple, and insert it into a branch of the sweetest 
Apple tree you can find, and the shoot which grows from 
the Crab Apple bud will ever remain a Crab, and will in 
no way be affected by the sweet Apple stock on which it 
is growing. Or if the operation is reversed, and the 
sweet Apple be budded or grafted on the sour, the result 
will be the same. Its individuality will be in no way 
changed ; it will be identical with the variety from which 
it was taken. 

Still further to illustrate this matter of budding or 
grafting, you may take a Eose-bush having any number 
of shoots, it makes no difference whether one or a hun- 
dred. On each shoot you may bud a distinct variety of 
Kose, of all the colors, forms, or odors embraced in 
Koses, and each one will hold its distinct characteristic 
of color, form, or fragrance, be it crimson, white, pink, 
or yellow in color, double or single in form, or of tea or 
other odor. Or you may take a young seedling Apple 
tree, insert a bud of another into it, then, after that bud 
has made a growth, bud still another variety into that, 
and so on as many as is desired ; rub off all shoots in the 
stem that start below, and the variety last budded will 
hold its individuality unchanged, no matter though the 
life-sustaining sap flows through the cells of several dif- 
ferent kinds. You may mark the space occupied by each 
of the varieties, and cut back to any particular variety, 
and the fruit that will be produced by that part, which 
will then be the top, will hold its character without 
change. What is true of Roses and Apples is, of course, 
equally true of whatever plant that can be grafted or 

The stock does not in any mauner affect the individu- 
ality of the graft, and I supposed that this was one of the 
generally accepted axioms of horticulture ; but in a con- 


versation not long ago Avith a gentleman whose opinion is 
entitled to consideration, I found him inclined to believe 
that there were some few exceptions to what had been 
admitted to be a general law, and in support of his argu- 
ment he referred me for exceptions to Darwin's '' Plants 
and Animals under Domestication." I have examined 
this work, and find but few cases wherein it is claimed 
that the graft is influenced by the stock, or the stock by 
the graft. At page 413, vol. i., is cited one of the most 
important, that of the Cytisus Adami, produced, it is 
claimed, by grafting the Cytisus purpurea on the Cytisus 
Laburnum. This so-called '^ graft hybrid" repeatedly 
showed its drooping racemes of flowers to be blended yel- 
low and purple on the same raceme, and again, on the same 
plant, racemes clear yellow and clear purple unblended 
were produced. Again at page 457, vol. i., Avhere '^ Prof. 
Caspary describes the case of a six-year-old white Moss 
Eose, which sent up several suckers, one of which was 
thorny and destitute of moss, exactly like those of the Pro- 
vence Rose {R. centifolia), while another shoot bore both 
kinds of flowers, and in addition longitudinally striped 
flowers. As this white Moss had been grafted on the 
Provence Rose, Prof. Caspary attributes tlie above changes 
to the influence of the stock ; but, from the facts already 
given, and from others to be given, bud variation with 
reversion is probably sufficient explanation ; " and Dar- 
win proceeds to give nearly a dozen cases of like variation 
where there was no grafting at all. A very marked case 
of this 'M3ud variation " recently occurred in my own 
greenhouses. In a bed of about one hundred plants 
of the Tea Rose ^'La Nankin," all made from cuttings 
from one parent plant, we have had four distinct varie- 
ties. The original flower or bud has its base or louver 
half of a nankeen yellow color, while its upper half is 
pure white, the separate colors being clearly defined ; yet 
among our plants from cuttings we have some flowers 


that are entirely of the nankeen color, without white ; 
then, again, pure white with no nankeen, and on one ahoot 
the flowers came of a light pink or blush shade. Now 
had Prof. Caspary a grafted plant of ^^ La Nankin " play- 
ing these freaks, he no doubt would have concluded that 
it was the influence of the graft on the stock. There are 
other instances in grafting where an amalgamation of 
individualities aiyparently occurs. These cases are famil- 
iar to all horticulturists of much experience, and are also 
alluded to by Darwin in the work above referred to. He 
gives a number of instances where the variegated Ole- 
ander grafted on the j^lain-leaved variety as a stock, 
imparts the variegation to the stock, or where a yellow- 
leaved ash tree, grafted on the common green-leaved 
variety, produced a blotched or variegated variety. That 
most of the variegation in the foliage of plants is due 
to disease, or at least some disturbance of the regular 
functions of the sap, there is but little doubt, and it is 
therefore but an accidental condition of the individual. 
Where a variegated plant is budded or grafted upon a 
healthy subject, the disease is transmitted from the un- 
healthy bud or graft to the healthy stock in a manner 
somewhat analogous to inoculation of smallpox virus in 
man. The character or constitution of the individual is 
in no way affected in the one case more than in the other. 
All who have been extensively engaged in the growing of 
plants, either in the greenhouse or in the open field, 
know that, when variegated kinds of almost any variety 
of woody plants are grafted on those having plain leaves, 
the variegation will be transferred to the plain-leaved 
stock, but the variegation only; it is changed in no other 
respect. The most common examples of this are the 
variegated Ahiitilon, variegated AUheas, or variegated 
Ivies, which almost invariably transmit the '^diseased" 
foliage to the healthy stock; but there is never any change 
made in the coloring of the flower nor in the shape of 


the leaTCs. I consider it most unfortunate for Mr. Dar- 
win to have advanced the peculiarity of variegated leaves, 
as bearing on his theory of ^' graft hybrids." That leaf 
variegation is indicative of disease is manifest from many 
facts. It is quite a common thing to find a shoot sent 
out by the silver-leaved or variegated Geraniums that is 
pure white in stem and leaves, without a particle of green, 
or such golden variegated kinds of Geraniums as *^Mrs. 
Pollock" will send out a pure yellow shoot ; but all efforts 
to make plants of such shoots will fail. They may feebly 
root as cuttings, or tbey may be grafted on a green-leaved, 
healthy stock long enough to drag out a few A\eeks of 
existence, but the disease is here thoroughly established, 
and all attempts to propagate these entirely abnormal 
growths completely fail. It has been claimed that the 
Duchesse d'AngoulOme and other pears are much better 
flavored when grafted on the quince than on the pear 
stock, and these are quoted as examples of the influence 
of the stock on the graft; but to me this seems capable of 
another explanation. 

We know that the pear stock is a vigorous and ram- 
pant grower as compared with the quince, and may it not 
be that this vigor of growth in the tree impairs the flavor 
of the fruit in some varieties, just as we find the flavor of 
fruits impaired when grown in too rich soil ? The effect 
of soil upon quality is particularly marked in melons. I 
remember that I once grew^ a field of three acres of Xutmeg 
melons. One half of the patch was rich bottom land, and 
the other portion was a rather poor hillside. The fruit pro- 
duced on the bottom land was much larger, but so different 
from and inferior in flavor to those on the hillside that no 
one would have recoo:nized the two as beins: of the same 
variety. Grapes grown on a shaly hillside are better fla- 
vored than on a rich alluvial deposit. The same, though 
in a less marked degree, probably occurs in other fruits 
under similar conditions. For these reasons I believe 


it safe to assert that the preponderance of. evidence is 
against the belief that the stock in an}^ manner aifects 
the graft other than that it may cause it to grow stronger 
or weaker, just as the stock is strong or weak, and the 
amount of such influence will be only such as a rich or 
poor soil would produce. In other words, the *' stock" 
is only a medium or soil wherein the grafted individual 
grows, and affects it no more than if it drew its suste- 
nance direct from the earth : strong, if on a strong stock, 
as on a fertile soil, and weak, if on a weak stock, as on a 
sterile soil. 

I believe that the smallest or the greatest of God's 
creations has a separate and distinct individuality, and 
that they cannot be blended, except by generation, and 
that the product of generation, whether in the lowest 
microscoi^ic germ, or in the highest type, man, has an 
individuality distinct and separate that it cannot attach 
to another. 



After this discussion of general j^rinciples, let us come 
to the practice of grafting and budding. In what has 
been said, the words have been used as synonyms, and their 
object is precisely the same — to propagate a particular 
jplant upon a rooted plant of another kind. Among 
fruits we do this because we cannot multiply choice vari- 
eties by seed or by cuttings. Stocks are raised from seed, 
which, if allowed to grow and bear, may produce a poor 
and worthless fruit, or it may be a good kind. To make 
matters sure, we graft a twig of a kind that we know upon 
a seedling about which we know nothing. "With Camellias, 
some of the choice kinds cannot well be 2)ropagated 


from cuttings, but many of tlie commoner kinds will grow 
in this wti3% and the choice Camellias are grafted upon 
stocks obtained by rooting cuttings of the other strong 
growing kinds ; so in various cases among fruits and 
llowers, budding or grafting affords the readiest, if not 
the only method by which we can multiply certain va- 
rieties. A graft is a tsvig containing one or more buds, 
and so inserted or planted in the stock that the new 
bark and new wood of the two shall be in close con- 
tact. In budding, a single bud with as little wood as 
possible, is inserted or planted below the bark of the 
stock, and in direct contact with its new or sap woo i. 
While we give the two operations different names, the 
French call budding simply a variety of grafting — shield- 
grafting. In a general way, it may be stated that in 
grafting we use buds of a previous year, and insert them 
upon the stock where they are to grow the spring after 
they are formed, and as soon as vegetation starts, these 
buds commence to grow. In budding we use buds of the 
current season's growth. The recently formed buds, near 
the end of the growing season, are planted in the stock, 
where they unite, and remain dormant until spring, when 
the* inserted bud pushes into growth at the time that the 
natural buds of the stock start. These statements apply 
only to out-door grafting and budding. AVlien these oper- 
ations are performed under glass, the propagator has con- 
trol of atmospheric conditions, and varies them to suit 
the subjects in hand. In out-door grafting, such as that 
upon fruit trees, the cions are best if cut in the fall and 
preserved in sand or sawdust in the cellar during the 
winter ; though with very hardy sorts this is not essential, 
they should be cut before any swelling of the buds takes 
place. The operation succeeds best when the buds on 
the cion are perfectly dormant, and those on the stock 
have swollen and about to open. 




The Yarious methods of grafting* are too many to de- 
scribe here. The simplest is the cleft graft. The stock is 
sawed off, and the end cleft or split for a few inches down 
through the center (figure 27) ; the cion (or two if the 
stock is over an inch in diameter), with two or three 
bnds, has its lower end smoothly cut to form a wedge a 
trifle thicker on one side than tiie other (figure 28) ; the 
cleft in the stock is pried 
open by means of an iron 
w^edge or a w^dge-shaped 
stick, and the cion or cions 
set with the thicker edge 
of the wedge outward, ob- 
serving to bring the inner 
bark and new wood of stock 
and cion in as close contact 
as possible. The opening 
wedge being withdrawn, 
the spring of the stock will 
hold the cions in place 
(figure 29). The junction 
is to be covered with graft- 
ing wax, or w\axed cloth, taking care to completely cover 
every wounded .portion of both stock and cion. It is by 
this method that most of the grafting is done by farmers 
all over the country. It is rude, but very successful. The 
objection to it is, that it leaves too great a wound to be 
closed over. For small stocks the whip-graft is generally 
used. It is much easier to do it than to describe it. Stock 
and cion should be as nearly of a size as possible. Both arc 
cut with a similar slope, and in each slope is cut a tongue, 
as in figure 30. A\'hen the two slopes are put together, the 
two tongues are interlocked as in the engraving, taking 
care that the inner bark of stock and cion come in con- 

Fig. 27. Fig. 28. Fig. 29. 




tact as completely as possible. In this illustration the 
parfcs are represented as tied with twine, to show the 
joint below, but in practice the whole is completely cov- 
ered with a band of waxed cloth. This, where practica- 
ble, is an excellent graft, there being no large wounds to 
heal over, and the points of union are numerous. This 
graft is much used by nurserymen in root grafting small 
apple and pear stocks. A very simple form called the 
side-graft is often employed by florists and nurserymen. 

Fig. 30.— WHIP GRAFT. 


Fig. 31.— SIDE GRAJT. 

The cion is cut to a long wedge, and the stock has a 
downward cue made in its stem, into which the cion 
is inserted, as in figure 31. In grafting the Camellia, 
the Rose, and other hard-wooded plants, a combina- 
tion of the whip and side graft is made use of, as 
shown in figure 32. 

Grafting wax used to cover the wounds made in graft- 
ing may be purchased at the seed and implement stores. 



or the amateur can make it himself. It should be soft 
enough to be molded by the heat of the hand on a cool 
day, but not so soft as to run when exposed to the heat 
of the sun. It is essentially rosin and beeswax, with tal- 
low or linseed oil enough to make it sufficiently soft. A 
good formula is rosin 2 lbs., beeswax V/^ lb., tallow y, 
lb. The better way for the amateur to use this is to melt 
the whole together thoroughly, and then dip in it strips 
of well-worn cloth, such as may be torn from a worn-out 
sheet or calico dress. These waxed strips will tear read- 


ily, and may be neatly fitted to the graft to make a com- 
plete covering. The fingers should be slightly greased 
when applying the waxed cloth. We find in our prac- 
tice of grafting Roses, for which we use mainly the Ma- 
netta Rose stock, to do the work from January to March, 
a slight bottom heat is indispensable for the best success; 
that is, from sixty-five to seventy-five degrees bottom 
heat, with ten degrees less ^'top" heat, must, as near as 


possible, be kept in tlie greenhouse or hot-bed where the 
grafting is being done. 


The shoot or stock to be budded upon must be in a 
thrifty growing state, so that the bark can be raised 
freely from the wood, and the bud to be inserted must 
be in such a state that it shows prominently at the axil 
of the leaf. Select a smooth portion of the stem of the 
stock, strip it of leaves sufficiently to allow room for the 

Fio-. 86. 


operation, and then make a cut tlirough tlie bark to the 
wood of an inch or so, with a cross cut at the top, as shown 
in figure 34. Although the illustration does not show it, a 
slight cut of the bark should be made above the cross-cut. 
This is done to allow the bud to slip in better. This cus- 
tom, we think, is not general, but we find the operation 
is done quicker aud better by its use. Next take the shoot 
from which the bud is to be cut, and selecting a properly 
developed bud, cut it from the shoot as shown in fio-ure 
33. The edges of the cut in the stock are lifted by 
the point of the knife or an ivory attachment to the 
budding-knife, the bud inserted and pushed down as in 


figure 35. The portion of bark attached to the bud that 
projects above the horizontal cut in the stock is cut 
off, and the tie applied. The tying material should be 
RiifRa bark, though cotton wick or other soft material 
will do. The engraving, figure 36, shows where to place 
the tie ; but when of Raflfia bark it quite covers the wound 
and excludes water and prevents drying. In two or three 
weeks after the bud has been inserted, it will be safe to 
remove the tying, and if the operation has been performed 
on a Rose in June, it will often make a considerable growth 
the same season ; but if done in August or September, it 
usually lies dormant until the next spring. All shoots 
upon the stock below the bud must be rubbed off, both 
in budding and grafting, and when the bud that has 
been inserted starts to grow, the stem above it must also 
be cut back just above, so that the inserted bud, which now 
becomes the plant, may get the full benefit ot the root. 


Any information that can be given in an article sliort 
enough to be suitable for amateurs on a subject so ex- 
tended as this must be confined to a few well-known and 
leading plants most valued for general cultivation. The 
Tuberose is one of the tropical cla<s of bulbs, requiring 
at all times a high temperature. Details of culture will be 
found in the Chapter on Bulbs, Fall or Holland, Page 44. 

Some of my readers have seen or cultivated the bulbs 
known as fancy or spotted-leaved Caladiums. There are 
probably no plants that assume such varied and wonderful 
markinixs of the leaves as these, so that when first seen it 
is difficult to believe that such painting is the work of Xa- 


ture and not of art. When properly grown, Caladiums are 
among the most attractive plants at our agricultural fairs 
and horticultural exhibitions. The continued high tem- 
perature necessary for the healthy growth of the Tuberose 
is equally indispensable for the Caladium. The bulbs or 
tubers we treat at first exactly in the same manner as the 
Tuberose when started for early flowering out-doors ; that 
is, they should not be started much before May 1st, and 
never should they be kept for any length of time in a less 
temperature than sixty-five degrees. They are best started 
in small pots, and should be shifted into larger ones as 
soon as these get filled with roots. Started in May, and 
properly treated, they should be large enough by August 
or September to require a flower pot twelve inches in 
diameter, and the plant should be, according to the 
variety, from two to three feet in diameter across the 
leaves. Caladiums require a little shade, and if kept 
in a greenhouse during summer, the glass should bo 
shaded, but the light of an ordinary sitting-room would 
be just about right ; so that even those who have not a 
greenhouse can grow these rather rare and beautiful 
plants with perfect ease. The only thing necessary, if 
grown as a window plant, is to turn the pot around every 
few days, so that each side may get a proper amount of 
light, a necessity with all plants grown in windows. 
Caladiums do well a little shaded in the open air, cither 
in baskets on verandas or planted in the open ground. 
The soil best suited for its growth is that known as sandy 
loam, to which should be added one-third rotted manure 
or leaf mold. 

The same time of starting and a similarly high tem- 
perature is required for Begonias of all kinds, Bouvardias, 
Cannas, Cissus, Coleuses, DracaBnas, Euphorbias, Poin- 
settias. Salvias, and all other plants known as '' hot- 
house" or '^tropical," and the same general treatment 
will m nearly all cases lead to satisfactory results. All 


of the plants or bulbs referred to will dwindle or die if 
long kept in a low temperature, and hence it is important 
that amateurs should remember that they ought not to 
attempt the cultivation of these plants unless they have 
the means of steadily keeping up the necessary high tem- 
perature. For that reason we recommend that they should 
not be started before May, as then they run less risk of 
being chilled. 

What is true of tropical bulbs or plants is equally so of 
tropical seeds. Those who have not had experience, or 
who have not the means of keeping up the necessary 
high temperature, should not sow the seeds of tropical 
plants before April 1st. Of vegetable seeds, the best 
known of this class are the Tomato, Pepper, and Egg 
Plant. I know they are often started in March in hot- 
beds or gi-eenhouses with satisfactory results ; but let any 
one try the experiment of sowing on March 1st and on 
April 1st, and note the result in the earliness of the crops 
from the two sowings, and he will find that the chances 
are that the lasc will be first. If it were always practica- 
ble to keep the necessary temperature steadily along, the 
first sown would be the first ; but this is often very dif- 
ficult to accomplish, while there is but little difficulty 
with the later, as assistance is then given by 
the increasing outside temperature. For this reason 
seeds of tropical annual flowers, such as Amaranths of 
all kinds, Balsams, Salvias, Double Portulacas, Cannas, 
Coxcombs, Zinnias, etc., should not be sown before April 
in tlie hot-bed, or, if in the open ground, in this latitude, 
not before May loth. 



This naturally follows the preceding chapter, and I 
will briefly state a few of the most important points. First 
of all is soil, or potting mold, often rather a troublesome 
thing to get by those who have only a few dozen plants 
to repot. The soil used by us, and by most florists, for 
nearly every plant we grow, is one combining freshness, 
richness, and what is called '•' friableness " of texture. This 
condition we get by paring off the sod from the roadside, 
mixing it with one-third of well-rotted stable manure, 
throwing it in heaps until it rots, and turning it over 
two or three times until the whole is well mixed. If the 
plants are small, we run it through a fine sieve before 
using it ; if large, we use it rough, without sifting. Bat 
it may not always be convenient to get this material, and 
it is by no means indispensable to success. Leaf mold 
from the woods, mixed with any fresh field loam, and a 
littla rotted stable manure, will answer nearly as well ; 
or city folks can get sweepings from the pavements, and 
these, mixed in equal bulk with any good fresh soil — that 
from an old cultivated garden is not usually so good — 
will make a potting soil in which almost any plant will 
grow vigorously. Small lots of potting soil had best be 
got from the nearest florist. 

Now, having the soil in proper condition, the next 
thing is the pots, which, if they are not new, should be 
thoroughly washed, so that the evaporation of moisture 
will take place freely through the porous sides. One of 
the most common errors among amateur cultivators is to 
put their plants in too large pots. H a plant such as a 
Rose or Geranium is lifted up out of the ground to be 
potted, it should be placed in a pot only large enough to 
allow an inch or so of soil to be placed below and around 


its roots ; or, to make it better understood, if the plants 
are, say a foot high and a foot in diameter, they should 
be pruned back so that the diameter will not be more 
than six or eight inches, and for such sized plants the 
pot should not be more than six inches wide and deep. 

The same rule applies to plants that have been grow- 
ing in pots. If the plant is now in a pot three inches wide, 
a proper shift v.'ill be to one four or four and a half 
inches wide ; if in a five-inch, shift to six and a half or 
seven-inch, and so on. In taking a plant out of a pot 
to place it in another, turn it upside down, with the 
fino^ers of the left hand spread over the surface of the 
earth or top of the ball, and with the right hand holding 
the pot by the bottom, give the rim a smart rap on 
the edge of a board, and the ball of earth enveloping the 
root will come out, just as a jelly will out of a mold. I 
am particular in referring to this simple matter, knowing 
that it is no uncommon thing for ladies to break the pot 
with a hammer in their endeavors to get at the roots, 
although they would hardly sacrifice a bowl to get at the 
jelly. In shifting, or repotting, place a little soil in the 
bottom of the pot; then place in the ball of roots exactly 
in the center, which will leave a space of from half an 
inch to two or three inches between this and the sides of 
the pot, according to the size of plant to be shifted. To 
pack this space between the side of the pot and the ball 
of roots with soil, it is better to use a flat stick with which 
to crowd it in moderately firm, filling up the pot to with- 
in an inch or so of the rim, this space being required to 
enable it to hold ^ater. A point of great importance 
not generally known in shifting plants, is, if the ball of 
soil surrounding the roots is hard or encrusted, to beat 
around it gently with a light piece of wood, so as to 
loosen the outer crust. If this is not done there is some 
danger of it getting too dry, as the water cannot so easily 
penetrate the hard ball of roots and earth as it can the 

WIJ^TTER-FLOWERIJn^G tlants. 85 

loose soil in which it is being potted. The same rule 
applies to all pot-bound plants when planted in the open 
ground. Beat the ball gently or squeeze it with the hand, 
so as to give the roots a better chance to start out into the 
fresh soil. After potting, give a good watering with a 
sprinkler to settle the soil to the bottom of the pot ; but 
after this be sparing of water until the plant shows signs 
of new growth, which will take })]ace simultaneously 
with its making roots in the fresh soil. We usually 
use no potsherds or drainage until they reach the size 
of five inches in diameter ; but after that size, particu- 
larly if the plants are to be grown in the winter months, 
when plants are to be shifted, one-fourth of the depth 
of the pot is filled with broken pots, charcoal, or broken 
oyster shells, placing the largest pieces at the bottom, 
and covering up with the finer portions at the top. Over 
this drainage it is all important to place some material 
tliat will prevent the soil from being washed into the 
drainage and choking it up. By far the best thing we 
find is waste cocoa-nut fiber, or the new packing material 
known as ^' excelsior. " AVe ourselves now use a wad of the 
** excelsior" as drainage for all pots under seven inches, 
and nothing else, dispensing entirely with potsherds. 



The increase in the taste for winter-flowering plants, 
within the past few years, has been even more positive 
than that for the cultivation of plants out of doors. 
Formerly it was rare for florists to fill an order in the fall; 
but now, during the months of October, November, 
and December, they make shipments daily in large 
quantities to every section of the country ; and these 
nearly equaling in number those of plants for the open 


ground in May and June. The plants best suited for 
flowering in winter may be divided into two classes. 
First, those requiring a moderate temperature at night, 
say an average of fifty degrees. In nearly all cases where 
reference is made to " night temperature," it will be un- 
derstood, that the ^^day temperature" should be ten to 
fifteen degrees higher. This is to imitate, as far as pos- 
sible, the conditions found for the best growth in the 
natural temperature in the open air. Thus, we find in 
this section of the country, tiiat in the open air we get 
tiie most vigorous growth (in plants that are^natives 
of temperate latitudes) from the middle of May to the 
middle of June, and from the middle of September to 
the middle of October. For most plants (such as Roses, 
Carnations, Geraniums, etc.) the average temperature 
of night and day should be between sixty-five and sev- 
enty degrees, or fifty at night with fifteen degrees higher 
in the daytime. Temperature is always taken by having 
the thermometer hung in the shade ; for if exposed to 
sunlight it will run sometimes fifteen to twenty degrees 
higher, which would be deceptive. Whether the plants 
are grown in the parlor or sitting-room of a private 
dwelling, or in a greenhouse specially constructed for 
their culture, the conditions should be as nearly as pos- 
sible the same ; that is, uniformity of temperature 
ranging from forty-five to fifty-five degrees at night, and 
an avoidance of a dry atmosphere. It is easy enough in 
the greenhouse to get a properly humid atmosphere by 
sprinkling the paths with water ; but in a room in the 
dwelling house, the only thing that can be done is to 
place pans of water on the stove, furnace, or whatever 
may be the source of heat. If plants are kept in a sit- 
ting-room or parlor, an east, southeast, or south aspect 
should be chosen. Plants of the class that mav be srrown 
at an average temperature of fifty degrees at night are Aza- 
leas, Abutilons, Ageratums, Carnations, Cinerarias, Catalo- 
nian Jessamines, Cape Jessamines, Camellias, Callas, Cho- 


rizemas, Geraniums of all kinds, Hibiscus, Hyacinths, 
Myrsiphyllum (Smilax), Mahernias, Primulas, Stevias, 
Eoses, Violets, and the various kinds known as green- 
house plants, which, together with those above named, 
can be found fully described in the florists' catalogues. 

The second class, or hot-house plants, require an aver- 
age temperature of sixty degrees at night, the range of 
which, however, may occasionally run from fifty-five to 
sixty-five degrees without injury. Of these we name the 
following : Begonias, Bouvardias, Clerodendrons, Eu- 
phorbias, Epiphyllums, Fuchsias, Heliotropes, Poinsettias, 
Roses (these will do in either temperature, though rather 
better in the lower), Tuberoses, etc. For farther lists 
and descriptions of varieties, reference may be made to 
the catalogues. The necessity for this difference in tem- 
perature is not absolute, as many plants will do very well 
in either ; but we make this distinction as a guide to 
those having a choice of temperature, in order that they 
may select the plants that are best adapted to the one at 
command. In a greenhouse, particularly if heated by a 
flue, there is often a difference of five or ten degrees be- 
tween one end and the other ; and in such a case the 
plants named in the first class must be placed at the 
cool end, and those of the second class at the other. 

One of the most troublesome pests of plants grown in 
the greenhouse or the sitting-room in winter is the aphis, 
or "green fly," as it is termed. We have no difficulty in 
gettino; rid of it in the greenhouse, when it is separate 
from the dwelling ; all that is necessary is to get some to- 
bacco stems (such as are thrown out as refuse by cigar 
makers), and sprinkle them with water, so that they 
become slightly damp. About half a pound or so for 
a greenhouse twenty-five by twenty feet is placed over a 
small handful of shavings, only enough to light the 
dampened tobacco, as too many shavings might injure 
the plants by smoke. The burned tobacco stems give 


out a smoke that is quickly fatal to the *' green fly." To 
thoroughly prevent the least appearance of this insect, 
the greenhouse must be fumigated every four or five 
days. We fumigate all our greenhouses twice each week 
during the winter, and dust the leaves with tobacco 
dust after syringing in summer ; our rule being that an 
aphis must never be seen upon any plant in the houses. 
If the Greenhouse is attached to the dwellins:, so that 
the tobacco smoke would find its way into the rooms, 
recourse may be had to another remedy : take the same 
waste tobacco stems, and steep them in water until the 
liquid is of the color of strong tea. With this water 
syringe the plants freely twice a week. Another plan is 
to sprinkle the leaves with water, and then shake snuff 
or tobacco dust over them. This will not only ef- 
fectually destroy the green fly, but will keep in check 
many other insects that infest plants. Where only a few 
plants are kept in rooms, the easiest way is to dip the 
plants entirely in the tobacco water, moving them up 
and down in the liquid, to wash the insects off if they 
have a firm hold. 

The "red spider" is another pest to winter-blooming 
plants, even worse than the aphis, and wherever it is seen 
you maybe certain that the atmosphere has been too dry, 
and very likely the temperature too hot, as it is rarely 
found in a cool, damp atmosphere. The treatment for 
this insect in the greenhouse is copious syringings with 
water; but where only a few plants are grown in the hous« 
it is best to go over the leaves, especially on the under 
side, with a w^et sponge or a brush. The red spider is so 
minute that it is hardly distinguishable by thenaked eye, 
but its destructive effects are quickly perceivable, as the 
leaves upon which it works soon become brown, and if 
the leaves are closely examined, particularly the under 
side, the minute insect will be seen in great numbers. 

Another troublesome insect among plants that are 


grown in a high temperature is the *' mealy bug." The 
insect is flat, and whitish brown, usually nestling at the 
axils of the leaves, where it is covered with a white pow- 
der, making it easily distinguishable. This is one of the 
most annoying of all insects that attack plants, and until 
a few years ago no certain remedy was known ; but we 
have now in ** Fir Tree Oil,'' mixed in the proportion of 
one pint to ten gallons of water, and syringed on once a 
week, a certain remedy against mealy bug, scale, red 
spider, and, in fact, nearly all insect life. The use of it 
must be continued once each v/eek, or the remedy will not 
be effectual. Where only a few plants are grown the 
same remedy can be applied with a soft brush or sponge 
on the leaves. Another pest, not an insect, but a vege- 
table parasitic growth known as mildew, affects but few 
plants in-doors except the Rose. (For remedies see chap- 
ter on Insects and Mildew.) 

The amateur is warned against the common practice 
of placing plants in too large pots. As a general thing, 
when plants are received from the florist they are with- 
out pots, and are usually in a condition requiring them 
to be shifted into a pot larger than they have been grow- 
ing in. For example, if they have been grown in a 
pot of three inches diameter, place them in one a size 
larger, or four inches in diameter ; if they were in four- 
inch pots, give them one five or six inches across, and so 
on. Florists, as a rule, do not practice crocking or drain- 
ing pots until the pots get to a size over four inches, and 
often not then, because, having pots of all sizes on hand, 
they do not need to give plants any larger shift than nec- 
essary, and hence there is less need for drainage ; but 
often the amateur has to change a plant that has been 
grown in a pot of three inches diameter into one of six 
inches, and then it is necessary to fill up one-third of this 
too large pot with broken pots, charcoal, or some such ma- 
terial, to drain off the surplus moisture that would other- 


wise be injurious, in consequence of the pot being too 
large for the plant ; but if the pot into which it is shifted 
is properly adjusted to the wants of the plant, the put- 
ting in of crocks for drainage may be dispensed with. 
The need of a larger pot is shown by the earth becoming 
so filled with roots that they well cover the outside of the 
ball ; but shifting into a larger pot should be done while 
the roots are yet white. If left until the roots get thor- 
oughly matted, brown, and hard, it is too late, and the 
future growth will be seriously retarded. If the plant 
has been allowed to reach this condition, which we call 
*' pot bound," it is best to lay the ball of roots on one 
hand and slap it smartly, so as to loosen it. By this treat- 
ment the new fibers strike out more readily from the 
hard roots than if left with the ball still compact. After 
shifting a plant, give it one good watering, so that the 
soil will be thoroughly soaked to the bottom of the pot ; 
but after that, keep rather dry until there are indications 
of new growth. (For manner of potting, see chapter on 
** The Potting of Plants.") We are often asked as to the 
use of guano and other fertilizers on in-door plants. As 
a general thing we use none in our own practice, prefer- 
ring to shift the plants into fresh soil at the proper time 
rather than to do so, and we would advise the same to our 
friends of less experience, for the use of all such stimu- 
lants is, under certain conditions of the plants, danger- 
ous in unpracticed hands. When it is inconvenient to 
shift winter-flowering plants into larger pots, they will 
be greatly benefited by stirring up the soil on the surface 
of the pots to the depth of an inch or so, or down to 
where the young roots appear, taking care not to disturb 
these too much. Throw away the old soil, and replace by 
rich, fresh soil, in which one-twentieth part may be 
bone dust. This is called *^top dressing." The various 
kinds of bulbs used for winter flowering are fully detailed 
under their separate kinds. (See Bulb Forcing.) 



One of the most diflBcult questions that the florist lias 
to answer to his customers is what kinds of Roses are the 
most suitable to plant. If in a section of the country 
Avhere til ere are only slight frosts, and the thermometer 
never falls lower than twenty or t wen tv-fivedeorrees above 
zero, then the Tea, Bourbon, Bengal, and Xoisette, all 
of which are evergreen and ever-blooming, should alone 
be grown, as they will all stand over the winter in such a 
temperature. The so-called Hybrid Perpetual Roses, 
which are hardy in the Northern States, do but little 
good in such climates as that of South Carolina, Louisi- 
ana, or Florida, for the reason that, being deciduous — that 
is, they lose their leaves in winter — the warm climate 
denies them the rest their nature requires, and, conse- 
quently, they either die outright or continue a feeble 
existence. It is not easy to draw the line at which these 
Roses fail, or where they succeed. As a rule, it may be 
said, that the hotter the climate the more unsatisfactory 
they will be. At the North, again, we are met by the 
difficulty that nearly all the Monthly Roses are too tender 
to stand our winters, where the thermometer reaches 

An old German florist, in reciting his tribulations on 
this subject to me a few years ago, said: ^'I haf so 
mooch trouble with de ladies when dey come to buy 
mine Rose. Dey all wants him hardy, dey wants him 
dooble, dey wants him nice goolor, dey wants him nice 
shape, dey wants him fragrant, dey wants him moondly, 
dey wants him to be everydings m one Rose. Now I 
haf to say to dem ladies, though not what you call an 
ungallant man, I say, dat I sees not dat lady dat is 
rich, dat is young, dat is good demper, dat is beauti- 
ful, dat is healdy, dat is smart, dat is everydings in one 
lady. I sees her not mooch." 


This was true of the Roses when my old German friend 
told of his troubles, but since then we have been fortu- 
nate in getting a new class of Roses known as the 


all of which, by covering with four inches of leaves put 
on in December around the roots, prove perfectly hardy 
in most of the Northern States, besides being all monthly, 
all douUe, ^\\ fragrant, and all oi fine form. These now 
comprise many fine kinds, among which are : 

Dinsmore, bright scarlet crimson, splendid form. 

Ball of Snoiv, pure snow white, fragrant. 

La France, deep pink, shading to light rose, splendid. 

American Beauty, rich light crimson, grand form, 
large size, and exceeding all other Roses in its delightful 

Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, rosy blush, globular, large. 

Pierre Guillot, very dark crimson. 

Thus far there are no Roses having a yellow tinge that 
are hardv, and it is doubtful if there ever will be a yellow 
monthly Rose sufficiently hardy for the Northern States. 


The class best adapted for sections of the country 
where the thermometer never falls below twenty degrees 
alove zero, is yet extensively grown in the summer 
season in all the Northern States, for the reason that 
in it we have not only a distinct and delicious tea fra- 
grance, but a far greater range of color than is found in 
either the hardy Hybrid Tea or Hybrid Perpetual class ; 
for in these the colors only range through shades of 
white to crimson, while in the Tea or Monthly class 
we have all shades of yellow, copper-color, and orange, 
besides all the colors embraced in the hardy sorts. More- 
over, the Tea class of Roses gives greater profusion of 


bloom, and is easier propagated ; consequently the plants 
are now sold so cheap that many plant beds of them for 
their value for summer flowers only. 


This name is certainly misleading when the plants are 
grown in our hot and dry summers, for they really give 
only one good bloom in June with us, though in tlie 
cool and moist climate of Great Britain many of the 
kinds bloom nearly the entire season. Individually this 
is by far the finest class of Roses. The flowers are of 
the largest size, and nearly all have the delicious fra- 
grance peculiar to the old Moss and Damask Roses. 
The size of many of them is immense, often five inches 
in diameter. All are hardy, requiring no care after jilant- 
ing ; but, as has been said, most of them bloom only 
once, and hence are not so satisfactory in this respect 
for our climate as the ever-blooming sorts. 


Like nearly all other plants, Roses delight in deep, 
rich, well-drained land. (See Chapter on Soils.) AVhen 
a bed of Hybrid Perpetual Roses is to be planted, the 
soil should be dug to the depth of at least one foot, and 
well mixed with a coating of two or three inches of rotted 
cow manure. In the absence of that, sow bone dust on 
the surface just thick enough to cover it, or about 
half a pound to a square yard, and mix to the depth 
of a foot with the soil. If Hybrid Perpetual Roses 
are to be set out for a permanent bed, plant from eigh- 
teen to twenty inches each way ; if Hybrid Teas, from 
fourteen to sixteen inches ; and if Monthly or Teas, about 
twelve inches. The Hybrid Perpetual and Tea Roses 
require to be pruned like any other hardy shrub. Cut 


the young wood, any time after the leayes have dropped, 
back to two or five eyes, regulating it according to the 
strength of the shoot, the weaker shoots being cut to two 
or three eyes, the stronger to four or five, shaping the 
bush so as to get it into goo& form. The Monthly or 
Tea Koses require but little pinning except to thin out 
the ^* blind" or old wood, or topping by pinching out the 
center of any shoot that is growing too luxuriantly, so 
as to keep the plant in good shape. 


is now such an important part of floriculture that hun- 
dreds of acres of greenhouses in the vicinity of all our 
large cities are specially erected for and devoted to the 
culture and production of buds during the fall, winter, 
and spring months. To describe the various modes of 
culture in all their details would take more space than 
can be afforded for it in " Gardening for Pleasure," and 
to such as desire to go into Rose-growing as a business, I 
refer to mv new edition of '^Practical Floriculture." 
Por amateur readers I will here detail a few brief in- 

AYhen a few dozen plants of Roses only are to be grown, 
it is perhaps best to grow them in pots. They can be 
procured from any of the florists who make a business 
of growing Roses for w^inter, in September, October, or 
]S[ovember, at a cost of from four to six dollars per dozen, 
for such plants as arc grown in five or six-inch pots, 
and average from ten to fifteen inches in hight. These 
are usually in a condition to shift into larger pots. If m 
a five-inch they should be shifted into a seven-inch, and 
in like proportion according to size of pots or plants, 
care being taken to thoroughly drain the pots, as it is 
impossible to get good results from Roses in w'inter unless 
the water can pass tlirough the soil freely. If to be 


grown on a large scale, then the plan used by florists 
to set the plants out on raised benches should be used. 
When to be grown on benches, they should be phmted in 
July, August, or September, and if wanted in quantity 
can always be obtained from the rose-growers at the 
wholesale rates, which run from twenty to thirty dollars 
per hundred, according to size and variety. 


The soil in which the Roses are to be grown should not 
exceed five inches in depth, the boards being so arranged 
as to allow free drainage for the water. Periiaps the best 
way to make the bottom of the bench is to use wall strips 
or other boards, not to exceed four inches wide, leaving a 
space of at least half an inch between the boards or strips, 
so as to make certain of perfect drainage. The bottom 
is first covered with thin sods, grass side down, or what, 
in our o2:)inion, is better, the new packing material called 
*^ Excelsior," and then the soil is placed on to the depth 
of four inches. This soil is made from sods cut three or 
four inches thick from any good, loamy pasture land, 
well chopped up, and mixed with one-fourth of well- 
rotted cow dung to three-fourths of sods. In our own 
practice we use, in addition to the cow manure, one- 
thirtieth part of pure bone dust. It is perhaps best to 
let the sod be well rotted before it is used, although, if 
this be not convenient, it will do fresh, if well chopped 
up. Of late years we have used the Acme harrow to 
break and mix up with the manure all soil used for 
Itoses, at a saving of three-fourths of the labor. 


The distance for Roses such as I describe (those that 
have been grown in six-inch pots, and averaging one foot 


high) should be one fool teach way, so as to get the full 
benefit ctf a crop by January. It is true that, if planted 
twice that distance, they would be thick enough before 
bearing ; but they will not fill up sufficiently until the 
middle of January, if planted much wider than one foot, 
and it is always before that date tliat Roses are highest in 
price. Tiie temperature at which Roses are grown in 
winter is an average of fifty-five degrees at night, with 
ten to fifteen degrees higlier during the day. Conse- 
quently, if heated by hot water, in this latitude, a house 
twenty feet wide will require eight runs of four-inch pipe 
to maintain that heat ; if sixteen feet wide, about six 
runs ; and if twelve feet wide, about four runs. If heated 
by steam, a one-and-a-half-inch pipe will be about equal 
to a four-inch hot-water pipe. 


is an important matter. In a Rose house twenty feet 
wide, sufficient ventilation will be obtained by having 
lifting sashes, to the width of thirty inches, placed along 
the whole of the roof on the south side, hinging them so 
that they will open at the ridge pole. For this purpose 
the patent ventilating apparatus should be used, which 
costs from sixty to seventy cents per running foot. 


Watering is a matter ot the first importance, and re- 
quires some experience to know what is the proper con- 
dition. It is not often that Roses require to be watered. 
The heavy syringing necessary each forenoon in clear 
weather to keep down red spider is generally sufficient to 
keep them in the proper condition of moisture ; of course, 
good judgment must be used to syringe heavier in warm, 
bright weather, when the plants are in vigorous growth, 
than in dull weather, or when the plants are not so vigor- 


ons. Better to err on the side of dryness, particularly 
from October to March, Whenever there are indications 
of the soil being too wet, stop syringing, but keep the 
air of the house moist by watering the paths. The best 
growers now use very little mulching until the days begin 
to lengthen in February or March, the "food" given 
being usually a top dressing every three or four weeks, 
from October to February, of half an inch of compost, 
consisting of two parts of well-rotted cow dung to one 
part fresh soil, to which is added about one-tenth part 
of pure bone dust. Frequent light stirring of the soil 
is of advantage to admit air to the roots and assist the 
evaporation of moisture from the soil. 

There is some difference of opinion as to the value of 
liquid manure in Eose forcing in winter. In our experi- 
ence we have found that it had better not be used on 
Roses growing on the benches or in pots until about 
February ist, when the days begin to lengthen and the 
sun becomes brighter. In the case of Hybrid Perpetual 
Roses growing in pots, that have been started from dried 
off or rested plants about October 1st, which should come 
into bloom during December and January, it is well to 
water such plants once a week with liquid manure, so as 
to get the best development in color and size of buds. 
We prefer liquid manure from cow dung to all else. It 
is perfectly safe, no matter how strong it is made, and we 
think it is more lasting in its effects than liquid made 
from guano or similar fertilizers. Fumigating with 
tobacco smoke for the suppression of the Aphis (green 
fly) should be done twice a week ; or, what will answer 
equally well, a mulch of two or three inches of tobacco 
stems spread on the walks or under the benches, will 
keep off the green fly if renewed every five or six weeks. 
Rose growers practice this method now almost entirely. 
It is quite as effective as fumigating, and safer, as that 
more or less discolors the buds. 



But little prnning is done to Tea Roses until they 
begin to get too thick towards spring. The '' blind- 
wood " should then be gradually and judiciously thinned 
out, care being taken not to cut too much off at once, as 
that would be certain to more or less check the vitality 
of the plant by gorging the rootlets with water ; hence, 
after pruning, for a few days water sparingly. 


The varieties grown are changing every season, and no 
list we can give to-day is likely to renuiin as the best ten 
years hence. The favorite Tea Roses now grown for 
winter are Perle des Jardins (yellow), Sunset (orange). 
Papa Gontier (carmine), Niphetos (white), Catherine 
Mermet (rosy pink), Souvenir d'un Ami (delicate peach 
color), Cornelia Cook (white). Marshal Robert (pale yel- 
low), Madame Cusin (pink), Bon Silene (carmine). 
The Bride (white), William Francis Bennett (crimson), 
American Beauty (light crimson), La France (rich peach 
color), The Puritan (white), and Meteor (scarlet crim- 
son). The last five are "Hybrid" Teas, but they are 
usually grown as Teas. 

Of Climbing Roses, which are grown on the rafters 
of the greenhouse, Marechal Niel (yellow), Lamarque 
(white), Gloire de Dijon (salmon rose), Red Gloire de 
Dijon (carmine), and the new Waltham Climber (deep 
crimson), are the best. This last has not yet been largely 
tested, but in all probability it will supply a want long 
felt. It is a double Rose of fine form and of exquisite 
crimson color, equal in nearly all respects to our finest 
Hybrid Perpetuals ; all dark Roses that we have hitherto 
had in climbers being shy bloomers with inferior flowers. 
Unfortunately, none of the Climbing Roses that are used 


in the greenhouse for winter flowering are hardy enongli 
to stand our winters in tlie Northern States, though 
most of them prove hardy south of Richmond. 

The Hybrid Perpetual class of Roses are less grown by 
amateurs than the Teas, and if wanted in midwinter require 
special treatment, which our space here will not admit 
being given, but which is contained at length in ^^Practical 
Floriculture." The varieties of Hybrid Pei'petuals best 
adapted for early forcing are : Anne de Diesbach (rich 
pink), Countess of Oxford (very large, soft, rosy carmine). 
Magna Charta (splendid bright pink). Mad. Gabriel 
Luizet (light pink, splendid), Paul Neyron (immense 
size, dark pink), Baroness Rothschild (rich shade of rose). 
Rosy Morn (cherry rose, large and full), Merveille de 
Lyon (pure white, other characteristics same as Bar- 
oness Rothschild), Anne Alexis (dark pink), General 
Jacqueminot (crimson), Princess C. de Rohan (crimson, 
almost black), Dinsmore (crimson scarlet), Marquis de 
Castellaine (brilliant pinkish carmine). Pride of Wal- 
tham (peach color), Mrs. Laing (light shade of rose color). 


Roses, when grown under glass, with proj^er attention 
to temperature and moisture, are not usually attacked by 
Mildew ; but, as a preventive, it is well to paint the hot- 
water pipes once every two or three weeks with a mixture 
of sulphur and lime or sulphur and guano, made of the 
consistence of whitewash (the guano or lime is simply to 
make the sulphur stick better to the pipes). We also 
use this mixture of sulphur on our steam pipes, but only 
on about one-sixth of the surface. If the whole pipe 
were covered, as in the hot-water pipe, the fumes would 
be strong enough to hurt the plants. The fumes of 
sulphur, as diffused by the heated pipes, is a never- 
failing means of destroying the germs of Mildew or 


any other fungoid growth, and also holds in check, 
to some extent, the red spider, an insect often so 
troublesome to the Rose. In the summer, or at any 
season of the year when no fire is used, it is well to 
dust the foliage lightly with a mixture of sulphur and 
tobacco dust once a week, after the leaves have been wet 
by syringing or watering, so as to kill the ajoMs or green 
fly and prevent mildew at the same time. 


For the Rose-bug {Aramigus Fulleri), so detrimental 
to success in Rose growing under glass, there seems no 
sure remedy except the slow one of catching and killing 
the insect as soon as it is seen on the leaves. It is not 
easily observed, as it gets under the leaves and close to 
the shoots of the plants. Its presence is known by the 
bitten leaves showing where it is feeding. It will be un- 
derstood that it is not the Rose-bug in its perfect state 
that does the injury. The bug deposits its eggs close to 
the root of the plant ; these quickly hatch into Uirvae or 
maggots, which at once begin to feed on the roots of the 
Rose, destroying it completely. Many years ago we 
adopted the plan of paying our boys one cent apiece for 
the bugs which they caught at their dinner-hour, and by 
this method have completely kept them under, so that to 
see one now is a rarity. The perfect bug is of grayish 
color, about half an inch in length, and somewhat of the 
appearance of the common beetle. Hundreds fail to 
succeed in growing Roses from no other cause than that 
the roots of the plants are being sapped by this insidious 

For the best results in winter forcing of the Rose, or, in 
fact, for the production of any kind of fruit or flower 
during the dull winter months, it is all important that 
the greenhouse be such as to give tlie greatest amount of 


liglit possible; for that reason I advise, for all such work, 
the style known as the three-quarter span, shown in fig- 
ure 58. 


The t.iste for cultivating Orchids is rapidly increasing. 
Every season dozens of amateurs already possessing green- 
houses begin the culture of Orchids. To be successful, 
careful attention and some knowledge of the subject by 
actual practice are necessary; but as most of our gardeners 
are such as have had European training, nearly all that 
are proficient in their business have a knowledge of 
Orchid culture. It is about the only part of floriculture 
that I have had no actual practice in, so that I am 
glad to avail myself of the experience of one of the most 
successful Orchid growers in this or any other country, 
Mr. Wm. Gray of Albany, who kindly has written the 
following brief instructions : 

The best twelve well-known kinds are, Catfleya Tria- 
nicB, Dendrobiinn nohile, Dendroiium Wardianum, Lcelia 
anceijs^ Coelogy^ie cristata, Lycaste Shinneri, Odonto- 
glossum Alexandrm, Odontoglossum Pescatorei^ Oypripe- 
dium insigne, Pliaius Wallichii, Calantlie Veitchii, Ca- 
lanthe vesfita. The next twelve are Catfleya MossicBj 
Ccelogyne ocellata, Cyprij^edium Spicerianum, Cypripe- 
dium villosum, Dendrobiuin crassinode, Phaius grandi- 
folius, Phalcenopsis amahilis, Phalcenopsis Schilleriana, 
PhalcBiwpsis Stiiartiana, Vanda ccBrulea, Vanda San- 
deriana, Zygopetalum Mackayi. (For descriptions, see 
Orchid Catalogues.) 

Of these the best suited for growing in pots are Catt- 
hyas, DendroHums, and Odontoglossums,2i\\oi^h.\c\i do 
well in coarse chopped peat, pots nearly filled with crocks ; 
Coelogyne and Lycaste. coarse, sandy peat, with chopped, 
half-decayed leaves ; Cypripediums, Phaius, and Zygo- 


2)etalums in peat and loam, and a little rotten manure ; 
PhalcBnopsis, Yanclas, and Lcelias do well in baskets, 
pots, or small pans, in chopped sphagnum ; the drainage 
must be perfect. Calanthes, chopped sods of sandy loam, 
with not over-fine leaf mold. The plants must be made 
steady with stakes and copper wire. 

The kinds suited to grow on bark or cork, or other 
such material, are Cattleyas, Lcelias, Phalcenopsis, Van- 
das, and Dendrobiums. These all do well on blocks of cork, 
rafts, cylinders, etc., with sphagnum or other moss ; but 
take more care, as they dry so quickly. A plant on a block 
v^ill take water twice a day ; the same in a basket only 
once in two days. Blocks can be hung overhead, and 
dipped twice a day in hot, dry weather. 

The temperature should be, for such varieties as PTia- 
Icenopsis, Vandas, DendroMitms, and Cypripediums, in 
winter, sixty to sixty-five degrees at night, to sev- 
enty-five degrees by day, with air ; in summer, seventy 
degrees at night, ninety or more degrees by day, with 
plenty of air and ventilation at night. Cattleya, Lcelia, 
Pliaius, Calanthe, Cmlogyne, and Zygopetalum, in winter, 
fifty-five or sixty degrees at night, seventy degrees with 
sun by day; in summer, sixty-five degrees at night, 
eighty-five degrees by day, with plenty of air. Odonto- 
gJossums, in winter, fifty-five degrees at night, sixty-five 
degrees by day ; in summer, as cool as they can be kept. 
All want abundance of atmospheric moisture night and 

Some kinds, such as Phalcenopsis and Vandas, grow 
at all seasons ; Cypripediums, Cattleyas, and Lcelias in 
spring ; Calanthe, Coelogyne, Phaius, and Zygopetalums 
in summer. When any plant grows in winter (except 
Odontoglossums) it should be placed in a warm house. 
Odontoglossums do best at a temperature of fifty-five to 
seventy degrees ; never hotter, if possible. 

Cattleya TrianicB, Lcelia anceps, and Cypripedium in- 


signe bloom during the resting period, wliicli is from De- 
cember to January. Phalcenopsis and Va?idas grow all 
the year ; and daring the short dark days of fall and 
winter less food is given by withholding water. Calan- 
the, Coelogyne, and Phaius bloom with the maturity of 
the growth, then lay dormant until spring. 

The best shading for an Orchid house, when ground 
glass is not used, is canvas raised eighteen inches above 
the roof ; or, if that is not convenient, thin paint, made of 
turpentine and whiting or white lead. Lay it on in the 
middle of March and brush it off in the middle of Octo- 
ber. Ground glass is too dark from October to March 
for plants, and nothing does w^ell with me under it in 
winter. I use first quaUty clear French glass. When the 
glass is shaded with canvas it should be done from March 
to October, from nine o'clock in the morning to four 
o'clock in the afternoon, except on cloudy days. 

Orchids when grown by a florist to pay would have to be 
grown in quantity, each species with a house to itself ; but 
when grown by amateurs, of course nearly all species are 
usually grown in one house. The most of the twenty-four 
species named could be had in flower from November to 
April. All plants with a tendency to early maturity 
should be placed at the warm end of the house, or, in the 
fall, partition off the space necessary at the warmer end 
for the most forward. The plants would have to be im- 
ported from the woods at first cost, when grown to sell 
(established plants at present prices would be too expen- 
sive), and the flowers sold cheap to become popular. 
Orchid growing to-day is where Rose growing was thirty- 
five years ago. To sum up : In the cultivation of Or- 
chids all plants, when newly potted or mounted, should 
be made firm or wired, otherwise, if the plants move by 
syringing, or other cause, the rootlets will be destroyed. 
The atmosphere of an Orchid house should always be 
moist, winter and summer, in winter allowing the pot- 


tery, cork, or other material to become more dry. Light 
and air are essential to vigorous growth, deluging with 
water when in active growth, but never closing top venti- 
lation ; never having a stagnant atmosphere ; gradually 
withholding water as the gi'owth approaches maturity, 
and then only enough to keep from shriveling. As to 
time for re-potting, the cultivator is guided by the com- 
mencement of growth. Plants should always be under- 
potted as long as the plant is not top-heavy, such as 
Cattleyas, Lcelias, Den droMiims, etc.; a top dressing is 
all til at is needful. Calanthe, Phaius, etc., are re-pot- 
ted annually. 

Insects, such as thrips and aphis, are kept under by 
filling the evaporating pans, or other vessels, with chopped 
tobacco stems covered with water. Slugs are kept down 
by placing lettuce leaves, sliced potatoes or carrots on 
the pots, which examine daily, and destroy. Roaches and 
water bugs may be killed by mixing roach poison with 
molasses, and placing it on oyster shells at convenient 
points in the gi-eenhouse. These same remedies will be 
found effective against insects attacking any kind of 
greenhouse plant. 


Whe:n"ever plants begin to drop their leaves, it is cer- 
tain that their health has been injured. This maybe due 
to over-potting, over-watering, over-heating, too much 
cold, or the application of such stimulants as guano, or 
to some other cause which has destroyed the fine rootlets 
by which the plant feeds, and induced disease that may 
lead to death. The case is not usually important enough 


to call in a '* plant doctor," so the amateur begins to 
treat the patient, and the practice is, in all probability, 
not unlike that of some of our household physicians who 
apply a remedy that increases the disease. Having 
already destroyed the, so to speak, nutritive organs of 
the plant, the *' stomach" is gorged with food by apply- 
ing water, or with medicine by applying guano or some 
patent ''plant food." Kow the remedy is nearly akin to 
what is a good one when the animal digestion is deranged 
— give it no more food until it re-acts. We must then, 
if the roots of the plant have been injured from any of 
the above-named causes, let the soil in which it is potted 
become nearly dry ; then remove the plant from the pot, 
take the ball of soil in which the roots have been envel- 
oped, and crush it between the liands just enough to 
allow all the hard outer crust of the ball of earth to be 
shaken off; and then re-pot in rather dry soil, using a new 
flower pot, or the old one, thoroughly washing it, so that 
the moisture can freely evaporate through tlie pores. Be 
careful not to over-feed the sick plant. Let the pot be 
or'ly large enough to admit of not more than an inch of 
soil between the pot and ball of roots. After re-pot- 
ting, give it water enough to settle the soil, and do not 
apply any more until the plant has begun to grow, unless, 
indeed, the atmosphere is so dry that the moisture has en- 
tirely evaporated from the soil, and then, of course, water 
must be given, or the patient may die from the opposite 
cause — starvation. The danger to be avoided is, in all 
probability, that which brought on the sickness, namely, 
saturation of the soil by too much water. Other causes 
may induce sickness in plants, such as an escape of gas 
in the apartment, or smoke from a flue in the greenhouse; 
but in all cases, when the leaves fall from a plant, with- 
hold water, and if there is reason to believe that the soil 
has been poisoned by gas, or soddened with moisture, shake 
it from the roots as before advised, and re-pot in a fresh 


flower pot. Many years ago, when I used smoke-flues in 
my greenhouses, some kindling wood, carelessly thrown 
on the top of one of them, ignited, and the smoke caused 
the leaves of every plant to drop. There were some 
3,000 plants, mostly Tea Roses, in the greenhouse. It 
would have been too much of a job to re-pot all, but by 
withholding water for some ten days, they started a new 
growth again, and very few plants were permanently 


Quite a number of winter-blooming plants can also 
be used for flowering in the open borders in summer. 
Among these are Carnations, Heliotropes, Fuchsias, Ce- 
raniums, and particularly the monthly varieties of Roses; 
but if these have been forced to produce flowers in win- 
ter they will not give as much satisfaction for summer 
flowering as young plants will, and whenever they look 
sickly by the time they should be set in the open ground, 
they had better be thrown away, as they will do little 
good. The following, not strictly winter-flowering, are 
such as will give a continuous bloom during the whole 
season, from June until October or November. Antir- 
rhinums (raised either from seeds or cuttings), Agera- 
tums, Anthemis, Abutilons, Chrysanthemums, Dwarf 
Dahlias, Erythrina or Coral Plant, Gladiolus, Geraniums 
of all kinds, particularly the class known as "Zonal," 
double and single, Fuchsias in shade, Feverfew (cut- 
tings), Hollyhocks (seeds only), Heliotropes, Hibiscus 
(cutting?), Lantanas, Lobelias, Petunias, single and 
double (seeds or cuttings), Pansies (seeds only), Pent- 


stemons, Passion Flowers, Rondeletias, Salvias, Tropaeo- 
lums, Verbenas (seeds or cuttings), Veronicas, Zinnias 
(seeds only). All of the above have their principal at- 
traction in their flowers. The following are only useful 
for the brilliant coloring or other peculiarities of foliage. 
Alternantheras, Achyranthes, Artemisias, Cerastium (cut- 
tings), Oentaureas (seeds), Caladiums, Coleus (cuttings). 
Cinerarias (seeds), Dracaenas, Echeverias, Geraniums (sil- 
ver, gold, or bronze), variegated Ivies, Lysimachia, varie- 
egated Grasses, Peristrophe, Sanchezia nobilis, Vinca ma- 
jor, etc. (For descriptions, see florists' catalogues.) All 
of the above can be raised from slips or cuttings taken from 
plants (or by seeds where noted), during the winter or early 
spring months (January, February, March, or April), 
either from plants that have been kept for flowering in 
winter, or from large plants that have been preserved for 
the purpose of propagation. The young plants raised from 
slips are in nearly every instance preferable to the old 
plants. Our practice is, to grow the old or ^^ stock" 
plants simply to make cuttings, until we get enough 
from them, and then to throw the old plants away, re- 
serving the young ones only for selling, or for our own 
planting in the open borders. Cuttings are rooted in the 
way described in the chapter on *' Propagation of Plants 
by Cuttings," or if by seeds, as in chapter on '^ Propaga- 
tion by Seeds." The young plants should first be potted 
in two-inch pots, and if early in the season, they will re- 
quire to be shifted into three or four-inch pots before it is 
time to plant them out in the open ground, which it is not 
safe to do in this latitude until the middle of May ; nor 
in any other latitude before the time when Tomatoes or 
Egg Plants can safely be planted out. 

Nothing is more satisfactory to the lover of flowers 
than raising his own plants, no matter how able he may 
be to purchase. Those of his own raising, whether for 
his own use or to present to his friends, are always more 


valuable than anything that money can buy. One of the 
most common mistakes made by purchasers of plants in 
our city markets, is that of almost invariably choosing 
large plants, forced into flower. Such plants are usually 
grown under a high temperature to get them in bloom 
early, and many a housewife has found that the beautiful, 
full-blooming plant of a Rose, Fuchsia, or Pelargonium, 
which she so tenderly carried home, will in forty-eight 
hours drop its flowers and leaves in the cooler and drier 
atmosphere of her greenhouse, parlor, or garden. But 
the florist is hardly to blame for this, though I know he 
is often severely censured. Kot one in a score of those who 
purchase plants in spring will buy any plant unless it is in 
bloom. The florist grows plants to sell, and must suit the 
wants of his customer. This little divergence from the 
subject in hand, is to show that the small slips or cuttings 
that the amateur may raise himself, or which he can buy 
from the florists in small plants at one-fourth of the price of 
the forced plants sold in market, are in most instances bet- 
ter than full-blown forced plants, costing fifty cents or a 
dollar each. This is particularly so with monthly Roses, 
Verbenas, Geraniums, Fuchsias, Petunias, Carnations, 
etc. Young plants of these, set out in May, if not more 
than three or six inches high, will grow and bloom in 
profusion the entire summer, while those which have 
been forced, if they recover at all, will be greatly in- 

We plant our young Roses in May, usually in beds 
four feet wide, setting the plants twelve inches apart each 
way. They begin to bloom by the middle of June, and 
continue without interruption until checked by frost in 
the fall. And so with most other kinds here named ; 
nearly all of which are from young plants, propagated 
during the winter and spring months. The product of 
cuttings or slips from a '^ stock" plant varies greatly, ac- 
cording to the kind. A good healthy phmt of Fuchsia, 



say eighteen inches high, will easily give forty cuttings ; 
■while a Eose or Geranium of the same size will not af- 
ford half that number. A fair average for medium 
sized plants of those named would be ten cuttings or 
slips to each plant, so that, starting with 100 plants 
in the fall, by May 1,000 would be no unreasonable in- 
crease to expect ; or in that ratio, be the number more 
or less. 

If large quantities of plants are wanted for summer dec- 
oration by those who have neglected to propagate them, 
or did not wish to do so, they should purchase young 
plants in March or April, at which time the florists, to 
make room in their houses, sell them at very low rates, 
usually not more than one-fourth of the price that the 
same plants forced into bloom in May would cost. Such 
plants at that season are grown mainly in two and three- 
inch pots. If taken from these pots, say by 1st of April, 
and kept in any cool room or greenhouse, where the tem- 
perature will average forty-five or fifty degrees at night, 
by the time of setting out in May they will have formed 
far better plants than those pushed rapidly into flower in 
May. Or, in other words, $10 expended in March or 
April will buy plants which, if cared for as above de- 
scribed, will by the middle of May be of more value 
than the plants $50 would buy at that date from the 
same florist. There are tens of thousands of lovers of 
flowers spread over the land so situated that they have 
neither the means nor the opportunity to get the green- 
house or bedding plants above described for the decora- 
tion oi flower borders in summer; but by the use of an- 
nual flower seeds properly selected, a blaze of flowers 
may be kept through the entire months with very little 
care and at a trifling cost. 

The list of annuals here given embraces nearly all the 
best leading kinds, though there are hundreds more, de- 



scriptions of which and of these will be found in the 

seed catalogues. 







Balloon Vine. 







Canary Bird Flower. 


Casto'r Oil Beau. 







Cypress Vine. 




Everlaslina: Flowers. 

Globe Auiarauthus. 



Ice Plant. 







Marvel of Peru. 



Morning Glory. 





Phlox Drummondil. 
Sweet Peas, 
Sweet Sultan. 

Virginian Stock. 


To produce the best results where annual seeds are to 
be sown in the open border, the soil should be enriched 
with stable manure or other fertilizer, juet as for a crop 
of vegetables or fruits (see Chapter on Manures), thor- 
oughly dug, and raked level and smooth. The location 
for nearly all kinds of annual flowers should be free from 
shade • although some kinds, such as Pansies, will do 
quite well in some shade, that is, where for half of the 
day only they get sunlight. The seed catalogues usually 
distinf^uish the diSerent species of annual flowers by 
attaching the words ''hardy annuals" to such as are 
hardy. All such may be sown in the open ground as soon 
as the soil is dry enough in spring to work. All the 
others, not so designated, are of tropical origin, and are 
known as tender annuals, and should not be sown in the 
vicinity of Xew York until the first week in May. The rule 
best to give for all sections of the country is, not to sow the 
tender kinds until such time as the farmers begin to plant 


com, melons, or cucumbers. This rule, if kept in view, will 
apply to all sections of the country, from Maine to Florida. 
Many seeds of annuals may be sown thickly and trans- 
planted so as to make the most of them ; but, as a gen- 
eral thing, this is not done. They are usually in 
rows from six to twenty-four inches apart, according to 
their kind, or in circular patches of from one to two 
feet in diameter, each circle being from one to two feet 
apart from the other, according to the growth of the 
variety. But whether sown in rows or in circular patches, 
first stir up the soil so that the seed can be readily cov- 
ered from a quarter of an inch to one inch in d3pth. 
After the seed is sown, shake over it fine soil sufficient 
to cover the seeds, lighter or heavier, according to 
the size of the seeds. The covering is best done by 
sifting the soil over the seed, using a sieve made of 
mosquito wire netting, which covers the seed more regu- 
larly than can be done by the hand, and, besides, it brings 
the soil to the proper condition of fineness, so important 
in the coverinsf of small seeds. After the soil has been 
sifted over the seeds to the proper depth, take a smooth 
board or the back of a smooth spade, and gently pat down 
the covering over the seeds. It is a good plan to place a 
label or piece of stick in the center of each circular 
patch, or, if in rows, at each end of the row, so as to 
mark where the seed has been sown ; for it must not be 
forgotten that in nearly all soils there are the seeds of 
weeds, which spring up often quicker than the flower 
seeds do ; therefore it becomes necessary to know exactly 
the spot where the seeds have been sown, so that the 
weeds can be pulled out or hoed up, and not crowd 
and smother the flowers. Seedsmen have hundreds of 
complaints every season from their customers that only 
weeds come up from flower seeds sown, while the facts 
are, that the weeds came up around the flower seed- 
lings, and, not being pulled out, enveloped and smoth- 


ered the flowers. After weeds have been removed, if 
the annuals come up thickly, which they usually do, 
they should be thinned out, leaving the strongest plants, 
so that they shall stand at from two to six inches apart, 
according to their kind. Some few annuals are not strong 
enough to stand without support, and for such twigs 
or stakes twelve or eighteen inches high should be used. 
For all climbing plants, such as Sweet Peas, brush, 
stakes, or strings proportioned to their hight, must be 
used at an early stage of their growth, or they may be 
trained on the Tomato trellis described in chapter on 

Our seed catalogues are nearly all defective in not 
giving more specific directions for the culture of annual 
plants. If the space used for description of form and 
color were devoted to telling the time and manner of sow- 
ing, it would be of far more benefit to the amateur buyer; 
but nearly all follow the English practice of giving de- 
scriptions of varieties only. There the necessity for such 
information is less, the people being better informed as 
to flower culture, and the climate is also more congenial 
for the germination of most seeds. 



Baskets in which to grow plants are now made in a 
great variety of styles and of different materials. What 
are known as " rustic" baskets (figure 37) are made with 
the receptacle for the earth covered mostly with laurel 
roots, which assume an endless variety of grotesque 
shapes, well fitted for giving a rustic appearance to the 
outer covering of the hanging basket. Then there are 



the different forms of wire baskets, which, when used, 
are lined with moss, and being thus very open, and allow- 
ing of complete drainage, are best suited of all for the 
well being of the plants. Many beautiful forms are 
made from pottery ware, colored so as to imitate stumps 
of wood and other objects. Thousands of these baskets 
are used in some of their dijfferent forms, and many grow 
their plants in no other way, as plants are not only more 
easily managed in these, but many 
varieties so cultivated make a more 
graceful growth than is possible 
when they are in pots. In hang- 
ing baskets, the fall or Dutch 
bulbs, of all kinds, can be grown, 
giving them exactly the treatment 
recommended for growing in pots 
on page 44. When hanging bas- 
kets are hung on the veranda or 
porch in summer, a great quan- 
tity of water is usually required, 
as the dry air surrounding the 
basket on all sides generally dries 
up the soil. The simplest way 
of watering them when dry, in ^^^- ^'^' 

summer, is to immerse the bas- ^^'"^ ^^'^^^ ^^'^^• 
ket in a pail or tub of water, so that the earth is thor- 
oughly soaked through. How often this immersion will 
be necessary will depend on the weather, the condition 
of the plants, and the quantity of earth. If the bowl 
of the basket is full of roots, and the weather hot and 
dry, then once each day may be necessary ; while, if the 
weather is damp and cool, it might not require watering 
more than once a week. The rule with tliese, as with all 
plants, is, never water unless tliey are drv, and then 
water thoroughly. Just what this condition of being 
'^ dry'* is, is not quite so easy to describe. As a rule, most 


soils, when dry, become lighter in color and crumble freely 
between the fingers, and are free from the putty-like 
consistency they have when wet. The bowls of *' rustic " 
and "terra cotta" forms of hanging baskets are usually 
without any means of drainage. \^ hen such is the case, 
the purchaser should have a few holes, say one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter, made in the bottom of the bow], else 
there is danger that the earth around the roots may be- 
come saturated with water, unless unusual care is taken 
in watering. There is great diversity of taste displayed 
in the material with which these baskets are filled, and 
no special Hst of plants can be given that will not require 
to be annually changed and amended as new plants are 
introduced. AVhen hanging baskets are wanted for use 
in shady rooms, or on shaded verandas, mosses (Selagi- 
nellas) are used, and sometimes exclusively. Then for 
the same conditions, Ivies of all sorts, Cissus, Tradescan- 
tias, Sedums or Stone Crops, Fittoiiias, Lysimachia or 
Moneywort, Vincas, Ivy-leaved Geraniums, Smilax, 
Impatiens Mariana, Lygodium scandens (Climbing Fern), 
etc., as plants to droop over the sides, or to be trained to 
climb on the trellis work or supports of the basket, while 
in the center there are used upright plants, such as 
Dracaenas of sorts, Caladiums (if for summer), Marantas, 
Centaureas, Echeverias, Ferns, Sanchezia nobilis, and 
other plants of striking form or foliage. For baskets to 
be placed in the sun, or in good light, an entirely differ- 
ent class of plants is needed, for with the light we get 
flowers and greater brilliancy of leaves. As drooping 
plants for the edges of these may be named Alter- 
nantheras, Peristrophe angustifolia var.. Lobelias, Tro- 
pseolums, Mesembryanthemums, Petunias, single and 
double, Passifloras, Eondeletias, Torenias, etc., while 
lor upright or center plants, Achyranthes, Coleus, Be- 
gonias, Geraniums (Zonal), double, single, and varie- 
gated leaved, or any plant of not too large a growth. 



and which has brightness of foliage or flower. If hang- 
ing baskets are exposed to the full rays of the sun, or 
even partly so, covering the surface ©f the soil with 
moss from the woods will protect it from drying too 
quickly, and will also give the basket a neater appear- 
ance. The soil used for hanging baskets need in no way 
difl'er from that for plants grown in pots, Nothing adds 
so much to the elegance of the verandas of our summer 
hotels, as to have hanging baskets and climbing or droop- 
ing vines judiciously interspersed throughout. • A most 


excellent example of this was seen at the Delaware Water 
Gap House, in Pennsylvania, where, in 1886, the finest 
example of this kind of work was shown that could well 
be done, and all, too, by the hands of the wife of the 
proprietor, Mrs. L. W. Broadhead. It was a never- 
failing source of enjoyment to the guests of the hotel, 
giving a graceful and cooling shade in the hot summer 




Wi:n"DOW gardening during the summer months is 
mnch more successful in England than with us, owing to 
a more temperate climate, and hence is there almost uni- 
versally practiced. In the cities especially, where space 
is economized by placing story upon story, and the 
buildings are so close that there is often no room for even 
a spear of grass to be grown, the only garden that is pos- 
sible is one formed in a box on the window-sill. This is 
limited in its extent, as the space afforded is only some 
four or five feet in length, and from eight to ten inches 


wide, with a depth for the soil of about six inches. These 
boxes are made of a great variety of materials, such as 
wood, terra cotta, iron, etc., according to the taste or 
means of the owner. As the boxes are usually too high 
up to allow of a close examination, and the sides soon 
become draped with drooping plants, an ordinary box of 
pine, as in figure 39, will answer as well as a more expen- 
sive one. As it is exposed to the weather, and the weight 
of the earth is considerable, it should be put together 
very firmly. Having procured the box, let a tin-smith 
make a lining or box of zinc that will exactly fit 
inside of it. This needs only a few tacks at the upper 
edge to hold the zinc to the wood. Usually spaces are 
left in the bottom to admit of the water passing freely 
through. When this is not done greater care is required 


in watering. A more expensive box (figure 40) is made 
of wood, lined with zinc, and the exterior covered with 
ornamental tiles, which are kept in place by a proper 
molding at the margins. A box of this kind may be 
covered with floor oil-cloth, and if a proper pattern be 
selected, it cannot, at a few yards off, be told from the 
much more costly tiles. Many of the streets of London 
and Edinburgh, during the summer months, present a 
pleasing appearance, that cannot fail to interest even 
those who have no taste for flowers. The plants used are 
mainly such as we recommend for hanging baskets, those 
designated for shady positions being used on the shady 
sides of the streets, and those for flowering on the sunny 
sides. These window gardens in summer produce the 



finest effect when planted with some drooping plants. 
For our climate, during the summer months, when ex- 
posed to full sun, strong, vigorous-growing plants must 
be selected, such as Tropaeolums, Petunias, Passifloras, 
etc. ; while for the same position, the upright plants 
may be double and single Geraniums, Heliotropes, Be- 
gonias, and the like. For window boxes on the shady side, 
use the plants recommended for hanging baskets in the 
shade. The simplest use of window boxes is to sow them 
with annual seeds, such as Mignonette, Sweet Alys- 
sum. Phlox Driimmondii, Portulaca, etc., all of which 
should have a southern exposure. For the manner of 
sowing, see ' 'Annual Seeds — How to Sow." The soil may 
be such as is used for pots. AVatering must be given 
as recommended for hanging baskets, only, in the case 


of the window box, it wonld not be practicable to im- 
merse it, nor is there the same necessity for doing so, as 
the box is less exposed than the hanging basket, which is 
suspended and surrounded by drying air upon all sides. 
These remarks refer to window gardening outside of the 
windows, or on the outer sill. If the boxes are placed 
inside in winter, which they may be, the treatment rec- 
ommended in the chapter on " Winter-Flowering Plants" 
will be applicable. 




The following pages have been written by E. D. 
Sturtevant, now of Borden town, N. J., who makes an 
exclusive business of growing aquatic plants, and who is 
acknowledged as the highest authority on the subject 
that we have in this country. 


Although Water Lilies may be cultivated in tubs, they 
may be grown to much better perfection if allowed 
plenty of room, especially the larger-growing tropical 
species. Those who wish to cultivate a number of kinds, 
and have complete success, should build a tank about 
twenty by thirty feet, and two feet deep, out doors. If 
sunk entirely in the ground it would be more easily 
protected from frosts in cold climates. But it may be 
partly sunken, and the soil which is taken out used as an 
embankment around the outside, sloping it up to the top. 
I prefer that it should be sunk to the level of the sur- 
rounding surface, for the reason that the banks can be 


made more ornamental. It may be built of either brick 
or stone. The bottom may be laid with rough stone and 
grouted with cement. Or, if the soil is of a firm nature, 
a thick coat of cement alone may be spread upon it. 
This latter plan has been perfectly successful with us, 
though we consider a concrete bottom preferable. The 
walls should be nine inches thick, laid in cement, and in 
cold climates made to slope outward from the bottom. 
If it is desired to grow Nymphma Devoniensis, or similar 
kinds, to full size of leaf and flower, then it will be nec- 
essary to sink a pit in the center, one foot deep and four 
feet square, to hold soil for them. Provide means for 
emptying the tank of water, when desired ; also, a waste 
pipe, near the top, for overflow. After the walls have 
been built, and the bottom laid and grouted, the whole 
must receive an additional coat of cement. About four 
feet from each end of the tank, build a partition wall 
about ten inches high. Bricks laid on edge will do, if 
laid in cement. These spaces can be cut in two by an- 
other partition. The compartments thus formed are for 
the purpose of confining the roots of the different kinds 
of Lotus within proper limits, and for planting out those 
kinds of Nymphaea which do better in such a position. 
The remaining portion of the tank can be taken up with 
pots and large shallow boxes, which will be movable at 
will. After the cement has properly hardened, fill the 
compartments and boxes with soil, and cover with an 
inch or two of clean sand. Fill the tank with water, and 
let it get well warmed before planting anything tender. 
As warm weather approaches, run a stream of fresh water 
in, for an hour or two each day, to prevent stagnation 
When the surface of the water is covered with leaves, 
there is less tendency in this direction ; and all that 
seems to be necessary is to replace what is lost by evapo- 

The Lily tank must be placed in a warm and sunny 


position, for these plants will not do their best unless the 
water is thoroughly warmed. On the north side may be a 
border filled with Musas, Cannas, Bamboos, Ornamental 
Grasses, Caladiums, etc., which form a fine background 
for the Water Lilies, and give the whole a tropical ap- 

In such a tank as above described, the tenderest 
species named may, in this latitude, be planted out by 
the 10th of June, and remain until the frosts of autumn 
appear. If it is desired to enjoy the longest possible 
season of bloom in the open air, then the Lily pond may 
be located near a greenhouse, and some connection made 
with the hot-water boiler. My manner of doing this is 
to extend the hot-water pij^e (both flow and return) from 
the boiler to the tank, and reaching a few inches inside 
of the wall. The ends of these pipes are left open, and 
when extra heat is wanted a fire is kept in the boiler. 
The circulation being constant between tank and boiler, 
the water in the tank may thus be warmed early in the 
spring, the tender Lilies planted out earlier, and thus 
earlier bloom be the result. Fire heat can be discon- 
tinued as soon as the summer sun begins to do its work. 
The season of bloom can be prolonged in the autumn in 
the same manner. As soon as frosty weather arrives the 
tender species should be taken under glass, and kept in 
water at fifty-five to sixty degrees, according to the 

For the protection of the tank in winter, place planks 
or boards around the edge in such a manner as to cover 
a space two or three feet in width, that is, over the 
water, and cover them with a thick layer of leaves or litter. 
This will help to keep the ice from forming at the edge, 
and, consequently, from expanding too much and cracking 
the walls. Another plan is to drain the water entirely 
from the pond, and cover with twelve or fifteen inches of 
leaves. Any one having a large factory could place a 


Lily pond near it, so that the waste steam or hot water 
(if free from chemicals or jfilth) might be utilized for 
keeping- the water warm, and from freezing in wn'uter. 
It may be asked, '*Why all this trouble and expense ? 
Why not grow the Lilies in ponds with a bottom of nat- 
ural earth ? -' We answer, that for the hardy kinds this 
is undoubtedly a good plan, and very fair success may be 
had in the same way with the tender kinds; but in a 
pond with a cement bottom the water is more readily 
heated by the sun, and retains its heat better. 


I will add here a few words upon the *^ possibilities'' 
of aquatic gardening. One argument in favor of culti- 
vating tropical Lilies in the open air is, that larger leaves 
and flowers are obtained, and in case of the colored 
kinds, greater depth of color than under glass. Another 
argument is, the grand effect which may be produced 
on the lawn or in any part of the pleasure ground. Let 
us suppose that you wish to have an aquatic garden, fifty, 
sixty, or a hundred feet in diameter. We will not build 
it in the stiff form of a circle or oval, but the outline 
shall be irregular, with here and there a small bay, 
across which we will throw a rustic bridge to a miniature 
peninsula. Somewhere o]i the margin w^e will build a 
rustic summer-house. It shall be a two-story affair, for 
sometimes we shall want to view our pets from an ele- 
vate! position ; for, unlike our fellow-creatures, they 
smile upon us when we look down upon them. If we 
have a rocky ledge in our grounds, let us place our pond 
near it. Now, let us suppose that all has been planted, 
established, and come to midsummer perfection. Some 
morning, before the night-blooming Lilies have begun 
to take their midday sleep, let us ascend the low tower 
and take a view of the picture. There, beneath us, is the 
noble Xymj)licea dentata, covering a space twenty feet 


in diameter, some of its leaves two feet across, and its 
milk-white flowers twelve inches across ; there is the 
grand JV. rubra, Avith its immense cups of glowing car- 
mine; and there, queen of them all, is N. Devoniensis, sur- 
passing in brilliancy of flower, if not in size of leaf, the 
famous Victoria regia. Then come groups of these same 
Lilies, planted more thickly; and though the flowers are 
smaller, yet they are more numerous and just as brilliant. 
Yonder, a little bay is filled with Egyptian Lotus, its 
pink and white flowers, on stalks three feet above the 
water, looking like immense tulips. Next is a mass of 
the American Lotus, with its sulphur-yellow flowers ; 
some of its floating leaves have strayed out into an open 
space, and are thirty inches in diameter. Let us descend 
and walk along the border of our little lake. Here is a 
plantation of the lovely blue iV^. scutifolia; you per- 
ceive its fragrance before you come near it. Next is the 
beautiful Yellow Lily from Florida; and our own sweet 
Water Lily is not forgotten, for it is here in masses. As- 
sociated with it are its charming new, rose-colored vari- 
ety, N. odorata rosea, and the delicate pink-tinted one. 
Here are N. candidissima and N. alba rosea, with their 
waxy petals, similar in color to some of the others, but 
having their own distinctive merits and attractions. The 
favorite Calla of our winter gardens lifts its white trum.- 
pets towards the sky, and numerous smaller flowered 
aquatics are found in profusion along the edge of the 
water. Coming around to the Lotuses again, we find 
growing near them, in shallow water, great clumps of the 
Egyptian Papyrus, with its plumy heads on stalks six feet 
high. Now let us look at some of the plants which as- 
sociate well with water, and help form a background for 
our picture. Scattered along the margin we find groups 
of ornamental grasses, Eulalias, Erianthus, and Pampas 
Grass. Yonder, on our little peninsula, stands a noble 
Banana (Musa Ensete), twelve feet high. Farther on is 


a clump of the tall Bamboo {Arundo Donax), and its 
variegated variety. There are groups of Cannas, and a 
large Palm, brought from the greenhouse to speod the 
summer in the open air. Another stately plant is Aloca- 
sia arhorea, with a tree-like trunk and fine, large leaves. 
What is this great-leaved plant near the water's edge ? 
It is Ounnera scabra (the Giant Rhubarb), with leaves 
six feet in diameter. Now do you wish to give your 
friends a glimpse of fairyland ? Then illuminate your 
grounds, and invite them lo an evening fete or garden 
party. Tiie Lotuses and hardy Lilies have closed their 
flowers, but the night-blooming Water Lilies offer us a 
feast for the eyes at night. Place large lamps, with re- 
flectors, in such a position as to throw a powerful light 
directly upon the flowers ; or, perhaps, Edison's magic 
lamps are available, and you suspend a number of them 
in midair over the water. Now the red Lilies fairly 
glow with color, and are far more beautiful than by day- 
light. The water is like a mirror, and in its depths you 
behold another glorious picture — a perfect image of the 
flowers themselves. The large, star-like white ones keep 
company with the red in their night watches, and are 
not unworthy companions for them. Look around at 
the floating leaves, the numerous buds which will open 
with to-morrow's sun, the tall shields of the Lotus, the 
rich, tropical foliage on the banks, the rustic arbor cov- 
ered with myriads of the silvery blossoms of the Moon 
Flower {fyomcea grandijlora), and tell me if this is not a 
fairy scene. And having taken a view of the Water Lily 
Garden by daylight and by lamplight, will you not ac- 
knowledge that in all that is really beautiful it far sur- 
passes the most elaborate exhibition of carpet bedding ? 

Perhaps you will say that this is a fancy sketch. Our 
answer is, that it has been so far realized that we do not 
hesitate to place such a garden as we have described among 
the list of '^possibilities of horticulture" in America. 



[My readers will be pleased to learn that the superin- 
tendent of the government grounds and buildings at 
Washington proposes to add a, collection of aquatics to 


the already interesting collection of plants to be seen 
there. This will, beyond doubt, give an impetus to their 
cultivation, just as has been done in the Central Park, 


New York, where tlie Water Lilies and other aquatics 
growing in the ponds there have been such a source of 
interest and pleasure to the tens of thousands of visi- 
tors.— P. IL] 


The best soil for growing all kinds of aquatic plants in 
gardens, we have found to be good, rich loam, and the 
best decayed stable or cow manure, in equal quantities. 
Leaf mold or fine black peat can no doubt also be used 
to advantage. Rich mud from the bed of a pond or 
sluffofish stream will answer in place of the loam, but I 
do not consider it essential. The compost should be 
well mixed, placed in the tank, and covered with about 
an inch of good, clean sand, to keep the manure from 
rising ; then let in the water several days before putting 
in the plants. 


A good degree of success may be attained by planting 
them in large tubs or half-barrels in the open air, either 
on the surface or sunk in the ground. They should be 
placed where they will receive the full benefit of the sun 
for at least the greater portion of the day. If for the 
whole day, so much the better. Fill them about half 
full of the compost recommended for all aquatics. The 
large growing kinds would do better in half -hogsheads 
or in tierces sawed in two. 

A very effective and inexpensive plan is to arrange the 
tubs in connection with a rockery, a large tub in the 
center being placed somewhat higher than the rest, and 
connected by pieces of rubber hose, so that the overflow 
from the large tub runs from one to the other, changing 
the water in all. Oil barrels cut in two make excellent tubs. 

The space around the tubs is filled with good rich com- 



post, held in place by large stones, in which foliage and 
flov/ering plants, such as Tuberous rooted Begonias, 
Sedums, Caladiums, Palms, etc., are planted. The effect 
produced in this manner is really beautiful. See fig. 42. 
The next best arrangement for growing aquatics is to 
build of bricks and hydraulic cement a basin two feet 
deep and six feet in diameter, either round or square. 
This can be sunk in the lawn in a sunny position, or on 
the south side of a building or fence. If convenient, 
provide means for emptying the tank from the bottom, 
and a waste-pipe near the top for overflow, bo that fresh 


water can be run in occasionally to prevent stagnation. 
Such a tank would need to be well protected from severe 
frost in winter. Aquatics may also be grown in the 
basin of a fountain, but they will not flourish if the spray 
is allowed to fall upon the leaves. Water enough to keep 
that in the basin fresh may be allowed to run in, but no 
more, as that would lower the temperature too much. 


The conditions which we recommend for successfully 
growing tropical aquatics {i. e., still, warm water and 
rich compost), favor the growth of a low form of vege- 


table life called confervaB, or green scum, which becomes 
very unsightly and troublesome unless eradicated. As 
the result of several years' experience, we are quite posi- 
tive that, if abundance of Gold-fish are kept in the tank 
or pond, there will be no trouble in this direction. Other 
kinds of fish which are vegetarian in habit might, per- 
haps, answer as well, but the German Carp is not to be 
recommended for tanks kept solely for the choicer varie- 
ties of acquatics, on account of their propensity for root- 
ing in the mud and feeding upon the fibrous roots which 
proceed from the rhizomes of the Lilies. Should it be 
determined to keep a few German Carp in the Lily Gar- 
den, it will be necessary to place whole pieces of roofing- 
shite or large pebbles on the soil around the crowns of 
the tender Nymphseas. 

Innumerable kinds of aquatic insects breed in the 
water, and some of their larvae prey upon the leaves of 
the Lilies, but the common water-snail is the greatest 
enemy of aquatic plants. The Gold-fish assist very 
materially in destroying these larvse and snails, but we 
have found a complete preventive of injury to the foli- 
age from this source by keeping in the tank, in addition 
to the Gold-fish, some of the common spotted Sun- 
fish. They are carnivorous in habit and very alert and 
active. Moreover, it is impossible for mosquitoes to 
breed in a Water Lily basin in which abundance of the 
above-named fish, or those of similar habit, are kept. 
Thus one objection to locating these tanks or ponds in 
the vicinity of the dwelling-house is removed. Their 
beautiful appearance, and the ease with which they may 
be taught to feed from the hand (though it must not be 
done too frequently), make them charming adjuncts to 
the Water Garden. If the tank is two feet or more in 
depth, they can be left in it all winter with perfect safety 
in this latitude. 

Sometimes, toward autumn, brown aphides, or plant 



lice, become troublesome on the Lily leaves. A some- 
what new insecticide, which any one can prepare, has 
proved effectual with us. It is called the kerosene emul- 
sion, or kerosene butter, and is ^^repared as follows : Take 
two parts of kerosene and one part of thick, sour milk ; 
warm the latter (to blood heat only) ; put the two liquids 
together, and agitate violently with a greenhouse syringe 
or a force-pump. They will soon completely unite and 
form a white, soapy mass. This kerosene butter mixes 
readily with tepid water. One part of the butter should 
be thoroughly mixed with fifteen parts of water, and ap- 
plied to the infested leaves with a syringe. With us, one 
application entirely destroyed the insects, without any in- 
jury whatever to Xymphseas. A weaker solution of the 
emulsion must be used on plants which are found to 
be injured by the proportion above given. Experience 
will be a guide in this matter. Very few applications of 
the remedy will be needed during the season. Nelumbium 
leaves are injured by the application of kerosene. To- 
bacco water applied with a syringe, or tobacco dust shaken 
on the leaves, is the best means for destroying aphides, 
or plant lice, on these. 


The Victoria Regia. — This giant Water Lily of the 
River Amazon is the grandest of all aquatics. See fig. 43. 
That it may be successfully grown and flowered in the 
open air in this latitude, we have proved beyond a doubt, 
having done so for several seasons past. By this plan it 
is treated as a tender annual. In winter or early spring 
seeds are placed in water, kept uniformly at a tempera- 
ture of from eighty to ninety degrees. After germinat- 
ing they are potted and shifted on, as they require it. 
Early in June a plant is placed in a bed of very rich soil 
in a tank, fully exposed to the sun, and which can be 


artificially heated until hot weather sets in. It produces 
leaves six feet across, one plant covering a space thirty 
feet in diameter. The flowers are from twelve to sixteen 
inches across. . The first night that they open they are 
a lovely white, and emit a delicious perfume, resembling 
that of pineapples, which is often perceptible some rods 
distant. The second night the flowers have changed to 
pink, and have lost their perfume. In the Southern 
States it may be grown with complete success in open 
ponds. The seeds cost fifty cents each, and plants about 
ten dollars each. 

Neio Crimson-flowered Victoria Regia. — Since the dis- 
covery of the original species, many years ago, no new 
variety has appeared until now. We had the honor of 
successfully growing and flowering this novelty last sea- 
son (1886), it being its first appearance in this country. 
It differs from the original Victoria in the following par- 
ticulars : The whole plant is of more robust habit, and 
the young leaves of a darker bronzy color. In the old 
variety the vertical rim of the leaf is seldom more than 
three inches high. In the new one this vertical rim on 
well-grown plants is five inches, and sometimes six inches 
high, giving the plant a most striking and novel appear- 
ance. Leaves are produced six to seven feet in diam- 
eter. In the old variety the flowers are white on first 
opening, changing on the second day to rosy pink. 
In the new variety the flowers are also white the first 
day, but on the second day they turn to a deep crim- 
son color. The seeds of this wonderful plant cost one 
dollar each. 

Euryale Ferox. — This is the East Indian relative of the 
Eoyal Water Lily, but not so gigantic in size. Its flowers 
are of a deep reddish or violet color. The leaves, in 
which the plant's chief beauty resides, are purple in color, 
curiously wrinkled, and covered with long spines on both 
sides. It is an annual. 



Unlike our wild JV. odorata, the following seven kinds 
open their flowers at night, beginning about eight o'clock 
and (excepting iY. ampla) remaining expanded until 
about ten the next morning, each flower opening three 
nights in succession. They stand on strong foot-stalks 
ten or twelve inches above the surface of the water. If 
given the right conditions as to soil, temperature, etc., 
they will begin to bloom in about forty days after being 
put out, and continue to be constantly in bloom until 
cold weather. They all require the same culture and 
treatment. Their tubers are about the size of a hickory 
nut or walnut, but make a most astonishing growth in a 
single season. In spring they should be placed in small 
pots with good loam or ordinary greenhouse potting soil, 
and immersed in water kept at eighty degrees to start 
them into growth. If you are satisfied to have flowers 
from four to six inches in diameter, then, when warm 
weather arrives, shift them into large earthen j^ans or 
tubs, and place them out of doors, or keep them in a 
greenhouse, according to the latitude in which you live. 
If the finest specimens iire desired, then, as early in sum- 
mer as the water becomes w^arm enough for bathing with 
comfort, plant them out in a Water Lily tank, in large 
beds or wooden boxes filled with the compost recommend- 
ed for aquatics. In the autumn, around the old plant 
may be found hard, nut-like tubers. These are the best 
for wintering. The plants ripen and shed their leaves, 
when they may be placed, several together, in a pot of 
soil or clean sand, and the pots immersed in water kept 
at a temperature o! about sixty degrees the entire winter. 
Lower than this may do, but we have found this the 
safest. Large flowering crowns are valueless for win- 
tering over, being sure to decay. If you wish to grow 
them in a pond with a bottom of natural earth, thcv 



must first be planted in large boxes or half-barrels filled 
with the prepared compost, and sunk where the water is 
two or three feet deep. In the Southern States this will 
not be necessary, but do not put a dormant tuber at once 
into deep water. Let it first get a good growth in a pot 
placed in shallow water. The day-blooming tender 
Xyraphaeas are managed in much the same w^ay as the 
night-blooming ones, except that they do not increase by 
suckers, and the old plants may be kept over from year 
to year. Dormant tubers are easily sent by mail from 
March to December. 

Nymphcea Devonie?isis. — This is one of the choicest, if 
not the very choicest, Water Lily in cultivation. Under 


the liberal treatment which we recommend for producing 
the finest specimens, in one season a single plant will 
cover a circle twenty feet across, with leaves twenty-five 
inches in diameter, and flowers twelve inches from tip to 
tip of petals. If confined in pans, tubs, or boxes, the 
flowers are smaller, but otherwise just as fine. The 
leaves are rich green, with serrated edges and occasional 
brown blotches. No person can form an adequate idea 


of the beauty of a red Water Lily until he has seen 
one of these gorgeous blossoms. They are rosy red (with 
scarlet stamens), glowing by lamplight with indescriba- 
ble color. They are yet rare, and cost from two to three 
dollars per tuber. 

Nymphcea Sturtevcmti (new Semi-Double Red AVatcr 
Lily). — This ^fr-ariety has foliage of a beautiful bronzy 
color, sometimes almost crimson. Its flowers are very 
large, having a greater number of petals than Nymphcea 
Devoniensis, and a more graceful cup-shaped form than 
that variety. They are of a beautiful, rosy red color. 
This is a very choice variety, but not so free flowering as 
the others. 

Nymphcea Rubra. — This magnificent species is a na- 
tive of India, and one of the parents of iV". Devoniensis. 
The picture of the latter gives a good idea of N. rulra, 
except that the flowers are a little more cup-shaped, and 
their petals somewhat broader. Their color is also a 
brilliant red, sometimes of a deeper shade than N. Be- 
voniensis, and both foliage and flowers attain nearly the 
same size as that variety if given the same treatment. 
The foliage is quite distinct, being of a rich brown color, 
turning, when old, to gold and crimson, like autumn 

Nymphcea Denfafa.— This species is a native of Sierra 
Leone, and has white flowers with petals expanding 
horizontally, making them star-shaped. They have an 
agreeable odor, but not as sweet as our native Lily. The 
leaves are rich green, with serrated edges. AVith ordi- 
nary culture, flowers will be produced six or seven inches 
across; but give them plenty of room and rich soil, and 
both foliage and flowers will be as large as those of N. 

Nymphcea Lotus. — This is supposed to be the typical 
species of the class of AVater Lilies such as N. dentata, 


JV^. Devoniensis, etc. It has large and beautiful pure 
white flowers with broad petals, and is far superior to 
Nymphma dentata. 

Nymplma Ampla. — A tropical species, with sulphur- 
white flowers, about six inches across, and strongly 
scented like the odor of bananas. They open only at 
night. # 



Nymplma Scutifolia (coerulea or cyansea). — The Lilies 
cultivated under these names are of a beautiful shade 
of lavender blue (not a deep blue), about three or four 
inches across ; but when the plant is given abundance 
of room and rich soil, the flowers will be much larger 
and of a decidedly deeper tint. They are very fra- 
grant, the perfume being entirely distinct from that of 
Nymplma odorata. It may be successfully grown in a 
natural pond, where the water is still and the mud rich. 
Probably hardy in the South. Winter temperature, fifty 
to sixty degrees. 

Nymplma Zanziharensis (the Royal Purple Water 
Lily). — This new species, from Africa, was first flowered 
in this country in the summer of 1882 ; and in Sep- 
tember, 1883, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
awarded it their Silver Medal. It is, unquestionably, the 
deepest colored and finest of all blue Water Lilies known, 
and some European horticulturists declare it to be the 
finest of the whole family. It is of a shade of blue so deep 
that it is not unreasonably called purple. Some parts of 
the flower are of the color of Lasiaiidra macrantlia (a 
greenhouse plant). It has the same fragrance as N. 
ccerulea, and, even when grown in small tubs or pans, 
produces larger flowers than that variety. Under the 
treatment given it in the Water Lily garden, they attain 


a diameter of twelve inches, and the leaves a diameter of 
two feet. It blooms coustautly until frosty weather, and 
requires the same culture and treatment as other blue 

Nymphcea Zcmziharcnsis Aznrea. — Strong flowering 
bulbs of this variety, raised from seed of the true JV. Zan- 
zibarensis, are like the species in every respect, except 
that the color of the flowers is a shade lighter, being of 
the richest deep azure blue, far surpassing K. coerulea or 
any other blue Lily except the true N. Zanziharensis. 

Nym])li(Ba Zanziharensis Rosea. — This is like N. Zan- 
zidarensis in every respect, except that the flowers are of 
a deep rosy pink color. 

Limnocliaris Humholdiii (the Water Poppy). — A 
charming and easily cultivated plant, with oval floating 
leaves and flowers of a bright lemon color with black 
stamens. The flowers stand a few inches out of water, 
and are produced freely during the entire season. Easily 
grown in a tub, but better still in the AVater Lily garden, 
planted in a box or a tub, which must be elevated so that 
the plants may grow in shallow water. Wintered in the 

Limnocliaris Plumieri. — An erect-growing plant, 
standing one to two feet out of the water, with ellip- 
tical leaves four to six inches long, and of a rich velvety 
green. Flowers straw color. 

Sagittaria Montevidiensis. — Tliis new plant has re- 
cently been introduced into this country. It is a giant 
compared with our native Arrowheads, which it resembles 
in the form of its foliage and flowers. It growls to a 
hight of four feet, with leaves fifteen inches long. The 
flowers are produced abundantly on spikes three feet high, 
each bloom being two inches across, pure white, with a 
purple spot at the base of each petal. It should be win- 
tered in the warmest greenhouse. 


Pontederia Crassi2)es Major. — The typical P. eras- 
sipes seldom produces flowers under cultivation; but this 
variety blooms very freely when grown in water about 
three inches deep, allowing the lower ends of the roots to 
enter the soil. The blossoms are of a beautiful lilac 
rose color, each two inches across, and produced in large 
upright spikes or trusses like a Hyacinth. 

Ouvirandra Fenestralis (the Lattice-Leaf Plant). — 
Though by no means a new plant, it is extremely rare in 
this country. The following description is from ''Stove 
and Greenhouse Plants,"' by B. S. Williams : ''It is pop- 
ularly known as the Lace-Leaf or Lattice-Leaf, and is 
one of the most singular plants in existence. The leaves 
are from six to eighteen inches in length, and from two 
to four inches in breadth ; oblong, with an obtuse apex, 
and spieading out horizontally beneath the surface of the 
water. Thev are of a dark olive ^reen color, and consist 
of a strong midrib and veins that would be called the 
primary nerves of an ordinary leaf, and thus present the 
appearance of a beautiful piece of net-work, or of a skel- 
etonized leaf ; indeed, it is a veritable living skeleton. 
The flowers are inconspicuous." Xative of Madagascar. 
It should be grown in a pan filled with a mixture of good 
loam and leaf mold or fine peat. The pan should be 
placed in a tub of water, and great care taken to keep 
the water sweet and the leaves of the plant clean. It is 
generally kept in the greenhouse in summer, but in this 
latitude we have found it to do well in the open air. It 
may be wintered in an ordinary greenhouse temperature. 
It is a scarce plant, and will always cost from three to five 
dollars each. 

Myriojjliyllum Proserpinacoides. — This is grown on 
account of the exquisite beauty of its foliage. It prefers 
shallow water, sending its stems creeping along on the 
surface, forming a mass of lovely soft green color. The 
leaves are arranged in whorls along the stem, and are as 


finely divided as the most delicate fern. The ends of 
these creeping stems stand erect, forming beautiful tufts 
or tassels. The plant may be hardy, but is better kept 
in a pan or tub placed in a cool greenhouse, where it 
forms a very pretty object in winter. It might also be 
grown in a water-tight hanging basket. 

Ceratopteris Tlialictroides (the Water Fern). — This is 
an extremely curious and interesting Fern, growing with 
its roots entirely submerged in water, either in a pot or 
planted out in a shallow place in the Water Lily basin. 
The fronds are from one to three feet high, and beauti- 
fully forked. The finest ones are produced on plants 
kept in a little shade. It is sometimes called the "Float- 
ing Stag's Horn Fern. " It must be wintered in a 
warm greenhouse. 

Hedychium Acuminatum (the Garland Flower). — 
Hedychiums belong to the family of the Ginger plant. 
This species grows from four to six feet high, each flower 
spike producing, for several weeks in succession, lovely 
snow-white blossoms, over two inches across, resembling 
an Orchid in form, and deliciously scented. It may be 
grown as a semi-aquatic by planting it in a tub, and 
placing it where the soil will be kept wet, but the 
crowns must not be immersed. If kept warm enough it 
will flower the whole year round. 

Carina Ehemani. — This is the most magnificent Canna 
ever introduced. It grows to a hight of five or six feet, 
with large, green, banana-like foliage, and the flowers 
are marvelous in size, being as large as a Gladiolus 
bloom. They are of a rich, crimson scarlet color, and 
hang pendant in clusters from the top of the plant. 
Each stalk produces a succession of these clusters, one 
after another, for a long time. This Canna may be 
treated as a semi-aquatic by planting it in a large tub, 
although it is usually grown as the ordinary garden Cauna. 


Rirhardia ^thiojnca (''The Calla/*' or ''Lily of the 
^ile"). — This old and favorite plant can be made a 
charming feature among the Water Lilies. The only 
way we know for making it bloom m summer is to 
keep the bulbs entirely dry and dormant during autumn 
and winter. They can then be potted and grown as an 
aquatic during summer. 

Papyrus A72tiquorum.— This is the true Egyptian 
Paper Plant. From the snow-white pith of its triangu- 
lar stalks the first paper was made. It grows five or six 
feet high, and supports at the top a tufi of long, thread- 
like leaves, which give the plant a graceful and striking 
appearance. It grows finely in shallow water, with rich 
soil or mud, and makes a splendid companion for flower- 
ing aquatics. It will also flourish and make a fine clump 
in the garden in ordinary soil. 

Cijperus AUernifolhcs.— This also will grow with its 
roots submerged in water, its reedy stems, with tufted 
heads, resembling miniature Palm trees. 

Cyperus Strictus.— This is like C. alternifolius, but 
stiffer in outline. It grows to the hight of six or seven 
feet, in rich soil and shallow water, and should be win- 
tered in the greenhouse. 


Pistia Stratiotes.—k very curious plant, which floats 
upon the water, with its long, fibrous roots extending 
downwards, but having no connection with the soil. It 
forms a rosette of light green, velvety leaves, about six 
inches across ; likes plenty of heat, and must be shaded 
from the direct rays of the sun. It does finely in a tub of 
water, placed in a vinery or greenhouse, in summer, or 
in the open air, under a tree. It is sometimes called the 
Water Lettuce. 


Pontederia Crassijyes. — This is an extremely interest- 
ing plant, which floats upon the surface of the water 
like Water Lettuce. Each crown produces neat rosettes 
of leaves, the stems of which are enlarged in the middle 
into curious oval bulbs filled with air cells, which enable 
the whole plant to swim. It should be wintered in a 
warm greenhouse. 

Salvinia Braziliensis. — A very pretty floating plant 
something like our native '* Duck-meat," but very much 
larger. Its leaves have a delicate hairy surface. Tender. 

TriancBa Bogotensis. — A floating plant, with tliick, 
spongy leaves, from one-half to one inch in diameter. 
Very curious, but tender. 

Azolla Caroliniana (Floating Moss). — A floating plant 
which produces no flowers, but is exceedingly interesting 
on account of the delicacy and beauty of its foliage, 
which resembles a lovely green moss or Selaginelln. A 
small plant placed in a pan of water soon covers the 
whole surface, and presents an appearance something 
like a pan of ^^Selaginella densa.'' If grown out of 
doors, in full sunshine, the plant assumes a reddish 
color. It is entirely hardy. 


As these are water-loving plants, we have thought best 
to introduce them here. Sarracenia imrj^urea is per- 
fectly hardy. S. jlava and S. variolaris have stood the 
winter in the latitude of New Jersey, naturalized in a 
peat bog. The most of this class, however, are best 
grown in pots of fine peaty soil, surfaced with live sphag- 
num, and kept standing in a pan of water in the green- 

Sarracenia Drumjnondii Alba. — The pitchers of this 
are two feet high, slender at the base and widening at 


the top like an ordinary tin horn. Thej are of a fine 
green, except that towards the top they become pure 
white, netted with crimson veins. The flowers are crim- 
son. This is the most beautiful of the family. 

Sarracenia Flava (Trumpets). — This is the largest of 
all, producing, in its native swamp, handsome green, 
trumpet-like pitchers, often three feet high. Flowers 
large, yellow. 

Sarracenia Purpurea. — This hardy northern species is 
not unworthy of a place in any collection. By giving it 
peaty soil and moss, it may be naturalized on the margin 
of a pond or stream. Flowers purple. 

Sarracenia Variolaris. — Pitchers from twelve to eigh- 
teen inches high, very curiously hooded at the top, these 
hoods being spotted with white. Flowers yellow. 

Sarracenia Rubra. — A small growing species, with 
slender, trumpet-shaped leaves of a reddish color. Very 
neat when grown several together in a pot. Flowers 
crimson purple. 

Darlingtonia Californica (the California Pitcher 
Plant). — This has the most curiously-formed pitchers of 
any of the tribe. They grow to the hight of from fifteen 
inches to two and a half feet, and have some resemblance 
to those of the Sarracenias, but differ from them in hav- 
ing the upper part arch over, like an inflated hood, and 
having a large triangular appendage hanging loosely from 
it. They are beautifully mottled with white and veined 
with red. Flowers straw-color and pale purple. 

Dio?icea Muscipnia (Venus's Fly-trap). — A most won- 
derful little plant, called ^^Venus's Fly-trap." It has 
strange, trap-like arrangements at the ends of the leaves, 
which, owing to the hair-like, sensitive organs on the 
inner surface, will close instantly when touched by an 
insect or any light substance. It is grown like the 
Pitcher Plants. 


Drosera Filiformis and D. Rotundifolia. — Rare, curi- 
ous, and hardy little bog plants, with pretty lilac and 
white flowers. 

[Some of the Pitcher Plants, together with the Drosera 
and Dionma, are the plants claimed by Darwin as " insect- 
eating plants," and on which he wrote a large volume to 
prove that these plants caught and absorbed insects as 
food. His belief has been severely questioned, and at 
present writing the discussion is far from being settled. 
My own experiments, which have been very elaborate, 
have all gone to prove that Mr. Darwin's theory is an 
error. — P. H.] 


The roots of the native American Water Lily will not 
endure actual freezing, but still it is commonly called 
hardy. When we speak of an aquatic as being hardy, we 
do not mean that it is so in the same sense that Pceonias 
are, but that it will endure the winter when placed in 
the water below the reach of frost. 

The best time to PLAJiTT. — The hardy Nymphaeas and 
Nelumbiums should invariably be planted during spring 
and early summer. It may be done up to the first of 
August, but never in the fall, if it can be avoided. 

Nymphcea Odoraia. — The praises of our fragrant na- 
tive Water Lily can never be too highly sung. Its lovely 
white flowers are worthy of a place beside the most costly 
exotics. It can be successfully growm in a tub, and 
wintered in a cellar. It does well in one of the beds in 
the Lily tank, but a more satisfactory way than either is 
to naturalize it in a pond or slow-running stream. Do 
not tie a stone to it and sink it, as many recommend, 
but pusli it carefully into the mud with the hands or 
feet. Where the mud is very rich, it will produce flow- 
ers six inches and leaves thirteen inches across. 


liymphcea Odorata Mmor. — A variety of our native 
Water Lily, possessing the same qualities of hardiness 
and fragrance, but producing flowers only one and a half 
or two inches across. Color, white, tinted with pink on 
the outside. 

Nymphcea Odorata Rosea (Cape Cod Water Lily). — 
This is the famous Pink Water Lily of Cape Cod, and is 
the grandest acquisition ever made to our list of hardy 
IS^ymphaeas. It possesses all the desirable qualities of 
the white-flowered species, hardiness, freedom of bloom, 
and delicious fragrance, with the added charm of a deep 
pink color, a shade somewhat like the Eose called "Her- 
mosa." The flowers average a larger size than the white, 
and are in great demand in the large cities and at water- 
ing-places during their season. We unhesitatingly pro- 
nounce this the most lovely and desirable of all the hardy 
Water Lilies. It is yet scarce, roots costing from three to 
five dollars each ; but as it becomes more grown it will 
be sold much lower. 

Kymjylicea Tuber osa. — This is quite distinct from N. 
odorata, having flowers from four to seven inches in 
diameter, pure white, with a faint odor like that of ripe 
apples. The petals are broader and less pointed than 
those of N. odorata. The leaves are sometimes fifteen 
inches wide. 

NyrtiphcBa Alia. — The native Water Lily of Eng- 
land, possessing the same early and late blooming 
qualities as N. candidissima, but with smaller flowers. 

Nymphma Alba v. Candidissima. — This is a large-flow- 
ered variety of the Water Lily of England and other 
parts of Europe. Though not a troj^ical species, it does 
not object to a warm climate, and does finely under the 
same conditions as the tender ones. When naturalized 
in still water, with a very rich soil, it will produce leaves 
thirteen inches wide and flowers six inches in diameter. 


The latter are pure white, the petals being very broad 
and much more waxy than those of X. odorata. It be- 
gins to flower earlier than that species, and continues in 
bloom for a much longer time. It is a great favorite. 

Kymphcea Alba v. Rosea {X. alba v. sj)h(erocarpa rosea). 
— A variety which was first discovered in Sweden, and 
has received great praise in Europe. It is like N. alba, 
except that the flowers are deep pink, shaded to lighter 
pink at the edge. Still rare and very costly. 

Xymj^hcea Flava (the Yellow Water Lily). — A charm- 
ing addition to any collection, having leaves variegated 
with brown, and flowers nearly as large as those of N. 
odorata. They are of a bright golden yellow color, and 
dehciously scented, something like Locust-tree blossoms, 
but more delicate. Perfectly hardy at the Korth, but 
should have a warm position in summer. 

Kymphcea Pygmcea (the Dwarf Chinese Water Lily). 
A little gem, producing leaves from two to three inches 
across, and delicionsly scented white flowers no larger 
than a silver half dollar, which open at noon and close at 
sunset. It has the additional merit of being hardy. 

Nelumbium Sjjcciosuni (Egyptian Lotus). — This was 
cultivated in Egypt in most ancient times, Avhere its seed 
was known as the "Sacred Bean." It is the "Sacred Lo- 
tus " of India and China, and is also cultivated in Japan. 
This wonderful plant, though coming from such tropical 
and semi-tropical regions, has proved to be entirely hardy 
in this country, enduring any degree of cold short of act- 
ual freezing. I have for many winters kept it in water, 
upon the surface of which ice formed from four to eight 
inches thick. Xo aquatic plants have a more tropical as- 
pect than the Xelumbium. It has been naturalized in one 
corner of a mill-pond at Bordentown, N. J., where "^.he 
mud is very rich, and where, in summer, could have been 
seen, among abundance of noble leaves from one to two 


feet in diameter, a hundred buds in all stages of develop- 
ment, aiid one hundred expanded flowers at one time. X. 
luteum is a beautiful plant, and well worthy of a place in 
any collection, but iV". speciosiim far surpasses it in ease 
of culture, rapidity of growth, and freedom of bloom. It 
will flower the first season it is planted, which is seldom 
the case with X, luteum, and is constantly in bloom from 
July till late in October. In the '' Water Lily Garden," 
N. speriosum has produced some leaves thirty inches 
across, on foot-stalks five and six feet in length, and 
flower-stalks of a total length of from five to seven feet. 
The first day the flowers appear like gigantic Tea Rose 
buds, of a bright rose color. The second day they open 
like a Tulip, the base of the petals being creamy white, 
most beautifully and delicately shaded off toward the 
end into bright pink. In their last stages of expansion 
they measure from ten to thirteen inches from tip to tip 
of petals. They are also delightfully fragrant. The 
plant is of a rambling nature, and spreads rapidly when 
placed in a pond. If grown in a Lily tank, along with a 
general collection, it should be planted in the separate 
compartments specially arranged for it. It may be 
grown in a large tub, but better in basins such as I 
have described. It should not be planted till the grow- 
ing season has fully arrived. (See fig. 41). The tubers 
cost from two to four dollars each, according to size. 

Xelumhium Luteum (American Lotus). — Though a 
native of this country, it is not common. There is 
scarcely any difference between this and X. speciosum, 
except in Ibe color of the flowers, which are of a rich 
sulphur yellow. They are as large as a quart bowl, 
and have a strong fragrance, entirely unlike that of a 
Nymphsea. Still, warm water and very rich soil are the 
conditions for success with these noble plants. A large 
patch of them, with hundreds of flowers and buds, is a 
eight never to be forgotten. 


New Japanese Xelumliums. — Their habit and general 
appearance are the same as N. speciosum, but some have 
larger and bolder flowers, of a more globular form, 
and distinct fragrance. They are also hardy, like the 
others. Neluinhium nuciferum album striatum. — The 
flowers are white, with the edge of each petal irregularly 
marked and splashed with crimson. A magnificent and 
distinct variety. Nelumhium nuciferum roseum. — This 
grand new Japanese variety has flowers of a uniform 
deep rosy pink color, something like Nymplicea Devo- 
nietisis or the Cape Cod Lily, and much darker than 
jV". speciosum. One of the finest yet introduced. Ne- 
lumMum nuciferum album (AVhite Lotus). — I have 
been lavish in praise of the pink Lotus {^N. speciosum), 
and have nothing to retract. Here we have an exceed- 
ingly beautiful white variety without a tinge of pink 
color. The stamens are yellow, and the receptacle 
shaded green and yellow, forming a novel combination of 
colors. It is at present the rarest variety now in cultiva- 
tion in this country, and is still costly. 

Japanese Nelumbium Seeds. — Nelumbiiim nuciferum 
(mixed varieties). Those who wisli to have Lotus flow- 
ers the first season will, of course, plant tubers ; but for 
those who are willing to wait a year or two for bloom, 
seeds can be used. Each nut should have a hole the size 
of a pin drilled in its shell with the point of a penknife, 
or by using a file, to allow the moisture to penetrate the 
kernel, or otherwise it will not germinate. The nuts 
should then be planted in warm Avater in a greenhouse, 
or, if it is desired to plant them in a pond, it should not 
be done until warm weather, and then in water about one 
foot deep. They may be either dropped in the water and 
allowed to sink, or pressed into the- soil two or three 
inches. The seeds cost about one dollar per dozen. 

Limnanthemum Nymplimoides (Villarsia). — This Euro- 
pean relative of our American Floating Heart is perfectly 


hardy. Its Xymph^ea-like leaves are Tariegated with 
brown. The flowers, which are freely produced, are 
about an inch across, of a golden yellow color, beautifully 
fringed, and stand erect like the Water Poppies. Should 
be grown in shallow water. 

Limnanfhemum Lacunosum (Floating Heart). — A na- 
tive species, which at first sight appears to be a miniature 
Water Lily. Its leaves are from one to two inches in 
diameter, beautifully blotched w^ith brown, giving them 
an appearance similar to those of the Cyclamen. The 
flowers are white, about half an inch across, and very 
curiously borne upon the same stem which bears the 
leaves. The plant blooms freely all summer, and will 
grow in either shallow or deep water, and would make a 
charming plant for the aquarium. 

Apo)iogeton DistacJiyon—K highly interesting tuberous- 
rooted water plant, which seems to like a long period of 
rest. It may be entirely dried off in May and kept dor- 
mant until fall, when it should be replanted in good soil, 
in a tub or large pan. It may then be placed in a green- 
house, where it will flower profusely all winter. It is 
hardy if planted in a pond. Its leaves are oblong, about 
six inches by two. The pearly-white flowers, with black 
anthers, are produced in curious fork-shaped spikes, and 
are deliciously scented. 

Trapa Natans (the Water Chestnut). — This is a 
hardy annual aquatic, bearing, from the midst of a 
rosette of green leaves, small white flowers, which are 
followed by good-sized nuts with several sharp thorns. 
These nuts are edible, and taste something like a cocoa- 
nut. After once being planted in a pond it will repro- 
duce itself from year to year. 

JuncHS Taleryicemontana, usually known as J. Ze- 
brinus (the Porcupine Plant).— This is a true rush, 
growing from one and a half to three feet high, produc- 


ing leaves variegated in exactly the same manner as a 
porcupine quill, with alternate bands of green and pure 
white. It may be grown either as an aquatic or as a gar- 
den plant, but should never be grown with the crowns 
of the plant under water, for then the leaves lose much 
of their variegation. Perfectly hardy. 

Sagittaria Sagittifolia Fl. PI. (Double Flowered Ar- 
row-Head). — The foliage of this plant is similar to our 
native species, but the flowers are an immense improve- 
ment, making it one of the most charming additions to 
any collection of aquatics. The flowers are borne on 
spikes two feet high ; are as large, full, and double as 
the finest Carnation or double Balsam, and as white as 
the driven snow. Perfectly hardy. 

Sagittaria Variahilis (the Arrow-Head). — A native 
plant suitable for shallow water, growing about two 
feet high, bearing arrow-shaped leaves and pearly-white 

Pontederia Cordata. — Another interesting plant for 
shallow water, with heart-shaped leaves and spikes of 
blue flowers, produced all summer. 


Next to the Rose, no plant is now so popular as the 
Clnysanthemum. It is only some ten or twelve years 
since, in Lhis country, its great value as an ornamental 
plant for the fall and early winter months has been fully 
realized, although it has been long valued in Europe, 
where it forms the great attraction in all the floral exhi- 
bitions of autumn. The first great Chrysanthemum 
Show was given m X'ew York some five years ago, and 


since then, every November, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
other large cities have vied with New York in getting up 
these exhibitions, which have attracted tens of thousands 
of visitors. The fashion is now spreading into the 
smaller cities and towns, so that the day is not far dis- 
tant when this most beautiful of all autumn flowers will 
be found in every hamlet on the continent, whose occu- 
pants have any taste for flowers. 

It is the floral emblem of Japan, just as the Thistle is 
of Scotland or the Fleur de Luce of France, and there is 
hardly a home in that flowery land so poor that it is not 
ornamented with one or more varieties of the " Autumn 
Queen." In the gardens of the Mikado, which contain 
marvelous varieties of this plant, they are trained on 
wire frames to represent animals of all descriptions. 
White elephants, yellow cows, and crimson dogs are by 
no means rarities in the grounds of the ^Mikado. The 
Chrysanthemum, too, is put to another use in Japan. 
When a rural swain makes up his mind to sue for the 
hand of some rustic belle, his first advance is to place on 
her doorstep as fine a specimen of a Chr^^santhemum as 
he can procure. If it is watered, tended, and cared for, 
he knows he may ^'call again;" but if neglected, and 
allowed to wither and die, so dies out the hope of the 
unfortunate '^ Jap," so far as that particular damsel is 

The cultivation of the Chrysanthemum is exceed- 
ingly simple. If the plants are wanted to flower 
only in the open ground, all that is necessary is 
to plant them in the open border in any good ground, 
well enriched with manure. If possible, plant them in a 
warm, sheltered spot, particularly in any section north 
of Baltimore ; for, being the latest of all flowers of au- 
tumn, a better development will be had- if they are 
planted in a place sheltered by a fence, hill, or shrubbery. 
As they are all sold grown in pots, they can be planted 


out any time from April to July, though preference may 
be given to May. They form an average width by Oc- 
tober of two feet in diameter, if the tops are pinched off 
so as to make them bushy. They should be set out about 
two feet apart each w^ay. The "topping" or "pincli- 
ing " back, as it is called, should not be done later than 
the first of August ; for, if much later, it might destroy 
the flowering to some extent. 

House Culture. — When wanted to be grown for green- 
house or house culture, the best plan for amateurs is to 
put each plant, when received, in a flower pot six, seven, 
or eight inches wide and deep. Plunge these pots to the 
rims in the open ground, level with the soil, treating 
them exactly the same as recommended for planting in 
the open ])order, by pinching, etc. Care should, however, 
be taken to turn the flower pots round every eight or ten 
days, so as to prevent the roots from getting through 
the bottom of the pot, the object being to confine all the 
roots within the pot. This same plan is the best for 
amateurs wdio cultivate any kind of plant to grow in the 
house or greenhouse in winter. Although the Chrysan- 
themum is entirely hardy, so that even the flower buds 
will stand quite a freeze without injury, yet, to get the 
best effect from the plants designed for house culture, 
they should be taken indoors by October 1st. 

How to Grow for Spring Flowering. — Although the 
Chrysanthemum is generally only grown for the fall and 
early winter months, yet, by taking the first young shoots 
that start from the root of the old plants which are flow- 
ering in the fall (say by the middle of November), and 
placing them in the propagating bed, they will root in a 
few days. If grown on in the ordinary greenhouse tem- 
perature during winter, shifting them into larger pots as 
their necessities require, by April they make fine flower- 
ing plants. The past season we grew a few hundred in 
this manner, that made grand plants for church decora- 



tion at; Easter, on the 10th of April. They were grown 
in six-inch pots, and averaged fifteen expanded flowers to 
a plant. 

The large Chrysanthemum flowers which are seen at 
the exhibitions are obtained by pinching off all the buds 


but one on each shoot, just as soon as the buds can be 
senn. This is called '* disbudding." In this way, many 
kinds of Chrysanthemum flowers can be obtained six 
inches in diameter. This is the method used to obtain 


all the fine flowers seen at the exhibitions. It is deceiv- 
ing, howeyrer, to those unacquainted with the plan, be- 
cause a flower so obtained, six or seven inches in diam- 
eter, if grown w^ith half a dozen flowers on the same 
shoot, would not be half the size. Hence amateurs, who 
have selected special kinds from the cut-flower tables at 
exhibitions, must not be disappointed at finding them 
half the size when they flower, unless they use the same 
process of disbudding to obtain large flowers. 

I give here a list of varieties, such as are esteemed the 
best at the date at which this is written (1887), though it 
is likely that in ten years some of them will be superseded 
by better kinds ; but a list is necessary to show to our 
amateur readers the range of color and style embraced 
by the Chrysanthemum. 

Early Varieties.— Kiihowgh all of the Chrysanthe- 
mums are early enough to perfect their flowers in the 
open ground south of Baltimore, yet, in the vicinity of 
New York and further north, many of the late kinds 
sometimes do not ; hence we name this early colledion 
for the benefit of residents of extreme Northern States. 
Bouquet Nationale, fine large double flower ; pure white, 
with lemon center. Bouquet Fait, delicate rosy lilac, 
shaded silvery white. Elaine, beautiful waxy white ; 
perfect form ; extra fine. Red Dragon, dark yellow, 
streaked bronze and crimson. Gloriosum, bright sul- 
phur yellow ; very free flowering. Geo. Glenny, a fine 
old early yellow, incurved. J. Collins, salmon maroon, 
shaded bronze. 3Irs. Brett (figure 45), sulphur yel- 
low, forming a complete ball. M. Lemoine, dark yellow, 
streaked bronze and crimson. Mad. Grame, pure white ; 
fine incurved flower. 3Irs. S. Lyon, large single white, 
golden center. So7ice d'Or, intense yellow, shaded old 

Late or "C/^ns/fwa5."— Under this heading we name the 

very latest flowering varieties ; such kinds as perfect their 



flowers in the house about the '^'^ holiday "* season. Most 
of these kiuds would be too late in flowering for any sec- 
tion north of Baltimore in the open air, but would 
bloom freely out of doors south, some of the kinds lasting 
up to Christmas. Bend d' Or, pure golden yellow. As 

V^v' 'm n' 



the flowers mature, the petals lap over, forming ribbon- 
like bells. CuUingfordi (figure 46), crimson, shaded ma- 
roon. Count of Germany, bronze and old gold. Christ- 
mas Eve, pure snow white. Fantasie, j^ink, shading to 


white. Fair Maid of Guernsey, clear dazzling white ; 
immense ball-like flowers. Golden Dragon, very large ; 
dark golden yellow ; broad, heavy petals. Jupiter, brill- 
iant reddish crimson. James Salter, clear light yellow; 
beautifully incurved as the flower opens. Lord Byron, 
dark, rich crimson, shaded old gold. Lady Slade, deli- 
cate purple pink ; beautifully incurved. Mrs. C. L. Al- 
len, carmine, yellow center. Moonlight, immense size ; 
beautiful lemon white. Mrs. C. H. Wheeler, upper part 
of petals deep yellow, under vermilion. Maid of Athens, 
very large ; pure snow white. Talford Salter, dwarf, 
compact grower ; rich crimson, streaked golden bronze. 
Yelloiu Eagle, very large ; dark golden yellow ; ribbon- 
like petals. 



Parlor Gardening has, to some extent, been treated 
of under the head of '^^Winter-Flowering Plants," but a 
few additional general directions for plants not specially 
designed for winter flowering may be acceptable. One 
of the conditions essential to success is to start with 
healthy plants. Even all the professional skill of the 
florist, with all his appliances, will often fail to get a 
sickly plant into a healthy condition. What, then, can 
the amateur florist expect to do in the often unequal 
temperatui-e and dry atmosphere of a sitting-room or 
parlor ? If the plants are purchased from the florist in 
autumn, to grow in the house, they are likely to be 
healthy, and are usually in a condition to shift into a pot 
one size larger ; instructions for doing which are given in 
the chapter on '* Winter-Flowering Plants." But if the 


plants to be ciiltiyated in the house are such as have been 
growing in your own flower borders, plants that were set 
out in spring, and have now the full summer's luxuriant 
growth still on them, then jj roper precaution m.ust be 
taken in lifting them and placing them in pots, or the 
result is certain to be most unsatisfactory. What may 
seem to the novice a little singular is, that the more 
luxuriant the growth of the plant in the open border, 
the more danger there is that it will wilt or die when 
lifted in the fall, and placed in a pot. The reason of 
this is obvious, when it is known that just in proportion 
to the top growth of a plant is the wide-spread develop- 
ment of roots, and, therefore, wdien you lift a finely- 
grown Geranium or Eose in October, it is next to impos- 
sible, if it is to be got into a suitable sized flower pot, to 
do so without such mutilation of the young roots as will 
certainly kill it, if precaution is not taken to cut off at 
least two-thirds of its branches. If the plant is thus 
potted, and kept as dry as it will stand, without actually 
withering, until it starts into growth, you may hope to 
have a fairly healthy sjDecimeu by December, if the lifting 
w^as done iu October. But this practice, though often 
one of necessity, is never satisfactory. If the j^lants that 
liave done service in the borders in summer are to be 
used as ornaments for the parlor in fall, winter, and 
spring, they must have a different treatment. 

All plants that are intended for future culture in 
rooms should be potted in the usual way, in five or six- 
inch pots, when set out in May or June. These pots 
should be set in the flower borders, but planted or 
'^plunged," as it is called, so that the rim of the pot 
is level with the surface of the ground. The plants will 
flower in these pots, if so desired, nearly as well as if set 
directly in the open ground ; but if wanted for flowering 
in winter, they will bloom much better to have the flower 
buds picked off as fall approaches. It is also indispensa- 


bly necessary that tlie hole in the bottom of the pot be 
entirely stopped, so that the roots cannot get through 
wliile growing in the open border in summer. The 
object is to confine tlie root,3 completely within the 
bounds of the pot, so that, when taken up in the fall to 
be shifted into a larger pot, the roots will be undisturbed, 
and the plant will grow on uncliecked. If this is not 
done, and the roots find their way through the bottom 
of the pot, there will be the same difficulty with the roots 
as if they had not been potted. About the best time to 
take plants in-doors in this latitude is the middle of 
October ; in colder localities, earlier, of course, and in 
warmer, later ; always bearing in mind that the longer 
they can be kept in the open air, provided they are safe 
from frost, the better. Plants suited for parlor culture, 
requiring a temperature of from fort3'-fivc to fifty-five 
degrees at night, with an average of ten to twenty de- 
grees higher during the day, are as follows. These are 
known as greenhouse plants. For descriptions see cata- 
logues of florists and nurserymen. 

•""Abutilons. Holland Bulbs of all kinds. 

Acacias. Hoyas (Wax Plant ). 

*Agapantlms. Ivies, parlor and hardy. 

Ageratums. Jessamines, Cape. 

Anthemis. ^Jessamines, Catalonian. 

Asparagus, Climbing. Lily of the Valley. 

Azaleas. Lobelias. 

Calceolarias. *Mahernias. 

*Callas. ^Marguerites, white and ycllov/. 

Camellias. *Mesembryautheraums (Wax Pink). 

*Caniations. Mimulus (Musk). 

Chorizema. *Myrsiphyllum or Smilax. 

Chrysanthemums. Oleanders. 

Cinerarias. Oranges. 

Cupheas. Oxalis. 

Cyclamens. Petunias. 

Daphnes. ^Primulas, double and single. 

*Fems, Climbing. *Roses. 

Feverfews. Stevia. 

^Fuchsias. Vincas. 

Geraniums (Pelargoniums), Violets. 



What are known as hothouse or tropical plants re- 
quire a higher temperature than the precedino:, and can- 
not be well grown unless with a night temperature of 
from sixty to seventy degrees, and a day temjierature 
of from ten to fifteen degrees higher. The following, of 
most of which there are several varieties, can be found 

described in the catalosrues of dealers 












Epiphyllums (Cactus). 



Ferns, tropical. 





Orchids (of all kinds). 









This matter of temperature has everything to do with 
the successful cultivation of plants in rooms, or, in fact, 
anywhere. If you attempt, for example, to grow Bou- 
vardias or Begonias in an average temperature of forty- 
five degrees at night, the plants will barely live, and will 
not flower, nor be healthy. On the other hand, if you 
subject your Camellias or Geraniums to an average of 
sixty-five degrees at night by fire heat in winter, you are 
almost certain to have the flowers drop prematurely. As 
a rule, there are more of the plants knoAvn as greenhouse 
that will endure the high temperature necessary for the 
hothouse plants, than there are of the hothouse plants 
that can stanii the low temperature, so that, when no 
distinction can be made, and a high temperature only 
can be had, all in the list of greenhouse plants I have 
marked with a * may be grown fairly well in the high 
temperature, though thev vrould do better in the low one. 



The culture of plants in rooms is already described in 
the chapter on ''Winter-Flowering Plants," so that I 
need not further allude to it, except to hint in regard to 
the manner of placing the plants. One of the cheapest 
and neatest contrivances is the ''folding plant stand" 
(figure 47). The sizes are from three to six feet wide 
and eight feet high, having from four to six shelves, and 
capable of holding from twenty-five to one hundred 
plants. It is hinged so as to fold up like a camp stool, 
the shelves fitting in between 
the frames, and it can be thus 
shipped or stowed away when 
not wanted, with great con- 
venience. Rollers can he at- 
tached to the feet, so that it 
may be moved about as easily 
as a table ; a great advantage 
in cold nights, when it can 
be drawn away from the win- 
dow to a warmer part of the 
room or to another room. Plants, when placed on this, or 
similar stands, may be provided with saucers, so that the 
floor or carpet need not be injured while watering. It is 
not a good plan, however, to keep water in the saucers. 
It is always a safer way of feeding the plant to water the 
soil on the top, giving only enough for it to reach the 
bottom, where, if any water pass through, it will be held 
bv the saucer. If no saucers are used, and we think 
plants are generally grown more safely without them, 
the best plan is to take down the plants from the stand 
(three times a week will usually be enough), to some' 
place where the water will not do any injury, and give a 
good soaking to all such as appear to be dry ; those not 
so dry, water more sparingly, and give those in which the 
soil shows that it is wet, none whatever. Let the water 
drain off, pick off any dead leaves, and replace the pots 



again on the stand, being careful to change them as far 
as jDossible, so that each side of the plant may get its fair 
share of light. If the same part is always placed to the 
light, the plant will soon become drawn to one side. 


The question whether plants may be safely grown in 
living rooms is now settled by scientific men, who show 
that, whatever deleterious gases may be given out by 
plants at night, they are so minute in quantity that no 
injury is ever done by their presence in the rooms and by 
being inhaled. Though we were glad to see the question 
disposed of by such authority, experience had already 
shown that no bad effects ever resulted from living in 
apartments where plants were grown. Our greenhouses 
are one mass of foliage, and I much doubt if any healthier 
class of men can be found than those engaged in the care 
of plants. But timid persons may say that the deleteri- 
ous gases are given out only at night, while our green- 
house operatives are only employed in daylight. This is 
only true in part. Our watchmen and men engaged in 
attending to fires at night make the warm greenhouses 
their sitting-room and their sleeping-room, and I have 
5-et to hear of the first instance where the slightest injury 
resulted from this practice. Many of our medical prac- 
titioners run in old ruts. Some Solomon among them 
probably gave out this dogma a century ago ; it was 
made the convenient scapegoat of some other cause of 
sickness, and the rank and file have followed in his train. 
A belief in this error often consigns to the cellar, or to 
the cold winds of winter, the treasured floral pets of a 




The forms of plant cases for the growth of such plants 
as require a moist, still atmosphere, a condition impossi- 
ble to obtain in a room in a dwelling-house, nor even in 
a greenhouse, unless it is specially erected for the pur- 
pose, are numerous. The form commonly known as the 
Wardian Case (figure 48) has a base or tray, usually of 
black walnut, about six inches deep, and lined with zmc, 
and glass sides and top. These differ in size, some 


being as large as three feet on the sides. Another neat 
and cheaper form is made of terra cotta (figure 49), or 
other earthen ware. These are usually round in shape, 
and of various sizes, from nine to eighteen inches in di- 
ameter. In all these the plants must be covered with 
glass. In the Wardian Case there is glass all around the 
sides and top, the top being hinged to allow^ the escape 
of excess of moisture. In the Jardinieres, or circular 


form, the plants are covered by a bell-glass, which is 
tilted up a little at the side when there is an appearance 
of excess of moisture. This condition of excess is known 
by the glass becoming dimmed by moisture, and the water 
trickling down the side. Usually, when this appear- 
ance is seen, by raising the glass lid of the Wardian Case 
an inch or so for a day, it will relieve it enough to enable 
it to be kept close, which is the proper way to keep it for 
the well-being of the plants. The plants grown in t h is way 
are of kinds valued for the beauty of their foliage rather 
than for their flowers, and should be such as are of a some- 
what slow growth. All rampant growing plants, such as 
Coleus, are unsuited. The effectiveness of these Cases 
depends a great deal on the arrangement of the plants. 
The tallest and most conspicuous things should be in the 
center, with smaller ones towards the edges, varying the 
interest by contrasting the different colorings and forms 
of leaves. Among the plants best suited for growing 
under these glass coverings are Dracaenas, Gymnostachi- 
ums, Marantas, Caladiums, some of the ornamental 
leaved Eranthemums, and dwarf-growing Begonias, Pe- 
peromias, etc., and Ferns and Lycopods of the finer sorts. 
The most of these are plants whose natural habitat is 
shady woods or marshes ; and for their well being, the 
nearer that the Wardian Case or Jardiniere can be made 
to imitate such, the better. 

The soil used in these cases should be light and porons. 
The most convenient, and a very suitable material, is leaf 
mold, which can be got in any piece of woodland. After 
planting, the soil should be watered freely, to settle it 
around the roots. To allow evaporation, ventilation 
should be given for a few days after the watering, when 
the glass may be put down close, only to be opened, as 
before directed, when an excess of moisture shows on the 
glass. Other than this there is no trouble whatever in 
the management. The watering given on planting will 


)e sufficient to keep it moist enough for six or eight 
7eeks. In winter the temperature of the room in which 
he Wardian Case or Fernery is kept may run from fifty 
seventy degrees at night. These closed Cases of either 
:ind are particularly well adapted for growing Hyacinths 
u winter, if desired ; but they must first be placed in 
ome cool, dark place, so that the roots may be formed 
)efore being brought into the light. (See special in- 
tructions on this head under '^Fall or Holland Bulbs.") 
Vhen the Cases are brought into the room they will re- 
[uire daily ventilation. The Lily of the Valley can also 
le grown finely in a Wardian Case. (See *'Fall or Hol- 
and Bulbs.") 


The taste engendered by growing plants in rooms 
f ten results in a desire to have more appropriate quarters 
or the plants, and a greenhouse follows. This always 
ffords the most satisfaction when it is so attached to the 
welling, that opening a door or window from the dining- 
oom or parlor reveals the glories of the greenhouse. 
?he greenhouse, when attached to the dwelling, should 
<e always on the east, southeast, south, or southwest 
ides, never on the north, if Jloiuering plants are to be 
Town ; though Ferns, Lycopods, Palms, and other 
ilants grown for the beauty of their form or foliage, will 
quite well in the shade of a northern aspect. It may 
e of any length or width desired. If of ten feet width, 
b will cost for erection from forty to sixty cents per 
quare foot of the glass surface, according to the char- 
cter of the work. If twenty feet wide, from forty to 



fifty cents per square foot. This is exclusive of heating, 
which, if done by hot-water pipes, will cost for ten feet 
wide, about forty cents per square foot of the glass sur- 
face ; if twenty feet wide, about the same. Thus, to 
complete a conservatory, with heating apparatus, shelves, 
etc., ten feet wide by forty feet long, would cost about 

Fie:. 50.— BASE-BUKNER. 

Fig. 51.— SECTION. 

^400 ; if twenty by forty feet, about $700. In this esti- 
mate it is assumed that the heating is to be done by 
the Base-barning Water-heater of Hitchings & Co., 
or other similar heater. This heating apparatus is of 
comparatively recent invention, and is exceedingly w^ell 
adapted for the purpose, as the fire requires no more at- 




wimimm]i,maa,imwummii.'i.i..inmihKiMmim,jm,m„,.,^ n ,„m,M»»»>i)iM^i„>..,>iu»}ri„m 


:j csi 





tention than any base-burning stove. Tbe boiler takes 
up no more room than an ordinary stove, and requires no 
setting. It is shown in figure 50, and in section in fig- 
ure 51. It is fed by coal from the top, and can be left 
with safety ten or twelve hours without any attention. 


It must be borne iu mind that, in constructing the con- 
servatory, it must be built where a chimney is accessible 
by which to carry off the smoke from the boiler or water 


heater, just as would be necessary for an ordinary stove. 
If the greenhouse is small enough to be heated by a 
register from the furnace or steam boiler that heats the 
dwelling, much of the cost may be saved, as it will be 
seen that nearly half of the cost of construction is the 
heating apparatus. Figure 52 shows a front elevation of 
a conservatory suitable to attach to dwellings. It is six- 
teen feet wide and thirty feet in length. Its ground plan, 
showing the arrangement of the benches and walks, is 
given in figure 53. Such a structure in every way com- 
plete, heated with the Hitchings Base-burning Water- 
heater, should not exceed one dollar and twenty-five cents 
per foot of glass surface, or $600. 

Figure 54 shows a more elegant style of conservatory 
attached to a dwelling. The size is sixteen by sixteen; 
hight, twelve feet. The estimated cost complete, with 
heating apparatus included, for every square foot of glass 
surface covered, at four dollars per foot, would be $1,024. 
If heated from the boiler or furnace used to heat the 
dwelling, perhaps one-third less. This design is given 
by Lord & Burnham, horticultural architects. 


When more extended glass structures are desired they 
must, of course, be detached from the dwelling or other 
buildings ; and if shelter, ivithoiit sJiade, can be had 
from hills, w^oods, or buildings from the north or north- 
west, so much the better. When greenhouses, graperies, 
rose houses, or other greenhouse structures are wanted 
for forcing flowers or fruits m the winter months, they 
should alwavs be built after what are called '^ three- 



quarter spans ; " that is, haying nearly two-thirds of the 
roof long on one side and the other one-third on the other. 

The long or two-thirds 
side should in all cases, 
as near as possible, slope 
directly south, the ob- 
ject being to obtain, dur- 
insr the dull davs of win- 
ter, as much sunlight as 
possible ; and for the 
same reason the wood 
work of the frame should 
be as light as possible, 
and the glass of the 
largest size that can be 
economically used. The 
average size now in use 
for this purpose is twelve 
by twenty inches, put in 
the twelve inch way. 
The brand of glass most- 
ly used is what is known 
as ^^second quality dou- 
ble thick French." It 
is of the utmost impor- 
tance that the glass be 
clear and without flaws; 
otherwise the flaws will 
concentrate the sun's 
rays, forming lenses, 
and burn the foliage. 
When greenhouse struc- 
tures are not wanted 
specially for winter flow- 
ers or fruit, they may be formed of equal spans, as in 
figure 55. In this case the ends should face north and 









south, so that the distribution of light will be equal on 
each side : the east side in the morning and the west in 
the afternoon. 

All the walling from the surface of the ground to the 
glass of a greenhouse had better be made of wood, unless 
the walls are made very thick when built of brick or 
stone. The continued warfare in winter between a zero 
temperature outside and sixty to seventy degrees inside, 
will in a few years destroy brick or stone walls. When 
the walls are formed of wood, the best way is to place 
locust posts at distances of four feet apart, and nail to 
these a sheathing of boards. Against the boards tack 
asphaltum or tarred paper, and again against that place 
the weather-boarding. This forms a wall which, if kept 
painted, will last for fifty years, and is equally warm as 
a twelve-inch brick wall, and costs less than half. A 
common error is to board on each side of the post and 
fill in with saw^dust or shavings. This should never be 
done, as this filling soon decays, besides forming a resort 
for mice and other vermin. We have had just such a 
structure (as figure 57) in use fifteen years as a cold 
grapery, that has no heating apparatus, the forwarding 
being done only by the action of the sun on the glass, 
and it has proved a cheap and satisfactory luxury. A con- 
servatory or grapery of this style (figures 56 and 57) costs 
from fifty to sixty cents per square foot, without heating 
apparatus. Heated by hot water, it would cost one dol- 
lar to one dollar and twenty-five cents per square foot. If 
heated by a horizontal flue in the manner here described, 
the cost would be about seventy-five cents per square foot. 


If for Avinter forcing of either fruit or flowers, the 
glass should be not less than ten by twelve in size, 
laid in the twelve way, and if twelve by twenty all the 
better. Even with the greatest care, some flaws in 


the glass will escape detection, and more or less burn 
the leaves after the sun becomes strong, to counteract 
which a slight shading had better be used on the glass 
from April to September. We use naphtha, with just 
enough white lead mixed in it to give it the appearance 
of thin milk. This we put on with a syringe, which 
sufficiently covers up all flaws in the gkss to prevent 
burning, and at the same time tends to cool the house 
from the violence of the sun's rays. Tiiis is by far the 
cheapest and best shading we have ever used. It can be 
graded to any degree of thickness, and costs only about 
twenty-five cents per thousand square feet of glass, for 
material and labor. 

In glazing, the method now almost universally adopted 
is to bed the glass in putty, and tack it on top with 
glazier's points, using no putty on the top. The glazier's 
points are triangular, one corner of which is turned down, 
so that, when it is driven in, it fits the lower edge of 
each pane and prevents it from slipping down. A great 
mistake is often made in giving the glass too much lap. 
It should only be given just enough to cover the edge of 
the pane (from one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch). If 
given too much, the water gets in, and when it freezes it 
cracks the glass. 

All who have had experience with greenhouses know 
that, no matter how well the glazing has been done by bed- 
ding the glass in putty, the water gets in at the crevices 
sooner or later, rotting the putty, and, consequently, loos- 
ening the glass. A simple plan to obviate this (which has 
recently been introduced) is to pour along the junction 
of the bar with the glass a thin line of white lead in oil 
from the slender spout of a machine oil can, over which 
is shaken dry sand. This at once hardens, and makes a 
cement which effectually checks all leakage. This, care- 
fully done, will make such a tight job that no repairs 
will be necessary for many years. 




The following are a few styles of greenhouse structures 
of finer finish than most of the preceding. It is all im- 
portant that the hights, angles, etc., be kept as near to 
the plans given as possible, as each plan we believe to be 
as near correct as it well can be, to give the best results 
in culture. No scale is given, but a scale can easily be 
adapted from any of the accompanying measurements. 

Figure 58 is taken from Lord and Burnham's book of 
greenhouse plans, and represents a three-quarter span 
house, seventeen by sixty, ridge eight feet, heated by six 
runs of four-inch pipes for hot water. It is the most 
useful style of all greenhouse structures, and is used for 
the model rose house, but can be adapted to the grow- 
ing of all kinds of flowering plants for winter blooming, 
or for forcing strawberries, cucumbers, and other fruits or 
vegetables. The estimated cost of such a structure (if the 
frame and walls are made of wood, and, as a general 
thing, we advise them made of wood) would be from 
one dollar and twenty-five cents to one dollar and fifty 
cents per foot for the ground area covered by the house ; 
that is, a house seventeen by sixty at one dollar and twen- 
ty-five cents would cost $1,275 for the whole structure 
complete, including the healing by steam or hot water, 
ventilating apparatus, etc. Of course, the cost would be 
lessened in proportion to the size of the buildings. The 
engraving shows the walls to be formed of brick; but this 
is not only more costly, but, in our experience, is not so 
good as wood. (See Greenhouse Structures.) 

Figure 59 represents a greenhouse twenty by sixty, 
ridge eleven feet high, full span. The ground plan shows 
it to be divided in the center by a glass partition, so that, 
thus divided, it can, if required, be used for greenhouse 
and hothouse plants by simply adding two additional pipes 
to the section used for the hothouse ; or one section may 
be used as a rose house and the other for greenhouse 
plants. The construction is the same as recommended 







for the house seventeen by sixty (figure 58). The cost 
of this structure would be about one dollar and fifty 
cents per foot, or $1,800 
for a house twenty by sixty 

Figure 60 represents a 
curvilinear, three-quarter ^^ 
span house, eighteen by A 
sixty, with twelve feet ridge, ^ 
which can be used as a green- 
house, rose house, or grap- 
ery. The cost, if built of 
wood (as advised in the 
house seventeen by sixty, 
figure 58), would be about 
one dollar and fifty cents 
per foot, or $1,620. " 

Figure 61 (center, fifty by 
fifty, each wing twenty-five 
by forty-five) shows a beau- 
tiful and one of the most 
useful of glass structures. 
The center is to be used for a 
conservatory or show house, 
where ornamental foliaged 
or flowering plants may be 
placed. The wings are to 
be used for a grapery, green- 
house, or rose liouse, as de- 
sired. Such a building as 
is shown in the engraving 
would cost, with iron frame, 
brick foundations, and heat- 
ing and ventilating appara- 
tus complete, about two dollar.- aiid fifty cents per foot, 
or Sll,875, if of the above dimensions. This is the 




faTorite style of greenhouse structure in the vicinity of 
New York on well-appointed places, yaried somewhat in 
size or architectural details, according to the taste of the 


These methods are in almost universal use, though many, 
who do not wish to go to the expense, still use smoke flues. 
In heating by hot water it is important that the work 
be given to some reputable firm, whose knowledge is 
such as will enable them not only to judge what is the 
proper capacity of the boiler for the number of pipes to 
be used, but also how many pipes are necessary to be 
used for the surface of glass to be heated. Men who have 
done a large business in heating greenhouses have far 
better opportunities for knowledge in this matter than 
the average gardener or florist ; and if those erecting 
greenhouses have not had extensive and varied practice, 
they had better be guided by the men who make a busi- 
ness of heating, as the want of the requisite knowledge 
of these matters often works serious mischief. Of course, 
the size of the greenhouse or greenhouses to be heated 
must determine the capacity of the boiler wanted ; but 
the boiler being properly apportioned to the length of 
pipe, the following data, used in our own establishment, 
may be useful In our houses, which are twenty feet 
wide and one hundred feet long, when a night tempera- 
ture of seventy degrees is required in the coldest weather, 
ten runs or rows of four-inch pipe, five on each side ; 
when sixty degrees are wanted, eight runs of pipe, four 
on each side ; when fifty degrees are wanted, six runs 
of pipe ; and when only thirty-five or forty degrees are 
wanted, four runs of pipe. This is for the latitude of 
New York City, where the temperature rarely falls lower 
than ten degrees below zero. Latitudes north or south 
of New York should be graded accordingly. If esti- 


mated by glass surface, about one foot in length of four- 
inch pipe is necessary for every three and a half square 
feet of glass surface, when the temperature is at ten de- 
grees below zero, to keep a temperature of fifty degrees in 
the greenhouse. We now place all our pipes under the 
side benches, as that enables us to use the space under 
the middle for stowing away many plants safely, which 
otherwise could not be done if the pipes were there. 

Heating greenhouses by steam is rapidly coming into 
use, and, in my opinion, whenever the extent to be heated 
is over five thousand feet of glass surface, steam should 
be used in preference to hot water, for the reason that it 
ought to be cheaper to put up, one foot of steam pipe 
costing ten cents being equal to the hot-water pipe costing 
twenty cents ; and, in addition, in a thorough compara- 
tive trial we find it to be a saving of about twenty-five 
per cent, in coal. As far as the well-being of the plants 
is concerned, it makes no difference whatever whether 
the greenhouse is heated by hot water or by steam. 
There is an impression that the heat given off from 
hot-water pipes is more moist than that from steam ; 
but this is an error, as experiments show there is 
no difference whatever. 


Every season some one is led into the grievous blun- 
der of painting the hot-water or steam pipes with gas tar. 
This never fails to result in the almost complete destruc- 
tion of the plants as soon as the necessity for heating 
the pipes begins. The heat evolved from the pipes so 
painted gives out a gas destructive to all species of plant 
life. When the blunder has been committed, there is no 
remedy but to take out the pipes and bum the gas tar off 
by a red heat. All kinds of remedies have been tried 
again and again, and all have failed, for the reason that 



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the gas tar eats right into the grain of the metal, often 
half through it, so that all surface applications are use- 
less. Better let all painting of the pipes alone, as a 
rather better radiation of heat is got if left unpainted. 


When personal attention can be given to the fires, by 
heating greenhouses with flues a great saving in cost can 
be made ; in fact, nearly half the cost of construction ; 
for we find that the hot-water heating apparatus usually 
is half the cost of building greenhouses, while, if heated 
by flues, the cost would not be more than ten per cep.t. 
of the whole. A new method of constructing flues (or 
rather a revived method, for it originated in 18:^2,) has 
been in use for the past few years, which has such mani- 
fest advantages that many now use it who would no 
doubt otherwise have used hot- water heating. Its pe- 
culiarity consists in running the flue back to the furnace 
from which it starts and into the chimney, which is built 
on the top of the furnace. As soon as the fire is lighted 
in the furnace, the brick-work forming the arch gets 
heated, and at once starts an upward draft, driving out 
the cold air from the chimney, which puts the smoke 
flue into immediate action and maintains it ; hence there 
IS never any trouble about the draft, as in ordinary flues 
having the chimney at the most distant point from the 
furnace. It will be understood that the chimney into 
which the flue is returned is placed on the top of 
the arch of the furnace, and not in it, as some might 

By this plan we not only get rid of the violent heat 
given out by the furnace, but at the same time it insures 
a complete draft, so tliat the heated air from the furnace 
is so rapidly carried through the entire lengtli of the flue, 
that it is nearly as hot when it enters the chimney as 


gardexiis^Ct for pleasure. 

when it left the furnace. This perfect draft also does 
away with all danger of the escape of gas from the flues 
into the greenhouse, which ol'tea happens when the 
draft is not active. Although no system of heating by 
smoke flues is so satisfactory as by hot water or steam, 
yet there are many who do not want to go to the expense 
of hot-water heating, and to such this revived method is 
one that will, to a great extent, simplify and cheapen 
the erection of greenhouses. 

Figure 62 (one-eighth of an inch to the foot scale) 
shows a greenhouse twenty feet wide by fifty feet long, 
with furnace room, or shed, ten by twenty feet. Here 

Fig. 63.— (Scale Vs of an incli to the foot.) 

the flues are so disposed as to avoid crossing the walks, 
being placed under the center bench, but as near as pos- 
sible to the w^alk on each side, so that the heat may be 
evenly diffused throughout. If a difference in tempera- 
ture is required in a house of this kind, it may be ob- 
tained by running a glass partition across the house, say 
at twenty-five feet from the furnace end, which will, of 
course, make the latter end the hottest. It will be ob- 
served that the plan (figure 62) shows by dotted lines 
this new or revived plan of flue heating. Figure 63 (the 


same scale) is a section, showing the arrangement of the 
benches, etc. 

In constructing the furnace for flue heating, the size 
of the furnace doors should be, for a greenhouse twenty 
by fifty, about fourteen inches square, and the length of 
the furnace bars thirty inches. The furnace should be 
arched over, and the top of the inside of the arch should 
be about twenty inches from the bars. The flue will 
always ^'draw" better if slightly on the ascent through- 
out its entire length. It should be elevated in all cases 
from the ground, on flags or bricks, so that its heat may 
be given out on all sides. The inside measure of the 
brick flue should not be less than eight by fourteen 
inches. If tiles can be conveniently procured, they are 
best to cover with ; but, if not, the top of the flue may 
be contracted to six inches, and covered with bricks. 

After the flue has been built of brick to twenty-five or 
thirty feet from the f urnai^e, cement or vitrified drain 
pipe, eight or nine inches in diameter, should be used, as 
they are not only cheaper, but radiate the heat quicker 
than the bricks ; they are also much easier constructed 
and cleaned. Care should be taken that no wood work is 
in contact with the flue at any place. It should be taken 
as a safe rule, that wood work should in no case be nearer 
the flue or furnace than eight inches. In constructing, 
do not be influenced by what the mechanics w411 tell you, 
as few of them have any experience in such matters, and 
are not able to judge of the dangers resulting from wood 
work being in close contact with the heated bricks. 
There are scores of greenhouses burned every year owi'ng 
to carelessness or ignorance in allowing the brick work 
to be too close to the wood. The cost of such a green- 
house (tw^enty by fifty feet), at present prices, heated by 
flue, would be about six hundred dollars, or about sixty 
cents per square foot covered by the greenhouse. 



There is no better artificial heat used for the starting 
of seeds or growing of plants than that obtained from 
the hot-bed. The material used is manure fresh from the 
horse-stable, and wlien they can be procured, it is better 
to mix it with about an equal bulk of tan bark or leaves 
from the woods, or refuse hops. If the weather is very 
cold, the bulk of manure must be of good size, from five 
to six wagon loads, thrown into a compact round heap, 
else the mass may be so chilled that heat will not gener- 
ate. If a shed is convenient, the manure may be placed 
there, especially if the quantity is small, to be protected 
from cold until the heat begins to rise. The heap should 
be turned and well broken up before being used for the 
hot-beds, so that the rank steam may escape, and the 
manure become of the proper *' sweetened" condition. 
It is economy of the heating material to use a pit for 
the hot-bed. This should be made from two to three feet 
deep, six feet wide, and of any required length. When 
a hot-bed is made on the surface of the ground the heat- 
ing material should not be less than thirty inches deep, 
and should be at least two feet wider and longer than the 
frame on which the sashes are placed. Thus, if the hot- 
bed is for three three-by-six sashes, the actual space 
covered by the frame would be nine by eighteen ; and 
for this the hot-bed on which it rests should be twelve by 

After the heating material has been packed in the pit 
to the depth of twenty to twenty-four inches, according 
to the purpose for Avhich it is wanted, or the season of 
the year (the earlier in the season, the deeper it is 
needed), the sashes should be placed on the frame, and 
kept close until the heat generates in the hot-bed, which 
will usually take twenty-four hours. Xow plunge a 
thermometer into the manure, and if all is right it will 


indicate one hundred degrees or more ; but this is yet 
too hot as bottom heat for the growth of seeds or plants, 
and a few days of dehiy must be allowed until the ther- 
mometer indicates a falling of eight or ten degrees, when 
four or five inches of soil may be placed upon the manure, 
and the seeds sown or plants set out in the hot-bed. Am- 
ateurs are apt to be impatient in the matter of hot-beds, 
and often lose their first crop by sowing or planting be- 
fore the first violent heat has subsided. Another very 
common mistake is in beginning too early in the season. 
In the latitude of New York nothing is gained by begin- 
ning before the first week in March, and the result will 
be very nearly as good if not begun until a month later. 

There are two or three important matters to bear in 
mind in the use of hot-beds. It is indispensable for 
safety to cover the glass at night with shutters or mats 
until all danger of frost is over ; for it must be remem- 
bered that the contents of a hot-bed are always tender, 
from being forced so rapidly by the heat below, and that 
the slightest frost will kill them. Again, there is danger 
of overheating in the daytime by a neglect to ventilate 
when the sun is shining. As a general rule, it will be 
safe in all the average days of March, April, and May, to 
have the sash of the hot-bed tilted up from an inch to 
three inches at the back from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Much 
will, of course, depend upon the activity of the heating 
material in the hot-bed, the warmth of the weather, and 
the character of the plants in the bed, so that we can 
only give a loose general rule. Numbers of inexperienced 
amateur cultivators often lose the entire contents of 
their hot-beds by having omitted to ventilate them, and 
on their return home from business at night find all the 
plants scorched up ; or the danger of the other extreme 
IS, that the plants are frozen through neglect to cover 
them at night. A hot-bed requires a certain amount of 
attention, which must be given at the right time, or no 


satisfactory results can be expected. Careful attention 
must be given to watering, which should be increased in 
quantity as the season advances. In all cases, as the 
tiny hot-bed plants are always tender, tepid water is pref- 
erable to use, and it should be put on very gently with 
a fine rose watering pot. 




The directions given for heating greenhouses by hot 
water or by flues apply, of course, only to sections of the 
country where the temperature during the winter months 
makes heating a necessity. In many of the southern 
states there is no need of artificial heat. A greenhouse 
tightly glazed, and placed against a building where it is 
sheltered from the north and northwest, will keep out 
frost when the temperature does not fall lower than 
twenty-five degrees above zero ; and if light wooden shut- 
ters are used to cover the glass, all those classed as "green- 
house " plants will be safe even at ten degrees lower, 
provided the conservatory is attached to the south or 
southeast side of a dwellino^ or other buildinof. An- 
other cheap and simple method of keeping plants during 
winter in mild latitudes is by the use of the sunken pit 
or deep frame, which affords the needed protection even 
more completely than the elevated greenhouse. This is 
formed by excavating the soil to the depth of from eigh- 
teen to thirty-six inches, according to the size of the 
plants it is intended to contain. A convenient width 
is six feet, the ordinary length of a hot-bed sash, and 
of such length as may be desired. Great care must 
be taken that the ground is such that no water will stand 


in the pit. If the soil is moist it should be drained, 
and the bottom covered with an inch or two of cement. 
The sides of the pit may be either walled up by a four 
or eight-inch course of brick work, or planked up, as 
may be preferred; but in either case the bach wall should 
be raised about eighteen inches and the front about six 
inches above the surface, in order to give the necessary 
slope to receive the sun's rays 
and to shed the water. A 
section of such a pit is shown 
in figure 64. If a pit of 
this kind is made in a dry 
and sheltered position, and 

the orlass covered by liarht ^- ---^^^^^^^m^^ ^r 
shutters of half-inch boards. Fig. 64.— sunken pit. 

it may be used to keep all the hardier class of greenhouse 
plants, even in localities where the thermometer falls to 
zero. After all danger of severe weather is past, which, 
in the latitude of New York, is usually by the last week 
of April, greenhouses or pits without artificial heat can 
be safely used for keeping all kinds of greenhouse plants, 
unless the very tender kinds, such as Coleus, as we rarely 
have frost sufficiently severe after that date to penetrate 
into the cold pit or cold greenhouses. In the hands of 
inexperienced cultivators, plants win always be grown 
better without artificial heat, which is often very difficult 
to properly adjust, particularly when the greenhouse is 

A new covering for plants has recently come into use, 
under the name of ^' Protecting Cloth." It can be bought 
for eight or ten cents per yard, so that two yards of it 
tacked to a light frame will make a "sash covering to 
protect plants, at a cost of twenty-five cents each, which 
will answer nearly as well as a glass sash, costing ten 
times as much, for all protection that plants require 
after danger of severe freezing is past. Often, during 


the early part of May, we have from four to six degrees 
of frost, which would be fatal to all tender plants, which, 
if covered by the protecting cloth, could be saved. I 
have frequently been asked since the introduction of the 
protecting cloth, whether it can be used instead of glass 
for small greenhouses in winter. In very mild climates, 
where there is but a few degrees of frost, it would answer 
fairly well. The only objection would be in case of con- 
tinued wet weather, as, of course, the cloth would not 
shed the rain unless placed at a very sharp angle. 



In connection with the description of the cold pit or 
greenhouse without fire heat, may be mentioned the com- 
bined cellar and greenhouse. Many years ago an acci- 
dental circumstance gave me an opportunity of testing 
the utility of such a structure. An excavation, twenty by 
forty feet, and seven feet deep, had been made, walled up 
with stone, and beams laid across preparatory to placing 
a building upon it, when the owner changed his plans, 
and found himself with this useless excavation within a 
dozen yards of his costly residence. There seemed to be 
no alternative but to fill it up or plank it over ; but both 
plans were objectionable, and in discussing how to get 
out of the ditliculty, I suggested erecting a low-roofed 
greenhouse over it, as the owner had a taste for cultivat- 
ing plants. This suggestion was followed, and the walls 
were raised two feet above the surface, and a span-roofed 
greenhouse erected over it. 

My idea (which was found to be nearly correct) was, 
. that the laro^e volume of air in the excavation would at 


no season go below forty degrees, and be sufficient to 
keep the upper or greenhouse portion of the structure 
above the freezing point in the coldest weather. This 
it did completely when the ghiss was covered at night 
with shutters ; and the plants with which it was filled, 
01 a kind requiring a low temperature, kept in better 
health than if they had been grown in a greenhouse 
havinsr fire heat. 

Under favorable circumstances such a structure might 
be made of great utility, and at a trifling cost ; for as it 
dispenses with heating apparatus, which usually is more 
than half of the whole cost in all greenhouses, the use 
of a cellar and greenhouse could be had at probably less 
than the cost of an ordinary greenhouse ; and for half- 
hardy plants — plants that will do well in winter if kept 
only above the freezing point — such a structure will be 
better for many of them than any kind of greenhouse 
heated by fire heat. All kinds of Roses, Camellias, 
Azaleas, Zonal Geraniums, Violets, Cape Jessamines, 
Carnations, Abutilons, Verbenas. Primulas, Stevias, and, 
in short, all plants known as cool greenhouse plants, 
will keep in a healthy, though nearly dormant condition, 
during the winter months ; but they will flourish with 
greatly increased vigor at their natural season of growth 
and flowering as spring advances. Besides, the cellar 
may be used for the ordinary purposes of such a place ; 
or, if exclusively for horticultural purposes, no better 
place can be had for keeping all deciduous hardy or half- 
hardy plants, Hyacinths in pots to start to flower, or any 
bulbs of similar nature. The great point to be observed 
is, that the soil where such a structure is to be erected 
is entirely free from water, or, if not so naturally, it 
must be made entirely dry by draining. 

The style that I think would suit best for general pur- 
poses would be twelve feet in width, and of any length 
desired. The excavation should not be less than seven 



feet deep, walled up to about one foot above the surface. 
When complete it would show something like the section 
in figure 65. If desired, the walls might be raised two 
feet above the surface level, which would admit of a few 
windows in the wall to give light in the cellar, if so de- 
sired. If the glass roof is made fixed, it should have 
ventilating sashes three by three, at intervals of six or 
nine feet on each side of the roof ; if of sashes, they 
should be seven feet long by three feet wide, every alter- 
nate one being arranged to move for ventilation in the 
usual way. The position of the structure would be best 
with its ends north and south. The shutters for cover- 


ing the glass at night should be made of light half-inch 
pine boards, three feet wide by seven feet long. 

It will be understood that the advantage of this com- 
bination of cellar and greenhouse over the ordinary cold 
pit is, that the air of the greenhouse is warmed or 
equalized by mixing with the atmosphere of the cellar, 
which will rarely be less than forty degrees. For the 
same reason, if a high temperature by fire heat were 
wanted, say seventy degrees, this large body of air from 
below of forty degrees would make it difficult to obtain 


it. If the flooring above the cellar is made water tight, 
which could easily be done, even if covered by plank, by 
cementing over the plank, the cellar could be used as 
a musliroom house, as no light is necessary for the 
growth of musiirooms. (For instructions, see ^'Mush- 
room Culture.") 



A PLACE is seldom so small that a few choice shrubs 
cannot appropriately find room, and in which climbers 
are not desirable, while in the larger places these become 
important to its proper ornamentation. Whether its size 
admits of the use of trees or not, both deciduous and 
evergreen shrubs, climbers as well as evergreen trees of 
low growth, are indispensable. We here append a list of 
the leading kinds in each class, but which by no means 
exhausts the number of desirable varieties ; and for the 
others reference may be made to the catalogues of the 
principal nurseries, where also will be found descriptions 
of those here named. 


^scidus parviflora - - Dwarf Tlorse-Chestnut, rosy white. 

Azalea Fbiitica, hybrids. - - -Bel2:ian Azaleas, rose, yellow, etc. 

Berheris vulgaris'- Barberry, yellow. 

a u var. /)jfrp?«-<?a--. Purple-leaved Barberry, yellow. 

CahjcanthiisflorUlxs. Sweet-scented Shrub, chocolate color. 

Cercis Japonica - - -Japan Judas Tree, rose-purple. 

Chionanthus Virginica Fi-in^e Tree, white. 

aethra alnifolia - - Sweet Pepper Bush. .CTeenish, scented. 

Cotoneastcr microphi/Ua. Small-leaved Cotoneaster, white. 

Cratcegus Pijracantha Pyracanth Thora, white. 

" oxyacantha jl. pi - Hawthom, double white. 

" <' comnm./?.pZ. Hawthorn, double scarlet. 
Cydonia {Pyrus) Japonica Japan Quince, scarlet, white, etc. 


Cytisus elongatus Laburnum, yellow. 

Deutzia scabra Rough Deutzia, white. 

'' crenatajl. pi Double Deutzia, white. 

' ' gracilis Slender Deutzia, white. 

Euonytnus atropurp areas Burning- Bush, fruit orange scarlet. 

" latifoUus Broad-leaved B. B. , fruit orange-scar't. 

Exodiorda {Spircea) gra}idiJiora- . -Large Flowering Spiraea, white. 

Forsythia viridissima Golden Bell, yellow. 

Ealesia tetraptera Silver Bell, white. 

Hibiscus Syriacusjl. pi Rose of Sharon, double, all shades from 

white to crimson. 
Hydrangea panic ulata (/mwcZJ/^ora. Great-panicled Hydrangea, white. 

" Hortensia Common Hydrangea, blue or pink. 

" Japordca - - -Japan Hydrangea, white. 

Kerria Japonica Japan Globe-flower, yellow. 

Lomcera Tartarica. Tartarian Honeysuckle,piuk and white. 

MagyioUa glauca Sweet Bay Magnolia, greenish- white. 

' ' conspicua Yulan Tree, shaded carmine. 

' ' SouJangeana Soulange's Magnolia, white and pm-ple. 

Philadelphus coronarius Mock Orange, white. 

" nanus Mock Orange, Dwarf, white. 

Primus Japonica Jiore aZ6aj9Zena- -Double-flow 'g Almond, pink or white. 

Primus triloba Japan Flowering Plum, blush-white. 

Bibes aureum Missouri Currant, yellow. 

" sanguinewn Crimson. 

Spircsa p)runifoliajl. pi. Plum-leaved Spiraea, white. 

" callosa and var. alba Flat-topped Spirsea, pink and white. 

" Mecvesii jl. pi Lance-leaved Spiraea, white. 

" Douglasii Douglas's Spiraea, white. 

" hijpericifolia St. Peter's Wreath, white. 

Stuartia pentagynia Stuartia, white. 

Symphoricarpus racemosus Snowberry, white fruit. 

Syringa vulgaris Common Lilac, purple, lilac, and rose. 

" " alba White Lilac. 

" Persica - . -Persian Lilac, purple. 

" <' alba - - -Persian Lilac, white. 

Viburnum Opidus Snowball, white. 

" plicatum Dwarf Snowball, white. 

Weigela rosea Bush Honeysuckle, rose. 

'* " fol. var. Bush Honeysuckle, variegated foliage. 

" nivea Bush Honeysuckle, white. 

" amabilis Bush Honeysuckle, rose and white. 

" Desboisiana Bush Honeysuckle, rose and white. 


Andromeda floribunda Free-flowering Andi-omeda. 

Biota Orienialis - - Eastern Arbor Vitas. 


Buxus sempervirens arborea Tree Box. 

Ceplialotaxics Fortimli Fortune's Cephalotaxus. 

Daphne Cneorum Garland Flower. 

Ilex opaca American Holly. 

Juniperus communis var. Suecica.. Swedish Juniper. 
" " " ITlbernica -lush Juniper. 

" ohlonga pcndula Weeping Juniper. 

" squamata Scaled Juniper. 

" prostrata Prostrate Juniper. 

Kalmia latlfolia . American Laurel. 

Podocarpus Japonica Japan Yew. 

Hhododendron Catawbiense, hyb's -Rhododendrons. 
Tazus boccata English Yew. 

" Canadensis American Yew. 

" erecta Upright Yew. 

Thuja Occldentahs- American Ai-bor Vitae. 

" " var. Sibirica Siberian Arbor Vitae. 

" " " plicata Plicate Arbor Vitse. 

" " " nana Dwarf Arbor Vitae. 

" " " Geo.Peabody. GoldeTo. Arbor Vitse. 


Abies Canadensis Hemlock Spruce. 

" " var. Sargentipendula.SargenVs Pendulous Hemlock Spruce. 

" excelsa Norway Spruce. 

" " var. Gregoryana Gregory's Spruce. 

" " " pygmiva. Dwarf Spruce 

'' " " inverta Inverted Spruce. 

" nigra piimila Dwarf Black Spruce. 

" Fraseri var. Hadsonica Hudson's Bay Fir. 

" pectinaia European Silver Fir. 

" " var. fastigiata Erect Silver Fir. 

" Plchia Siberian Silver Fir. 

Juniperus Virginiana Red Cedar. 

Pinu^ Sirobus White Pine. 

" Ccmbra Swiss Stone Pine. 

" pwnilio ...Dwarf Pine. 

*' An^iriaca Austrian Pine. 

Betinospora obtusa Obtuse-leaved Retinospora. 

" plumosa aurea Golden-plumed Retinospora. 


Akebia quinata. Akebia, purple, fragrant. 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia. .Virginia Creeper, leaves grandly col- 
ored in fall, 

" Veitchii Leaves grandly colored in fall. 

" RoyaXi Leaves grandly colored in faU. 


Aristolochia sipho Dutchman 's Pipe, j^eenish-brOTvn, cu- 

Glematisflammula Virgin's Bower, white. 

" coceinea Vu-gin's Bower, scarlet, 

" azurea, and various hyb's. All shades from white to deepest pur- 
ple and blue, double and single. 

Hedera Helix European Ivy. 

This in its many varieties is scarcely hardy at New York. 

Lonicera sempervirens Trumpet Honeysuckle, scarlet, yellow. 

" EalUana Hall's Honeysuckle, white and buff. 

" Japonica Japan Honeysuckle, pink and Avhite. 

« " m»-.a'^rmj-eficitZa^a. Golden-leaved Honeysuckle. 

" Penclymenum English Woodbine, crimson, shaded 

« " var. Belgica.Dntch Honeysuckle, monthly, rose and 

Eoses embrace Tellow, Crimson, White, etc. 

Tecoma {Big>i07iia) grandijlom .... Large-flowered Trumpet Vine, orange- 


< ' {Bignonia) radicatis Trumpet Creeper, orange. 

Wistaria frutescciis American Wistana, purple and white. 

" Sinensis Chinese Wistaria, purple. 

<< '< var. alba - . .White Wistaria. 

«« " << Alleni Allen's Wistaria, violet. 

" magnlfica Magnificent Wistaiia, dark purple, 


For a proper understandiiig of where to plant the dif- 
ferent kinds of climbing plants, it is necessary to divide 
them into two classes. The "twining" kinds, such as 
are adapted to twine around wire, strings, trellis-work, 
or limbs of trees, which comprise the largest class ; and 
the "climbing" kinds, in which is included the Clematis, 
the grandest and most varied of all climbing plants. The 
"twining" kinds can be trained on poles eight or ten 
feet high as individual specimens, or on the trellis-work 
of verandas, or on wire fences, or on any material which 
thev can twine around. The Loniceras or Honeysuckles 
require similar treatment ; and though by no means so 
varied or brilliant in coloring as the Clematis, they are all 
deliciously fragrant, while, so far, there is only one variety 
of Clematis that is fragrant, C. flammnla. Of the hardy 


climbing plants that ''cling" rather than twine there 
are the Ampelopsis (known as Virginia Creeper, Boston 
Ivj, etc.) and the Hedera Helix, the true European Ivy. 
Both of these attach themselves, in climbing, to walls of 
brick, stone, or rough wood, trees, etc., by throwing out 
rootlets or suckers from the stem as they climb, which 
are firmly attached to whatever they are climbing on. 
The Ampelopsis Veitchii and Royali are comparatively 
new plants, but hundreds of thousands of them are now 
sold annually, and grand specimens are seen in nearly 
every section of the country. When once established they 
will climb against walls ten feet in a season, and attaiu 
to a bight of fifty feet in three or four years. Many 
buildings in Boston, New York, and elsewhere, are 
covered to the roof with these beautiful climbers. The 
leaves, which are green in summer, overlap like a coat 
of mail ; but it is in autumn that they are seen in their 
glory. No '' autumn leaves" surpass in beauty the Am- 
pelopsis ; shaded crimson, scarlet, and orange, they can 
be seen, in a clear day, nearly a mile distant. The Am- 
pelopsis has been largely planted by the Pennsylvania and 
other railroad lines against the rocks where cuts have 
been made, and it is in contemplation to use this plant 
to cling to embankments to prevent sliding. 

Climbing Roses can be trained on wire or wooden 
fences, verandas, dead trees, or to poles ; but in all cases 
they require to be tied or tacked to the support to keep 
them in proper shape. 



Herbaceous perennials include those hardy plants, 
the stems of which die down at the approach of winter, 
or earlier if they have completed their growth. The roots 


being hardy, they remain in the same place for many 
years in succession. Plants of this class were formerly 
more popular than they have been of late years, the taste 
for brilliant bedding effects having caused these former 
favorites to be neglected. Recently the taste for peren- 
nials has revived, and while they cannot serve as substi- 
tutes for what are known as bedding plants, they are ex- 
ceedingly useful for those who wish to have flowers with 
but little trouble, as most of them can remain for eight 
or ten years without requiring any other care than to 
keep them clear of weeds. It will renew their vigor, 
however, when the clumps become too large, to lift, 
divide, and re-set them in fresh soil. For the best results 
it is advisable to re-set most of them every third year, 
while some may remain in place indefinitely, taking care 
to give them a yearly manuring, as the vigorous growing 
ones soon exhaust the soil immediately around them. 
In setting out these plants, the taller kinds should be 
placed at the back of the border, or in the center if 
the bed is to be seen from both sides, while those of the 
lowest growth are to be placed at the edge, and those of 
intermediate size between. 

A proper selection of these plants will give a succession 
from early spring until frost stops all bloom. Many of 
these perennials remain unchanged from their natural 
state, but bloom in our borders just as they appeared in 
.their native woods and hills in different parts of the 
world, and seem to show no disposition to *' break" or 
deviate from their normal form, notwithstanding they 
have been in cultivation for a century or two. On the 
other hand, many have, by ^' sporting," or by hybridizing 
and crossing, as in the case of Peonies, Phloxes, Irises, 
and others, produced many florists' varieties, which show 
forms and colors not found in the native state of the 
plants, and the frequent occurrence of double flowers 
among them shows that cultivation has not been without 


its influence. As many of the hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials are natives of shady woods and swamps, they suffer 
greatly if exposed to the scorching rays of our summer 
suns, unless mulched with manure, leaves, or some such 
material to protect the roots. Most of them also do 
rather better in a little shade than when exposed to full 

With such a number to select from, it is diffi- 
cult to make a list of twenty-five, or even fiftj^, 
and not leave out many desirable kinds. Those in 
the followiug list are all of generally admitted ex- 
cellence, and are usually to be obtained from florists 
and nurserymen. 

It maybe added here, that there is no part of the coun- 
try which does not afford wild flowers of sufficient beauty 
to merit a place in the garden, and most of them, except, 
perhaps, those which naturally grow in deep shade, will 
grow larger and bloom finer in a rich border than in 
their native localities. 

Perennials are propagated by division of the clumps, 
by cuttings of the stems, and sometimes of the roots, 
and by seeds. In many cases the seeds are very slow of 
germination unless sown as soon as ripe. As most of 
them do not bloom until the seedlings have made one 
year's growth, the seeds should be sown in a reserve bed, 
from which, at the end of the first summer, or in the 
following spring, they may be transplanted to the place 
where they are to flower. It is well to give the seedlings 
some protection the first winter, not because they are not 
hardy, but to prevent them from being thrown out of the 
soil by frequent freezing and thawing. A covering of 
evergreen boughs is most suitable ; but if these are not 
at hand, use coarse hay or other litter, first laying down 
some brush, to keep the covering from matting down 
upon them. 


Aconitum Napellus Monkshood. 

" " variegatum ..Variegated Monkshood. 

Anemone Japonica Japan Windflower. 

" " war. ^oworijzejb&er^.. White Japan Windflower. 

" Pulsatilla Pasque Flower. 

Aquilegiaalpina Alpine Columbine. 

" ccerulea .Rocky Mountain Columbine. 

" chrysantJia Golden-spurred Columbine. 

'' vulgaris Garden Columbine. 

Asperula odorata Woodruff. 

Astilbe Japonica (Incorrectly Spu-aea.) 

Baptisia australis False Indigo. 

Campanula Ca^patica. Carpathian Harebell. 

" persicifolia Peach-leaved Harebell. 

* ' grandiflora Great-flowered Harebell, 

and others. 

Cassia 3Iarilandica Wild Senna. 

Clematis erecta Upright Clematis. 

' ' integrifolia Entire-leaved Clematis. 

Colchicum autumnale Meadow Saffron. 

Convallaria tnajalis Lily of the Valley. 

Chrysanthemum, V?iinese and Japanese.. 
The grand hybrid varieties of the Chrysanthemum now run into thou- 
sands, of almost eveiy shade except blue and bright scarlet. They are 
hardy in nearly all sections south of Baltimore, and on light, well-drained 
soils, in nearly all sections of the country, if covered with four or five 
inches of leaves or litter late in the fall. 

Delphinium elatum Bee Larkspur. 

' * nudicaule Scarlet Larkspur, 

and others. 

Dianthus plumarius Garden Pink. 

" superhv.'i .- .Fringed Pink. 

Dicentra eximia.. Plumy Dicentra. 

" spectdbilis - -Bleeding Heart. 

Dictamnus Fraxinella .Fraxinella. 

Dodecatheon 3Ieadia American Cowslip. 

Eranthis hiemalis Winter Aconite. 

Erica carnea Winter Heath. 

Funlcia ovata Blue Plantain Lily. 

" Japonica {suhcordata) Japan Plantain Lily. 

Gypsophila paniculala. Panicled Gypsophila. 

HellchoriLS niger. .Christmas Rose. 

Hepatica triloba .Liver-leaf. 

" " fl- pl Double-flowered Liver-leai. 

Iheris Gihraltarica Gibraltar Candytuft. 

* * sempervirens Perennial Candytuft. 

Iris Germanica German Iris. 


Iris Iberica Iberian Iris. 

" Kcempferi. - Japan Iris. 

" pumila .Dwarf Iris, 

and many others of a great range of colors. 

Lathyrus, perennial Flowering Pea. 

Liatris spicata Blazing Star. 

" squarrosa .Blazing Star, 

and others. 

Lilium auratum Gold-banded Lily. 

This, with raany other Japanese species in the catalogues, is per- 
fectly hardy, and there should be a good collection of them in every 

Linumperenne - . .Perennial Flax. 

Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower. 

This native (also its hybrids) does perfectly well in the soil of the 

Lupinuspolyphyllus Many-leaved Lupine. 

Lychnis Chalceclonica Scarlet Lychnis, 

and several others. 

Lysimachia nicmmularia. Moneywort. 

Mertemia Virginica Virginia Lungwort. 

Myosotis palusiris Forget-me-not. 

" Azorica Azorean Forget-me-not. 

* ' dissitiflora Early Forget-me-not. 

Narcissus bijlorus Twin-flowered Nai'cissus. 

" poeticus - Poet's Narcissus. 

*♦ Jonquilla .Jonquil, 

* * Pseudo- Narcissus Daffodil, 

in double and single varieties. 

(Ejiothera MissouHensis Missouri Evening Primrose. 

PcBonia officinalis Common Pseony, 

and the various hybrids of this and other species, of which there are 
many fine named sorts. 

PcBonia tenuifoha - - -Fennel-leaved Poeony. 

" Moutan Tree Paeony, 

of which there are many named varieties. 

Papaver Oricntale Oriental Poppy. 

Ptntstemongrandiflorus. Large-flowered Pentstemon. 

" barbatus var. Torreyi .Torrey's Pentstemon. 

♦' Palmeri Palmer's Pentstemon, 

and several other hardy species. 

Phlox, herbaceous Garden Phlox. 

Under this head a great number of named varieties may be had. New- 
ones are offered every year, and a good selection of colors malies a grand 

Phlox subulata Moss Pink. 

Also the white variety. 


Iblemonmm reptans Jacob's Ladder. 

* ' coeruleum Greek Valerian. 

Primula veris English Cowslip. 

This and the Polyanthus varieties need a moist and shady place. 
P. cortusoides is hardy, and P, Japonica probably so. 

Pijrethrum carneum. .Rosy Pyrethrum, 

the new double varieties. 

Saxifraga crassifolia Thick-leaved Saxifrage, 

' ' cordifolia Heart -leaved Saxifi*age. 

Sedum acre Stonecrop. 

" Sieboldii {and varieyata) Siebold's Stonecrop. 

" pidchellum Beautiful Stonecrop. 

" spsddbile Showy Stonecrop, 

and a large number of others, presenting a great variety in foliage and 

Sempervivum arachnoideum Cobweb Houseleek. 

'* calcareum (Ca?ifo;'wicMm)-Purple-tipped Houseleek. 

" tectorum Common Houseleek. 

Of these curious plants there are more that fifty species in cultivation, 
and all perfectly hardy ; useful on rock work. 

Spircea filipendula (and double) Drop wort. 

" palmaia Palmate Spirsea. 

" Ulmaria Meadow Sweet. 

" lobata ---Queen of the Meadow. 

Symphytum officbiale var .Variegated Comfrey. 

Thalictrum mbius. Maiden-hah Meadow Rue. 

Tritoma tivaria (and vars.) Red-hot Poker, 

needs covering in winter with litter. 

Tunica Saxifraja Rock Tunica. 

Titcca fllamentosa.. Adam's Thi-ead or Needle. 


1. Arundo Donax .Great Reed. 

2. " " versicolor.. Variegated Reed. 

3. " conspicica Silvery Reed. 

4. EHanthus liavennce - -Ravenna Grass. 

5. Eulalia Japonica variegata Japan Eulalia. 

6. ** " zebrina Japan Zebra Eulalia. 

7. Fcstuca glauca .Blue Fescue Grass. 

8. Oyncrinm argenteum Pampas Grass. 

9. Panicicm virgatum. -Wand-like Panic. 

10. P/ialaris arundinacea picta Ribbon Grass. 

11. Stipa pennata Feather Grass. 

In the climate of New York, Nos. 1, 2 and 8 need protection; Nos. 1 and 
2 by litter over the roots, and No 8 by covering it with a cask or box. In 
the order of their hight, No. 7 is 6 inches, 10 and 11 a foot, 5 and 6, 4 to 8 
feet, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 from 6 to 12 feet, according to the age of the plants. 




There are few plants that will flower in places from 
which sunshine is entirely excluded. Some plants will 
grow well enougli, developiug shoots and leaves, but 
flowers oi nearly all kinds must have some sunshine. Of 
those that do well and flower when planted out in the 
open ground where sunlight only comes for two or three 
hours during the day, may be named the following : 
Calceolarias, Fuchsias, Lobelias, Herbaceous Phloxes, 
Pansies, Forget-me-nots, Lily of the Valley, and other 
lierbaceous plants and shrubs whose native habitat is 
shady woods. Perhaps a better effect is produced in 
such situations by ornamental leaved plants, such as 
Cbleuses of all kinds, Amaranths, Achyranthes, Caladi- 
nms, Cannas, and other plants with highly colored or 
ornamental leaves. With these may be combined the 
different styles of whits or grajMeaved plants, such as 
Centaureas, Cinerarias, and Gnaphaliums, plants known 
under the general popular terra of ^' Dusty Millers." 
For our own part, we much prefer to devote shaded siti- 
ations to such plants, rather than to see the abortive at- 
tempts to produce flowers mide by phmts in positiqns 
where there is no sunshine. It may be here remarked, 
that the cultivator of plants in rooms should understr^nd 
the necessity of sunlight to plants that are to, flqwer, and 
endeavor to get them as near as possible tq a window hay- 
ing an eastern or a soutliern aspect. The higher the 
temperature, the more plants suffer for the want of light. 
Many plants, such as Gerar^iun^s, Fuchsias, or Roses, 
might remain in a temperature of forty degrees, in a 
cellar for example, away from direct light, for months 
without material injury, while jf the cellar contained a 


furnace teeping up a temperature of seventy degrees, 
they would all die before the Avinter was ended, particu- 
larly if the plants were of a half-hardy nature. If trop- 
ical species, they might stand it better ; but all plants 
quickly become enfeebled when kept at a high tempera- 
ture and away from the light. 




When insects attack plants in the greenhouse, parlor, 
or anywhere under cover, we can geoerally manage to 
get them under control; but when they attack plants in 
the open air, it is, according to our experience, diflScult 
to destroy them. Insects are injurious to plants in the 
open air in two principal ways : some attack the branches 
and leaves, and others infest the roots. When insects 
attack the roots of a plant, we have been able to do but 
little to stop their ravages. We can manage somewhat 
better with those attacking the leaves, but even this di- 
vision of the enemy is often too much for us. As a pre- 
ventive, we would strongly advise that birds of all kinds 
should be encouraged. Since the European Sparrows 
have favored us with their presence in such numbers, in- 
sects of nearly all kinds have much decreased. Most 
people will remember the disgusting ^* measuring worm" 
tlmt festooned the shade trees in New York, Brooklyn, 
and other cities twenty years ago. These made their exit 
almost in proportion to the increase of Sparrows, and 
they are certainly lessened from what they were before 
the introduction of the Sparrow. The same is true of 
the Rose Slug. In my Rose grounds, a few years ago, 
we were obliged to employ a number of boys for weeks 


during the summer to shake off and kill the Rose Slug, 
in order to keep the plants alive ; but since we have 
had the Sparrows in such numbers, hardly one of these 
pests is now seeu. An examination of the crop of a 
Sparrow killed in July showed that it contained Eose 
Slugs, Aphis, or green fly, and the seeds of chickweed 
and other plants, proving beyond question the fact that 
they are promiscuous feeders. The Rose Slug {Selanclria 
roscB)f referred to above, is a light green, soft insect, 
varying from one-sixteenth of an inch to nearly an inch 
in length. There are apparently two species or varieties, 
one of which eats only the cuticle of the lower side of 
the leaf, the other eats it entire. The first is by far the 
more destructive here. In a few days after the plants 
are attacked they appear as if they had been burned. The 
Rose Chaffer {Macrodactylus subspinosus) gets its name 
from the preference it shows for the buds and blossoms 
of the Rose, though it is equally destructive to the 
Dahlia, Aster, Balsam, and many other flowers, and es- 
pecially grape blossoms. 

An excellent application for the prevention of the rav- 
ages of the Rose Chaffer or the Rose Slug, which attack 
the hardy or June Roses, is whale-oil soap dissolved in 
the proportion of one pound to eight gallons of water. 
This, if steadily applied twice a week witn a syringe on 
Rose plants, before the leaf has developed in spring, will 
entirely prevent the attacks of the insects. Another 
remedy is to mix an ounce of Paris green in one hundred 
gallons of water, and syringe as advised with the whale- 
oil soap. It will be observed that the quantity of Paris 
green advised is very small to be mixed in such a quan- 
tity of water ; but it is found to be ample. We find, 
however, that if the Slug once gets fairly at work, either 
remedy is powerless unless used so strong as to injure the 

The Rose Bug, so called (Aramigus Fulleri), is the 


most destructive of all insects attacking the Rose while 
forcing in winter ; for its ravages are so insidious that 
often the whole Eose house is ruined before it is known, 
by inexperienced hands, what is the matter. The per- 
fect iusect somewhat resembles a small cockroach, but is 
of a grayish brown color. It is not easily observed, as it 
keeps always under the leaves or close to the stems of the 
plant, audits presence is usually first noticed by half cir- 
cular pieces being bitten from the edges of the leaves; but 
it does comparatively little harm in that way. It is when 
it deposits its eggs in the soil close to the roots that the 
danger begins. The eggs in a few weeks hatch out into 
larvae, which at once attack, and, if in sufficient num- 
bers, entirely destroy the roots of the Rose. So far there 
is no known remedy against the Rose Bug, unless it be to 
carefully search for and destroy the perfect insect on the 
plant. In our own establishment we have got entirely 
free from it by persistent care in destroying the insect by 
picking it fi'om the plants. When the soil has become 
infested by the larvae or maggots of the Rose Bug, there 
is no remedy. The plants, soil, and even the benches of 
the greenhouse had better be taken out and burned if the 
insect is there in great numbers. Before we understood 
how to manage it, ou one occasion we threw out and 
destroyed the plants, soil, and benches in a Rose house 
three hundred feet long by twenty feet wide. Hundreds 
of amateurs, and even professional florists, fail in grow- 
ing Ro3e buds in winter from no other cause than the 
ravages of this insect. 

Green Fly, or Aphis, is one of the most common, but, 
fortunately, most easily destroyed, of any insect that in- 
fests plants, either in-doors or out. In our greenhouses, 
as already stated, we fumigate twice a week, by burning 
about half a pound of refuse tobacco stems (made damp) 
to every five hundred square feet of glass surface ; but in 
private greenhouses, or on plants in rooms, fumigating is 


often impracticable. Then the tobacco stems can be 
used by steeping one pound in five gallons of water, until 
the water gets to be the color of strong tea. This liquid, 
applied over and under the leaves with a syringe, will de- 
stroy the insect quite as well as by fumigating, only in 
either case the application should be made before the 
insects are seen, to prevent their coming rather than to 
destroy them when established ; for often by neglect they 
get a foothold in such legions that all remedies become 
ineffectual to dislodge them. Another means of prevent- 
ing the green fly is to apply tobacco in the shape of dust, 
or the sweepings of tobacco warehouses, which can be 
found for sale in most seed or agricultural establish- 
ments, at a cost of five to ten cents per pound. This, ap- 
plied once or twice a week to an ordinary sized private 
greenhouse, would effectually prevent any injury from 
green fly. No special quantity of this need be prescribed, 
as all that is necessary is to see that it is so dusted on 
that it reaches all parts of the plant and on both sides of 
the leaves. It it best to slightly syringe the plants be- 
forehand, so that the dust will adhere to the leaves. 
When applied to plants out-doors, it should be done in 
the morning when the dew is on. Fruit-trees of many 
kinds, shrubs, Roses of all kinds. Chrysanthemums, 
and many other plants grown out of doors, are particu- 
larly liable to injury from some species of Aphis ; but 
the application of tobacco dust, if made in time, will be 
found a cheap and effectual remedy. 

Ground or Blue Aphis is a close relative of the preced- 
ing, but it gets its living from the roots down in the soil, 
while the Green and Black Aphis feed in the air on the 
leaves. The Blue Aphis attacks a great many varieties of 
plants, particularly in hot, dry weather ; and whenever 
Asters, Verbenas, Petunias, Centaureas, or such plants 
begin to droop, it will be found on examination, in three 
cases out of four, that the farthest extremities of their 


roots are completely surrounded by the Blue Aphis. The 
only remedy we have ever found for this pest is a strong 
decoction of tobacco, made so strong as to resemble black 
coffee in color. The earth around the plants must be 
soaked with this, so that the lowest roots will be reached. 
The tobacco water will not hurt the plants, but will be 
fatal to the insect, and, if it has not already damaged 
the roots to too great an extent, may prove a remedy. 

Ants. — These are not usually troublesome in the open 
ground, unless on lawns. (For remedies there see Chap- 
ter on ^"Lawns.") In greenhouses, however, they are one 
of the worst pests, not so much from the injury they do 
themselves as by their carrying mealy bug, green fly, and 
other insects, so that from one plant thus affected the 
ants will soon distribute them over all the plants in the 
greenhouse. A simple method we have found to get rid 
of them, is to lay fresh bones around the infested plants. 
They will leave everything to feed on these, and when 
thus accumulated may be easily destroyed. Another 
method is to blow Pyretlirum or Persian Insect Powder 
over them with a bellows. They are killed at once if the 
powder strikes them in a dry state ; but it has no effect 
if damp, for, when strewed in their haunts, they run over 
it with impunity. 

The Red Spider is one of the most insidious enemies 
of plants, both when under glass and in the open air in 
summer. It luxuriates in a hot and dry atmosphere, 
and the only remedy that I can safely recommend to am- 
ateurs is copious syringings with water, if in the green- 
house, so that a moist atmosphere can be obtained. This, 
of course, is not practicable when plants are grown in 
rooms, and the only thing that can then be done is to 
sponge off the leaves. It is this insect, more than any- 
thing else, that makes it so difficult to grow plants in the 
dry air of the sitting-room, as it may be sapping the life 
blood from a plant, and its owner never discover the 


cause of his trouble. It is so minute as hardly to be 
B§en by the naked eye, but its ravages soon show; and if 
the leaves of your plants begin to get brown, an exami- 
nation of the under surface of the leaf will usually reveal 
the little pests in great numbers. When they get thus 
established there is no remedy but to sponge the leaves 
thoroughly with water or weak soapsuds. 

The Mealy Bug, as it is generally called, is a white 
mealy or downy-looking insect, which is often very trou- 
blesome among hothouse plants, but rarely does any harm 
among those that can live in a cool room. It is a native 
of some tropical latitudes, and can only exist in such a 
temperature as is required by plants of that class. There 
are various remedies used by florists, but the safest is to 
use Cole's Insect Destroyer, a remedy that never fails to 
destroy this insect, without injury to the plant, when 
sprayed on the plants by a barber's atomizer. On a large 
scale we find a certain remedy in the use of one pint of 
Fir Tree Oil to ten gallons of water, applied by the syringe 
once a week. In fact, we find the use of Fir Tree Oil in 
this proportion a safe and sure remedy against all insect 
life; but its application must be continuous, and at least 
once a week. 

Brown and White Scale Insects. — These appear as if 
lifeless, and adhere closely to the stems of such plants as 
Oleanders, Ivies, etc., and, like the Mealy Bug, are best 
destroyed by being washed or rubbed off. Remedy, when 
on a large scale, is Fir Tree Oil, 

TJirips. — This is an insect varying in color from light 
yellow to dark brown, and much more active in its move- 
ments than the Green Fly, and more difiScult to destroy. 
When it once gets a foothold it is very destructive. It 
succumbs to tobacco in any of the forms recommended 
for the destruction of Green Fly, but not so readily. It 
luxuriates m shaded situations, and generally abounds 
where plants are standing too thickly together, or where 


TeDtilation or light is deficient. It may be safely as- 
serted, that in any well-regulated place where plants are 
kept, no injury from this or Green Fly will ever become 
serious if due attention has been given to keeping the 
atmos})here of the place moist, and using tobacco freely 
in any of the forms we have recommended. 

The Angle Worm. — This is the common worm seen in 
every soil in pots and in the open ground. It is harmless 
so far as feeding goes, for it seems never to touch plants 
as food ; but it bores and crawls around in a way by no 
means beneficial to pot-grown plants. It is, however, 
easily dislodged. By slaking a quart of lime and adding 
water to make up ten gallons of the liquid, and watering 
the plants with it after it has become clear, the caustic 
qualities of the lime will be quickly fatal to the worm. 
When troublesome in the open ground, sow slaked lime 
on the dug or plowed surface about as thickly as sand 
is strewn on a floor, and rake or harrow it in, so as to 
mix it with the soil. Some writers have asserted that the 
Angle Worm benefits the soil by its movements through 
it. Few practical gardeners will believe this, as they are 
usually destroyed on sight by all workers in the soil. 


Mildew is a parasitical fungus, often seen on green- 
house and other plants, and is quickly destructive to 
their health. But, as with all other plant troubles, it is 
best to prevent it rather than cure. Care should be 
taken, particularly where Roses or Grapevines are grown 
under glass (as both of these are especially liable to be 
attacked), to avoid a rapid change of temperature, or a 
long exposure to sudden chill by draughts in ventilating. 
iVs soon as spots of grayish-white appear on the leaves of 
Roses or Grapevines, either out-doors or under glass, it 
is certain that mildew is present ; but if it has not been 


neglected too long, the following preparation will usually 
be found a prompt remedy : Take three pounds each of 
flowers of sulphur and quick-lime, put together and slake 
the lime, and add six gallons of water ; then boil all to- 
gether until the liquid is reduced to two gallons, allow it 
to settle until it gets clear, and bottle for use. One gill 
only of this is to be mixed in five gallons of water, and 
syringed over the plants in the evening, taking care not 
to use it on the fruit when ripe, as it would communicate 
a taste and smell which would render it useless. Applied 
in this weak state, it does not injure the leaves, and yet 
has the power to destroy the low form of vegetable growth 
which we call mildew. We apply it just as we do to- 
bacco, once or twice a week, as a preventive; and we 
rarely have a speck of mildew. Another remedy, not 
quite so good, but easier to get, is to mix one pound of 
virgin sulphur with ten pounds of tobacco dust, and 
throw this mixture with a bellows on the leaves of Grape- 
vines or Roses outside when the dew is on, so that it shall 
adhere ; or, if in the greenhouse, after syringing. If 
this is done once or twice a week the mildew or aphis 
will never get much of a foothold, the sulphur being the 
specific against the mildew and the tobacco dust check- 
ing the aphis. 

These remedies are such as are employed at seasons when 
there is no artificial heat used in the greenhouse or the 
grapery ; but when fire heat is applied to the flue, steam, or 
hot- water pipes, then the most certain preventive of mildew 
is to mix lime and sulphur with water to the consistency 
of thick whitewash, and apply it to the upper surface of 
the hot-water pipes. This can be done with perfect 
safety to hot-water pipes, and it had better be done two 
or three times during the winter. It can also be safely 
applied to steam pipes heated by low pressure steam, if 
one-fourth of the surface of the pipe only is covered. 
"With flues it should only be applied at the cold end. 


The fumes of sulphur thus slowly evolved by the water 
or steam pipes is certain destruction to mildew, and there 
is no danger whatever to the foliage if the precautions 
given are taken. It is our own practice to wash our hot- 
water and steam pipes four or five times during winter 
with this sulphur wash. 



When by any mishap the plants, whether in parlor or 
gi'eenhouse, become frozen, either at once remove them 
(taking care not to touch the leaves) to some place warm 
enough to be just above the point of freezing ; or, if 
there are too many to do that, get up the fire as rapidly 
as possible, and raise the temperature. The usual advice 
is to sprinkle the leaves and shade the plants from the 
sun. We have never found either remedy of any avail 
with frozen plants, and the sprinkling is often a serious 
injury if done before the temperature is above the freez- 
ing point. In our experience with thousands of frozen 
plants, we have tried all manner of expedients, and found 
no better method than to get them out of the freezing 
atmosphere as quickly as possible ; and we have also 
found that the damage is in proportion to the succulent 
condition of the plant and the intensity of the freezing. 
Just what degree of cold plants in any given condition 
can endure without injury, we are unable to state. Plants 
are often frozen so that the leaves hang down, but when 
thawed out are found to be not at all injured. At an- 
other time the same low temperature acting on the same 
kind of plants may kill them outright if they happen to 
be growing more thriftily, and are full of sap. Much 
depends on the temperature at which plants have been 


growing ; for example, we find, if we have a warm spell 
in fall when, for a week or so, the temperature has been 
at sixty-five or sevent}^ degrees at night with ten to fifteen 
degrees more in the open air, that a slight frost will kill 
or greatly injure such half-hardy plants as Carnations, 
Geraniums, or monthly Roses ; but should the weather 
be such as to gradually get colder, so that the tempera- 
ture has been lowered twenty to twenty-five degrees, a 
slight frost then coming w^U do little or no injury to 
such plants. When the frost is penetrating into a green- 
house or room in which plants are kept, and the heating 
arrangements are inadequate to keep it out, the best 
thing to do is to cover the plants with paper (newspapers) 
or sheeting. Thus protected, most plants will be en- 
abled to resist four or five degrees of frost. Paper is 
rather better than sheeting for this purpose. 



Litter of any kind placed around newly-planted trees 
to prevent evaporation from the soil was the original 
meaning of mulch; but it is at present extended to in- 
clude a covering of the soil applied at any time, and for 
very different purposes. Good cultivators apply hay, 
straw, or other litter to the surface of the soil to protect 
the roots of certain plants against the action of frost, it 
being useful, not so much against freezing as to prevent 
the alternate freezing and thawing that is apt to occur 
in our variable and uncertain climate, even in mid- win- 
ter. As stated under ''Strawberry Culture," the mulch 
applied in the fall protects the roots during winter. It 
is allowed to remain on the bed, where, if thick enough, 
it keeps down weeds, and prevents the evaporation of 


moisture from the soil during the dry time we are apt to 
have between the flowering and the ripening of the Straw- 
berry. Besides all this, it makes a clean bed for the fruit 
to rest upon, and should a driving shower come up as 
the fruit is ripening, there is no danger that the berries 
will be splashed with mud and spoiled. The utility of a 
mulch is not confined to the Strawberry among fruits. 
Raspberries and Currants are much benefited by it, and 
bv its use a gardener of my acquaintance succeeds in 
growing fine crops of the choice varieties of English 
Gooseberries, a fruit with which very few succeed in our 
hot summers. Newly-planted trees, whether of fruit or 
ornamental kinds, are much benefited by a mulch, and 
its application often settles the question of success or 
failure. We have known a whole Pear orchard to be 
mulched, and the owner thought its cost was more than 
repaid by saving the fallen fruit from bruises. The root- 
ing of a layer is by some gardeners thought to be facili- 
tated by placing a flat stone over the buried branch; the 
fact being that the stone acts as a mulch, and prevents 
the soil around the cut portion from drying out, and 
greatly favors the rooting process. Even in the vegetable 
garden mulching is found useful, especially with Cauli- 
flowers, which find our summers quite too dry. 

The material of the mulch is not of much importance, 
the effect being mainly mechanical, and one kind of litter 
will answer as well as another. The material will be gov- 
erned in great measure by locality. Those Hving near 
salt water will find salt hay, as hay from the marshes is 
called, the most readily procured. Those who live near 
pine forests use the fallen leaves, or pine needles, as they 
are called. In the grain-growing districts straw is abund- 
ant, and nothing can be better. It can be applied more 
thoroughly if run through a cutter, though the thrashing 
machine often makes it short enough. Leaves are na- 
ture's own mulch, and answer admirably. If there is 


danger of their being blown away, brush laid over them, 
or even a little earth sprinkled on them, will keep them 
in place. Tan-bark and sawdust may serve for some 
uses, but they are very bad for Stra\> berries, their finer 
particles being about as objectionable as the soil. One 
of the best materials to use for Strawberry mulching is 
the green grass mowed from lawns. This, applied to the 
thickness of two or three inches around the roots of 
Strawberries or other small fruits, will be found not only 
to greatly benefit the crop, particularly in dry weather, 
but will save greatly in labor by preventing the growth 
of weeds. One of our best private gardeners in the vicin- 
ity of New York has adopted this summer mulching with 
the grass from the lawn for nearly twenty years, and has 
succeeded in growing all kinds of small fruits in the 
highest degree of perfection. 



In mulching the object is to prevent evaporation from 
the soil, as well as to shield the roots from sudden 
changes of temperature. It is often necessary to protect 
the whole plant in this respect, and this is accomplished 
by shading. Although, on a large scale, we can do 
little in the way of shading plants in the open ground, 
yet the amateur will often find it of great utility, as 
screening will frequently save a recently transplanted 
plant, which without it would be quite ruined by a few 
hours' exposure to the sun. For shading small plants in 
the border, such as transplanted annuals, a few shingles 
will be found very useful. One or two of these can be 
stuck in the ground so as to completely protect the deli- 


cate plant, and yet not deprive it of air. Six-inch boards 
of half-inch stuff nailed together to form a V shaped 
trough are very useful in the garden. They are handy 
to place over small plants during cold nights, and may 
be turned over and set to make a screen against strong 
winds, or used for shading plants in rows. 

Seedlings often suffer from the heat of the sun in the 
middle of the day; the seedlings of even the hardiest forest 
trees are very delicate when young. The seeds of such trees 
when sown naturally almost always fall where the young 
plant will be shaded, and the amateur who experiments 
in this very interesting branch of horticulture, the rais- 
ino- of eversfreen and deciduous trees and shrubs from 
seed, will find it necessary to imitate Nature, and protect 
his young seedlings from the intense heat of the sun. 
There are several ways of doing this. If the seeds have 
been sown in an open border, let him take twigs about a 
foot long, evergreen if they can be had, but, if not, those 
from any deciduous tree, and stick them a few inches 
apart all over the bed. This will give the seedlings very 
much such a protection as they would naturally have had 
in the shade of other plants ; and though evergreens will 
look better for a while, the dead leaves of deciduous 
twigs will give quite as useful a shade. 

It is always safer to sow seeds in a frame, as the young 
plants are then under more complete control. Frames 
are easily shaded by means of a lattice made of common 
laths. Strips of inch stuff, an inch and a half or two 
inches wide, are used for the sides of the lattice, and 
laths are nailed across as far apart as their own width. 
One lath being nailed on, another is laid down to mark 
the distance, the third one put down and nailed, and the 
second lath is moved along to mark the distance for the 
fourth, and so on. With a screen of this kind there is 
abundant light, but the sun does not shine long at a 
time on one spot, and the plants have a constantly chang- 


ing sun and shade. This lath screen may be used for 
shading plants in the open ground, if supported at a 
proper hight above them. In a propagating house, 
where it is necessary, as it often is, to shade cuttings, a 
lattice laid upon the outside of the glass answers a good 
purpose. The laths are sometimes tied together with 
strong twine, the cord answering the place of slats, and 
serving as a warp with which the laths are woven ; the 
advantage of a screen of this kind being that it can be 
rolled up. Another and excellent screen to shade is to 
make frames three by six feet of the '* Protecting Cloth" 
already alluded to in the chapter on ** Greenhouses or Pits 
without Artificial Heat." Plants kept in windows dur- 
ing summer months will, if in a sunny exposure, require 
some kind of a shade, and if the one provided to keep 
the sun from the room shuts out too much light, or ex- 
cludes air as well as sun, something must be provided 
which will give protection during the heat of the day, 
and still allow sufficient light and an abundant circu- 
lation of air. Any one with ingenuity can arrange a 
screen of white cotton cloth to answer the purpose. 

The old practice of stripping the greenhouse in sum- 
mer is falling into disuse. By a proper selection of 
plants and sufficient shade, it is made as attractive then 
as at any other season ; but even for tropical plants the 
glass must be shaded. For a small lean-to, a screen of 
light canvas, muslin, or the ** Protecting Cloth," ar- 
ranged upon the outside, so tliat it may be wound up 
on a roller when not wanted, will answer ; and if it be de- 
sired to keep the house as cool as possible, this should be 
so contrived that there will be a space of six inches or so 
between that and the glass. But upon a large house, or 
one with a curvilinear roof, this is not so manageable, 
and the usual method is to coat the glass with some ma- 
terial which will obstruct a part of the light. The most 
common method is to give the outside of the glass a coat 


of lime whitewash made very thin. This makes a suffi- 
cient shade, and is gradually dissolved by the rains, so that 
by autumn the coating is removed, or so nearly so that 
what remains may be readily washed off. A more pleasant 
effect is produced by spattering the glass with a prepara- 
tion of naphtha and white lead, made so thin as to resem- 
ble skimmed milk. This can be put on by a syringe at a 
cost not to exceed twenty-five cents for every thousand 
square feet of glass. It is best to put it on gradually, be- 
ginning in May by lightly covering the glass in numer- 
ous fine drops, like rain drops, and increasing its thickness 
as the season advances. 

Whatever may be the means of effecting it, we find 
that in this latitude shading of some kind is required 
from about the first of May to the middle of September 
by nearly all plants grown under glass. Ferns, Lycopods, 
Caladiums, Primulas, Fuchsias, Begonias, Gloxinias, 
Achimenes, Lobelias, Smilax, and plants of that charac- 
ter require the glass to be heavily shaded, while Roses, 
Carnations, Bouvardias, Poinsettias, Geraniums of all 
kinds, and nearly all succulent plants, do not need so 
much. The method of spattering the glass outside with 
the preparation of naphtha and white lead, allows the 
shading to be light or heavy, as required. When first 
done, it is spattered very thinly, merely to break the 
strong glare of the sun, just about thick enough to half 
cover the surface. As the season advances, the spatter- 
ing should be repeated to increase the shade, but at no 
time for the plants last mentioned do we entirely cover 
the glass. In Fjugland, especially for Fern houses, 
Brunswick green mixed with milk is used, to give a 
green shade, which is thought to be best suited to these 
plants. The blue glass for greenhouses which was so 
highly lauded a few years ago has not met with much 
favor ; but recent experiments in glazing with ground 
glass have given such results as to warrant the use of it 


on houses in which nearly all kinds of plants are grown, 
except Roses, Grapes, Strawberries, or other plants the 
flowers and fruit of which are wanted in midwinter. 
At that season all the light possible is required ; and al- 
though ground glass but slightly obscures the light, yet 
it is found that it does not answer so well as clear glass 
from the middle of December to the middle of January. 
Before or after these dates it can be used to advantage 
for any greenhouse purpose. 


I REFER to this matter in the hope that it may be the 
means of saving some of my readers, not only from being 
duped and swindled by a class of itinerant scamps that 
annually reap a rich harvest in disposing of impossibili- 
ties in flowers, but that I may assure them of the utter 
improbability of their ever seeing such wonders as these 
fellows offer, thereby saving them from parting with 
money for worthless objects, and from the ridicule of 
their friends who are already better advised. This sub- 
ject cannot ba too often brought before our amateur hor- 
ticulturists. Warnings are given year after year in lead- 
ing agricultural and other journals devoted to gardening, 
vet a new crop of dupes is always coming up, who readily 
fall victims to the scoundrels who live upon their credu- 
lity. Not a season passes but some of these swindling 
dealers have the audacity to plant themselves right in 
the business centers of our large cities, and hundreds of 
our sharp business men glide smoothly into their nets. 
The very men who will chuckle at the misfortunes of a 
poor rustic when he falls into the hands of a mock 


auctioneer, or a pocket-book dropper, will freely pay ten 
dollars for a rose plant of which a picture has been shown 
them as having a blue flower ; the chance of its coming 
blue being about equal to the chance that the watch of the 
mock auctioneer will be gold. It has long been known 
among the best observers of such matters, that in certain 
families of plants particular colors prevail, and that in 
no single instance can we ever expect to see hluey yelloiUf 
and scarlet colors in varieties of the same species. If any 
one at all conversant with plants will bring any family of 
them to mind, it will at once be seen how undeviatiug is 
this law. In the Dahlia we have scarlet and yellow, but 
no approach to blue, and so in the Rose, Hollyhock, etc. 
Again, in the Verbena, Salvia, etc., we have scarlet and 
blue, but no yelloio ! In the Hyacinth we have blue and 
a fairly good yellow, but no scarlet. Some have con- 
tended that in this family we have the combination, for 
of course we have crimson ; but crimson is not scarlet any 
more than blue is purple. If we reflect it will be seen 
that there is nothing out of the order of Nature in this 
arrangement. We never expect to see among our poul- 
try, with their varied but somber plumage, any assume 
the azure hues of our spring Blue-bird or the dazzling 
tints of the Oriole ; why, then, should Ave expect Nature 
to step out of what seems her fixed laws, and give us a 
blue Rose, a blue Dahlia, or a yellow Verbena ? 



A PAPER under this head was read by me at a meeting 
of the National Association of Nurserymen and Florists 
held at Chicago, 111., June 16th, 1880; and although it 
has already in part been published in my work, " Garden 
and Farm Topics,'' yet I take the liberty of again repeat- 


ing the main parts of it here, in the hope that it may be 
the means of preventing mj amateur readers (those who 
•are ^'gardening for pleasure") from falling into the 
many traps set for them by those who make a business 
of swindling in trees, plants, seeds, or fertilizers. 

The lifetime experience of any man is not too short 
to be imposed upon by many of the hundreds of old va- 
rieties of fruits, flowers, or vegetables that are sent out 
annually under new names. Any well-posted nursery- 
man can easily detect when a Bartlett Pear or a Baldwin 
Apple appears under a new name ; or a florist, making a 
specialty of Roses, knows, as, for example, when, some 
years ago, the old Solfaterre Rose was sent out under the 
name of " Augusta" (claiming it to be hardy in every State 
of the Union, and sold as a great bargain at five dollars 
apiece), that the venders thereof were either swindlers or 
entirely ignorant of the business they had embarked in ; 
or when the confiding market gardener is induced to buy 
a new and superior Cabbage or Tomato seed at five dollars 
an ounce, and finds them identical with varieties that he 
can buy at half that price per pound, he has good reason to 
come to the conclusion that the man from wliom he pur- 
chased was either a humbug or else unfitted, from his 
ignorance, to engage in the business of a seedsman. 

But, unfortunately, from the varied nature of these 
impostures, it is exceedingly difficult to mete out justice 
to those who, knowingly or otherwise, place such swindles 
on the horticultural community; for the man who grows 
fruit trees is as likely to know as little about Roses as the 
man who grows Roses is to know about fruit trees, and 
either is less likely to be posted on the merits of vege- 
tables. So, then, if the partly experienced horticulturist 
may be imposed upon in such a way, how safe is the 
field when the swindler tries his tricks upon the general 
public ? 

The sharp man of the city falls as quickly into the 


trap of the horticultural swindler as the veriest rustic, be- 
cause his city experience of impostures in other matters 
helps him nothing in this. He may not be much trou- 
bled when he sees a bootblack fall off the dock into the 
river, particularly if his companion plays off the heroic 
role, and plunges in after him to the rescue. He under- 
stands it all, for both can swim like ducks, and there was 
no more danger for the first than for the second, and 
none for either. A well-stuffed pocket-book snatched 
from under his feet is an incident that does not in the 
least arouse his cupidity, for he has long been conversant 
with the trick of the pocket-book dropper. The mock 
auctioneer may scream himself hoarse, offering gold watches 
at five dollars apiece, and it hardly elicits a smile of 
derision. The tears of the benighted orphan in search 
of his uncle does not bring a dime from his pocket, for 
he understands it all, together with a score more of the 
tricks of the greab city. But in the springtime, when 
his garden instincts begin to bud, and he sees in some 
window in Broadway flaming representations of fruits 
and flowers, he falls into the trap and is ready for the 

Some years ago I had occasion to act as an amateur 
detective in one of these horticultural swindling shops, 
the owners of which, are now known in New York as the 
*'Blue Eose Men." When I arrived, there were at least 
a dozen ladies and gentlemen engaged in buying seeds, 
bulbs, and plants, the flowers and fruits of which were 
represented by the pictures on the walls : for example, 
Asparagus was shown as having shoots as thick as a 
broom handle, the seeds of which were selling rapidly at 
one cent apiece, warranted to produce a crop in three 
months from the time of sowing. An old lady had just 
become the possessor of five dollars' worth, and seemed 
delighted with her bargain. 

One of the most attractive pictures on the wall was 


an immense colored engraving, showing a tree, on which 
Strawberries were growing, and as big as Oranges. My 
gaze was attracted to a handsome plate of Bhie Moss 
Roses, and I modestly asked the price of the plants. The 
polite Frenchman (who was doing the principal selling 
for the concern) whisked out from beneath the table 
three plants, representing them to be Moss Roses (which, 
by-the-way, were all alike, and were all our common 
Prairie Rose), and said, **This one, he bloom only once, 
I tell you the truth, so I sell him for two dollar. This 
one, he be the Remontant, he bloom twice — just twice — 
I sell him for three dollar ; but this one, he be the ever- 
blooming, perpetual Blue Moss Rose, he bloom all the 
time, he cheap at five dollars." I quietly remarked, if 
it bloomed all the time, why was it not blooming now ? 
He looked at me pityingly, and said, ** My dear sir, you 
expect too much. These Moss Rose just come over in 
the ship from Paris. You take him home and plant 
him, and he bloom right away, and he keep on bloom- 
ing." I did not take him home, but 1 took the story, 
something in the shape it is now told, and had it pub- 
lished in one of the leading New York papers, and in 
less than a week the ** Blue Rose Men " had pulled up 
stakes, but, no doubt, to pitch their camp somewhere 
else, and set their traps for fresh victims. The '^ Blue 
Rose Men" are very impartial in their wanderings, and 
rarely omit a city of any size, beginning usually in New 
Orleans in January, running northward, and ending up 
with Philadelphia, New York, and Boston through April 
and May. 

These humbugs in horticulture have their comical side. 
A few years ago, in passing St. Paul's Church (Broad w^ay). 
New York, I saw an old negro squatted on the pavement 
with a great bundle of plants, carefully mossed up, lying 
alongside of him. On inquiring what they were, he said 
they were Rose bushes ; Rose bushes having all the good 

220 gardenijh^g for pleasure. 

things wanted in a Rose, fragrance, hardinecs, and eyer- 
blooming, and the price but fifty cents apiece. He had 
got them, he said, from the boss, and was selling them on 
a commission. The poor darkey was only an innocent 
agent. He no doubt believed he was selling Rose bushes, 
but the boss, whoever he might be, undoubtedly knew 
better, for the plants were not Roses at all, but the com- 
mon Cat Brier (Smilax sarsaparilla), one of the worst 
pests of our hedgerows, but the plant of which is near 
enough in appearance to a Rose to deceive the ordinary 
city merchant. 

That same season at every prominent street corner 
could be seen the venders of the ** Alligator Plant,'* 
which some enterprising genius cut by the wagon load 
from the Jersey swamps, and dealt them out to those 
who retailed them on the street. 

The " Alligator Plant" was sold in lengths of twelve 
to twenty inches, at from twenty-five to fifty cents apiece, 
according to its straightness and length ; and by the 
number engaged in the business, hundreds of dollars* 
worth must have been sold. The " Alligator Plant " is 
the rough, triangular branches of the Sweet Gum Tree 
{Liquidamhar styraciflua), common in most parts of the 
country. There is no doubt whatever that these pieces 
of stick have been planted by thousands during the last 
six years in the gardens in and around New York, with 
about as much chance of their growing as the fence 
pickets or paving stones. 

The bulb peddlers, a class of itinerant swindlers, de- 
serve brief attention. They have always some wonderful 
novelty in bulbs ; and their mode of operating, to the 
uninitiated, has a semblance of fairness, as they are lib- 
eral fellows, and frankly offer to take one-half cash on 
delivery, and if the goods do not come up to the repre- 
sentation, the other half need not be paid. For example, 
when the Gold-banded Japan Lily was first introduced. 


bulbs the size of hickory nuts sold at two hundred and 
fifty dollars per hundred. About that time one of these 
worthies came along with samples of a Lily of fine size 
and appearance, which, he said, he had just received 
from Japan. There was no doubt of its genuineness, for 
tie had seen it in flower. He had a large stock, and would 
sell at one hundred dollars per hundred, but he was 
willing to take half that amount down, and the other 
half when the bulbs flowered and had proved correct. They 
did not prove correct, and he never called. The bulb he 
sold was the common White Lily {Lilium candidum), 
which is sold everywhere at five or six dollars per hun- 
dred. These same scamps flood the rural districts every 
year with blue Gladiolus, scarlet Tuberoses, and other 
absurdities in bulbs and seeds, usually on the same terms 
of one-half cash down, the other half when the rara avis 
has feathered out. The present season (1887), one of these ' 
worthies found out that the flowers of Tuberoses and 
Lily of the Valley, by being placed in red or blue ink, 
would in an hour or two absorb enough of the ink 
to make them a beautiful blue or red. Carrying the 
colored flowers with him, having the shape, fragrance, and 
general appearance of the actual flowers of these bulbs, 
he was successful in selling hundreds of dollars' worth of 
these wonderful novelties, at ten times their actual value. 
It is needless to say that they never try it twice on the 
same victim, but avail themselves of our broad continent 
to seek out new fields for their operations. 

One of the most successful swindlers of this type was 
Comanche George, whose fame became almost national. 
George made his advent in New York in 1876. He waa, 
he said, a Texas scout, and for years his rifle, revolver, 
and bowie knife had been the terror of the red men; but 
one day, in his rambles on the lone Texas prairies, his 
eye was arrested by a flower, whose wonderful coloring 
eclipsed the rainbow, and whose delicate perfume was 


wafted over the Brazos for leagues ; in short, never before 

had eye of mortal rested on such a flower. The man of 

war was subdued. He betook himself to the peaceful 

task of gathering seed, and turned his steps to the haunts 

of civilized man to distribute it. We first heard of him 

in Washington, where he wished to place it in the hands 

of the government, and accordingly offered it to Mr. 

William Smith, Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens 

there ; but the government, being short of funds, so Smith 

said, was not just then in a position to buy, and with 

his advice George trimmed his *' sales "for New York 

and a market. His success in Baltimore and Philadelphia 

was so great (where he started the sale of the seeds at two 

cents apiece) that it induced him, when he struck New 

York, to advance the price to five cents a seed. He put 

up at one of the best hotels, and claimed that for a month 

his sales of the seed of the Cockatelle — the beautiful 

Texas flower — reached fifty dollars a day. But his success 

threw liim off his balance. He took to fire water, and in 

an unguarded moment fell into the hands of a newspaper 

man, who extracted from him all the facts connected 

with the enterprise. George never was a scout, had 

never been in Texas, but he had been a good customer to 

the various seedsmen of the different cities, where his 

purchases of Okra or Gumbo seed, at about fifty cents a 

pound, had made nearly a dearth of the article. His 

victims (whose names he gave by the score, and which 

were duly chronicled in the newspaper article referred 

to) were from all classes : the enterprising florist, who 

secretly went into it in a wholesale way, with a view to 

outwit his less fortunate fellows ; the grandee of Fifth 

Avenue, who • anticipated a blaze of beauty on his lawn ; 

the hotel man, whose window boxes were to perfume the 

air ; all had fallen easy victims to the wiles of Comanche 

George. George disappeared from New York, though 

there is but little doubt that his business had been too 


successful for him to abandon it. A newspaper para- 
graph which reads as follows, looks as if it might be the 
Texas scout in a somewhat different role : 

*'The prepossessing appearance, gentlemanly demeanor, 
and foreign accent of the man who called himself Carlo 
Corella, botanist to the Court of Brazil, convinced a 
number of wealthy San Francisco ladies that he was 
truthful. He said to each that the failure of a remittance 
compelled him to sell some rare bulbs of Brazilian Lilies, 
which he had intended to present to Mrs. R. B. Hayes. 
'The flower,' says the Clironicle, 'was to be a great scar- 
let bell, with ecra ruchings on the petals, a solferino frill 
around the pistil, and a whole bottle of perfumery in 
each stamen.' He sold about fifty almost worthless 
bulbs at four dollars each." 

Nurserymen are no doubt better posted in the swindles 
practiced in their particular department than I am ; but 
operators engage in different lines in different parts of 
the country; for example, we have never yet seen in the 
Eastern States any one trying to sell an apple tree bear- 
ing blue apples as big as melons, as we were told, at our 
meeting at Cleveland, had been successfully done in 
Ohio and Hlinois. Still we have men of fair ability in 
the nursery swindling line, one of whom last winter suc- 
ceeded in disposing of hundreds of '* winter-bearing 
grapes," by carrying with him a few good bunches of 
the white Malaga of the shops. 

One great detriment, not only to the florist, but to the 
purchaser, is begotten of these swindles in horticulture. 
The purchaser of flowers in our markets must have his 
plants in bloom, because he has been at times so swindled 
that he must now see what he buys. In New York, the 
amateur rarely buys from the grower, but from the agent 
or middleman who sells in the market stands or street 
comers. These, whether men or women, are generally 
entirely ignorant of the nature of plants, and most of 


them have no responsibility, and they rarely fail to make 
their wares accord with the wants of the purchaser : 
nearly every plant is hardy, ever-blooming, and has all 
the qualities desired by the buyer. 

But now and then these swindles become a serious 
matter to the victim. Some years ago a typical English- 
man, who had been a green grocer in Covent Garden 
Market, London, found his way to New York. He at 
once discovered an almost entire absence of Cauliflowers 
in our markets, and what few there were, were sold at 
prices four times those of London. He soon made up 
his mind to make his fortune, and, at the same time, 
show the Yankees something they did not know. He 
duly selected and prepared the ground for an acre, and 
one day in May he sallied into the market to procure his 
Cauliflower plants. This he found no difficulty in doing, 
for at Dutch Peggy's (in those days the headquarters for 
all kind of herbs, plants, and seeds) they were to be seen 
by the wagon load. Ten thousand were procured (the num- 
ber required for his acre), and, duly planted, they began to 
grow apace. He had planted the first of May. If it had 
been in England, his Cauliflower heads would have been 
ready about the first of July; but something was evi- 
dently wrong in the Yankee climate. His Cauliflowers 
grew through June, through July into August, only to 
develop into fine specimens of Drumhead Cabbage, then 
of hardly the value he had paid for them as Cauliflower 
plants. He got out of the business thoroughly dis- 
gusted ; and in telling his sorrowful tale to me a year 
afterward, he related that when he went to expostulate 
with old Peggy about having blasted his prospects, before 
he could get a word said, she recognized him as a cus- 
tomer, and demanded to know if he did not again want 
some more early Cauliflower plants. 

I have said old Peggy was also a vender of seeds. It 
is now nearly forty years ago that a young florist pre- 


eented himself before her and purchased an ounce of 
Mignonette. Ever alive to business, Peggy asked him if 
he had tried the new red Mignonette. He protested there 
was no such thing, but Peggy's candid manner persuaded 
him, and fifty cents were invested. The seed looked 
familiar, and when it sprouted it looked more familiar ; 
when it bloomed it was far too familiar, for it was Red 
Clover. Peggy has long since been gathered to her 
fathers, and 1 have entirely forgiven her for selling me 
the red Mignonette. 

Perhaps there is no swindling that is more extensively 
practiced, and which so cruelly injures the operators of 
the soil, as that of adulteration in fertilizers. The great 
mass of our farmers and gardeners are poor men, who 
can ill afford even to pay for the pure fertilizers necessary 
to grow their crops, and to pay money and high freights 
on adulterations worse than useless, is hard indeed. The 
ignorance of those dealing in such wares does much to 
spread the evil. A man came into my office last sum- 
mer with samples of a fertilizer, nicely put up in cans, 
which he claimed could be sold in immense quantities by 
the seedsmen, as it had not only the wonderful properties 
of invigorating and stimulating all planted crops, but 
that it at the same time luould hill all noxious weeds. T 
need not say that he had waked up the wrong passenger, 
and that he made a rapid movement toward the door. 
Yet, notwithstanding the impudence and absurdity of 
such a claim, the scamp was enabled to prowl around 
the vicinity of New York for weeks, and, undoubtedly, 
sold to hundreds. If he had said he had a cannon from 
which, when grape shot was fired into a crowd, it killed 
only enemies — never friends — the one claim would have 
been as reasonable as the other. 

There is another species of humbugging, which, though 
it can hardly be called swindling, is somewhat akin to 
it. I refer to the men who claim to have secrets by which 


they can accomplish extraordinary results in the propa- 
gation and culture of plants. I can well remember, in 
my early days, that the nursery propagator was looked 
upon as a sort of demi-god, possessing secrets known 
only to himself and a favored few, whose interest it was 
to continue to throw dust in the eyes of every young as- 
pirant after knowledge. The door of the propagating 
house was locked and bolted, as if it were a Bastile, and 
even the proprietor (if he were unfortunate enough not 
to have practical knowledge) was allowed entrance only 
as a special favor ; for his propagator was an autocrat, 
of whom he stood in awe and reverence. But since the 
advent of horticultural publications in America, particu- 
larly during the past fifteen or twenty years, the ^'secrets" 
of these pretentious fellows have had such ventilation, 
that now nearly every operation of the greenhouse is as 
well understood by the tens of thousands engaged in the 
business, as the operations of the farm are by the farmer. 

The most of these pretenders to this secret knowledge 
of horticulture are foreigners, though occasionally a native 
tries it on. Some twenty years ago, when the grape-vine 
mania was at its hight, an old Connecticut farmer pre- 
tended he had discovered a new method of propagating 
the grape, which he would impart for a consideration to 
the highest bidder. He issued a profusion of hand bills 
to the trade, asking for bids, modestly requesting the re- 
ceiver of the hand bill to hang it up in a conspicuous 

I sent my copy to my friend Meehan, of the Gardener^ s 
Monthly, saying that the pages of that magazine were 
the most conspicuous place I knew of to comply with the 
wish of the old gentleman. Mr. Meehan not only in- 
serted the advertisement gratis, and in the most conspicu- 
ous manner, but he did more, for he appended below the 
advertisement a few remarks I had ventured to make on 
the subject. This opened the ball, and for six months 


the pages of the Gardener^s Monthly became the battle 
ground for the opinions of the ^Miscoverer" and myself. 
But the gratuitous advertisement did not avail him much, 
for he and his secret soon passed into oblivion, and were 
heard from no more. Tiiere are no secrets in horticul- 
ture. The laws that govern the germination of a seed, 
the rooting of a cutting, or the taking of a bud or graft, 
are the same now as they were a thousand years ago, and 
anyone pretending to have any secret knowledge in the 
matter is either an ignoramus or an imposter. 

Since the above was written several other swindlinir 
schemes have been perpetrated. Among others, the bulb 
man has turned up again. Having for the time being 
become too well known in the city, he has betaken him- 
self to the rural districts, where he plied his trade last 
fall most successfully, finding his victims chiefly among 
confiding women. Taking pattern of the** Blue Rose 
Man," he has provided himself with gaudy pictures of 
impossible Lilies, which ought to deceive none but the 
thoughtless or ignorant. As a matter of precaution, it 
may be well to describe his methods of operating. His 
first move is to learn the names of the wealthiest and best 
known people in the neighborhood. He then begins his 
canvass, calling at houses where he has reason to believe 
none of the male members of the family is at home. He 
has just returned from California, w^here he had the 
great good fortune to discover three kinds of the most 
gorgeous of all Lilies, hitherto entirely unknown, and 
now for the first and only time offered for sale. Their 
size is immense, the colors gorgeous, and the fragrance 
exquisite. No such Lilies have been seen before. He has 
sold Mrs. Brown, and Mrs. Smith, and Mrs. Jones 
(naming well-known neighbors) bulbs of each of the 
three kinds at four and five dollars a bulb ; but as he has 
only a few left, and is anxious to get home, he will sell 
the remainder at two and three dollars each. His vie- 


tims hesitate in doubt a few moments, and then drop 
in to the net. I had the pleasure of blocking this feJlow's 
operations in one instance, appearing on the scene just in 
time to do so. In one locality, within my personal knowl- 
edge, this man sold dozens of these bulbs to confiding 
victims. I saw some of these '' gorgeous " new California 
Lilies when they came into flower, and they were all 
neither more nor less than the common white garden Lily 
{Lilium candidum), fine bulbs of which can always be 
bought for ten or twelve cents each. 

Another instance may be mentioned, in which the rogue' 
offered for sale, at a dollar a paper, the seed of a variety 
of Mignonette even more famous than the red Mignon- 
ette of Aunt Peggy before mentioned. .This bore mag- 
nificent spikes of flowers, nearly two feet long and of 
delicious frasfrance. 

A lady friend, one of his victims, carefully sowed the 
seeds, and waited anxiously for the appearance of the 
plants. The seedlings proved to be so vigorous that she 
ventured to separate and transplant them in the open 
border. They grew and grew till they finally rivaled in 
growth the famous mustard seed mentioned in the good 
Book. The reader will probably smile when I tell him 
that this famous Mignonette proved to be Pearl Millet, 
a kind of grass growing ten feet high. The present 
season one of these itinerants is doing a thriving business 
by selling common Parsnip seed, which he has caused to 
absorb various perfumes. This, supplemented with flam- 
ing pictures of Koses of every hue, makes it an easy busi- 
ness for him to sell this ''Rose Seed" of any perfume 
desired ! 

The f olio win c^ from the Xew York Tribune of Febru- 
ary 19th, 1882, shows that occasionally these enterprising 
gentlemen receive their deserts : 

''The case of John Harrison, the industrious seed 
peddler, who was locked up in Kewark the other day, is 


one which calls for commiseration. It was a propitious 
season for business in this line, for the near approach of 
spring had begun to warm up the desire to worry the 
soil and plant something, a desire that slumbers in the 
bosom of every man or woman who is the proprietor of a 
garden, a back-yard, or even of a flower pot. Our vender 
was therefore driving a brisk trade, when he was arrested 
for obtaining money under false pretenses. The pre- 
tense and falsehood charged were Mr. Harrison's state- 
ment that his seeds, when dro]3ped mto water or earth, 
would speedily germinate and grow into a Dush, which 
would suddenly burst into beautiful and fragrant 
bloom, and then bear a rich fruitage of * wash-rags ;' a 
crop which at once commended itself to the cleanly and 
thrifty housewives of New Jersey. ISTow there is a well- 
known vine of the Cucumber family which flourishes in 
the West Indies, and bears a gourd-like fruit, the spongy 
lining of whose tough shell is used by the simple islanders 
to brush their huts with When they have any, and for 
toilet and culinary cleansing as well. Mr. Harrison's 
descriptions of this vegetable may have been a trifle too 
eloquent, but surely a merciful magistrate would con- 
sider this nothing more than justifiable professional ex- 
aggeration. Any one who has been attacked by a roving 
tree agent, armed with a book full of colored lithographic 
plates of trees clad with rainbow-hued foliage, and 
decorated still further with fruit of marvelous shape and 
bulk, will understand that Mr. Harrison is not a unique 
sinner, but simply a man who understands his business." 
This list of humbugs on horticultural subjects might 
be greatly extended, but perhaps enough has been said to 
put the intelligent and thoughtful reader on his guard 
in the future. 








Though the chapter on pruning is placed at the com- 
mencement of that division of the work which treats 
upon fruits, the fact must not be lost sight of that prun- 
ing is often quite as necessary upon trees and shrubs cul- 
tivated for their flowers or foliage as upon those grown 
for their fruit. In pruning we cut away some portion 
of a tree, shrub, or other plant, for the benefit of that 
which remains ; and whether performed upon a branch 
six inches through, or upon a shoot so tender as to be cut 
by the thumb nail, the object is essentially the same. 
The operation, though very simple, is one which the 
amateur often fears to undertake ; and having no confi- 
dence in his own ability, he often employs some jobbing 
gardener, who has no fears on this or any other garden- 
ing matter. Pruning is done for Yarious ends, and un- 
less one has a definite reason for doing it, he had better 
leave it undone. Many have an idea that pruning must, 
for some reason, be done every year, just as it used to be 
thought necessary for people to be bled every spring, 
whether well or ill. We prune to control the shape of a 
tree or shrub, and by directing the growth from one part 
to another, obtain a symmetrical form, especially in fruit 
trees, where it is desirable that the weight of fruit be 
equally distributed. In some trees, where the fruit is 
borne only on the wood of the previous season, the bear- 
ing portions are each year removed further and further 
from the body of the tree. In such cases a shortening 
of the growth each year will cause the fo;'mation of a 
compact head instead of the loose straggling limbs that re- 
sult when this is omitted. We prune to renew the vigor 
of a plant. The inexperienced cannot understand how 


cutting away a third, a half, or even more of a plant can 
improve it in vigor and fruitfulness, or abundance and 
size of flowers. Let us suppose that a stem which grew 
last year has twenty buds upon it. If this is allowed to 
take its own course in the spring, a few of the upper 
buds will push with great vigor, and form strong shoots ; 
while those below will make gradually weaker shoots, 
and for probably the lower third of the stem the buds 
will not start at all. In fruit trees, as a rule, the most 
vigorous growth is at the top. The buds there were the 
last formed in the previous summer, are the most excit- 
able, and the soonest to grow the next spring, and 
getting the start of those below them, they draw the 
nourishment to themselves and starve the others. If, 
instead of allowing this stem to grow at will in this man- 
ner, it had been, before any of the buds started, cut back 
so as to leave only a few of the lower ones, those having 
an abundance of nutriment would push forth with great 
vigor and be nearly equal in size, while the flowers or 
fruit borne upon them would be greatly superior to those 
upon the unpruned stem. Any one can readily be con- 
vinced of the utility of pruning by taking two rose bushes 
of equal size, leaving one without any pruning to take 
care of itself, and each sj^ring cutting the other back 
severely, pruning away one-third or one-half of the wood 
that was formed the previous season. The result at the 
end of two years will be very striking. 

No general rule can be given for pruning. The ama- 
teur should use his eyes, and notice the habit of growth 
of his trees and shrubs. He will find that many, like the 
Rose, produce their flowers upon the new wood of the 
present seiison, and that such plants are greatly bene- 
fited by cutting back more or less each spring. But 
there are other plants for which this treatment will not 
answer. If we examine a Horse-chestnut tree, or a Lilac 
bush, and many others, we shall find that the flowers 

PRUN^ING. 235 

come from the large buds that were formed on the end 
of last season's growth, and to cut back such plants 
would be to remove all the flower buds. AVith shrubs of 
this kind, all that need be done is to thin out the branches 
where they are too crowded. These examples will warn 
the novice against indiscriminate pruning ; and unless, 
as he stands before his shrub or tree, knife in hand, he 
knows why he is to prune and how, let him put his knife 
in his pocket, and give the plant the benefit of the 
doubt. While, under the different fruits, we can give di- 
rections for the particular iDruning required by each, the 
proper method of treating a miscellaneous collection of 
ornamental shrubs and trees can only be learned by 

The term pruning is generally applied to the cutting 
away, in w^hole or in part, of the ripened wood ; but 
much pruning may be done by the use of the thumb and 
finger. This is termed pincUiny, and is practised upon 
young shoots at the growing season, while they are yet 
soft. This most useful form of pruning allows us to 
control the form of a j)lant with the greatest ease, and 
is applied not only to soft-wooded plants, but to trees 
and shrubs, and may be so performed on these as to 
render nearly, if not quite, all pruning of ripened wood 
unnecessary. "When soft- wooded plants, such as Chrysan- 
themums, Geraniums, or Colons, are planted out or grown 
in pots, and left to themselves, most kinds will grow tall 
and straggling ; but if judiciously '^pinched back," as it 
is called (that is, the top of the strongest shoots pinched 
out), the plants can be shaped into a bushy, rounded 
form at will. If a vigorous shoot has its end or **grow- 
ing point" pinched out it will cease to elongate, but will 
throw out branches below, the growth of wiiich may be 
controlled in the same manner. The Blackberry illus- 
trates the utility of this kind of pruning. The rampant 
growing shoot which springs up from the root will, if 



left to itself, make a long cane six or eiglit feet high, and 
with a very few branches near the top. If, w^hen this 
shoot has reached four, or at most five feet, its end be 
pinched off, it will then throw our numerous branches ; 
and if the upper branches, when they reach the length of 
eighteen inches, be '^ stopped" (as it is called), in a sim- 
ilar manner, by pinching, the growth will be directed to 
the lower ones, and by the end of the season, instead of a 
long, unmanageable wand, there will be a well-branched 
bush, which will bear its fruit all within reach. The 
grower of plants in pots is usually afraid to remove even 
a single inch of the stem, and the result is usually a 

lot of ^^ leggy" specimens not 
worth the care that is oth- 
erwise bestowed upon them. 
Plants may be prevented from 
ever reaching this condition, 
if their growth be properly 
controlled by pinching ; but 
if they have once reached it, 
they should be cut back se- 
verely, and a compact, bushy 
form obtained from the new 
shoots which will soon start. 
I may state here, however, 
that if it becomes necessary to 
cut back a plant in full leaf, care must be taken to with- 
hold water until it agam throws out shoots below, for the 
reason that, being robbed of the foliage and shoots that 
elaborated the top, an excess of moisture given to the 
roots, which have now no work to do, will gorge and de- 
stroy them. 

The mechanical part of pruning is very simple. A 
sharp knife is the best implement, as it makes a clean 
cut without bruising the bark, and the wound quickly 
heals. Shears are much easier to handle, and the work 

Fig. 66. Fig. 67. Fig. 68. 




can be done so much more quickly, that they are generally 
preferred, and for rampant growing bushes will answer ; 
but upon fruit trees, and choice plants generally, the knife 
is much better. The cut should be made just at a joint, 
but not so far above it as to leave a stub, as in figure 67, 
which will die back to the bud, there being nothing to 
contribute to its growth ; nor should it be made so close 
to the bud as to endanger it, as in figure ijQ. The cut 
should start just opposite the lower part of the bud and 
end just above its top, as in figure 68. For the removal 
of branches too large to cut witli the knife, as must some- 
times be done on neglected trees, a saw is required. Saws 
are made especially for the 
purpose, but any narrow 
one with the teeth set wide 
will answer. The rough 
cut left by the saw should 
be pared smooth, and if an 
inch or more in diameter, 
the wound should be cov- 
ered. Ordinary paint, melt- 
ed grafting wax, or shellac 
varnish will answer to pro- 
tect the bare wood from air 
and moisture, and prevent 
decay. In pruning it is 
well to remember that the 
future shape of the tree 
will be materially affected 
by the position upon the branch of the bud to which the 
cut is made. The upper bud left on the branch will con- 
tinue the growth, and the new shoot will be in the direc- 
tion of that bud. If a young tree is, as in, figure 69, to have 
all its branches shortened, and each is cut to a bud. A, 
pointing towards the center of the tree, the tendency of 
the new growth will all be inward, as in figure 70; while 

Fig. 69. Fig. 70. Fig. 71. 



if all be cut to an outside bud, b, the result will be to 
spread the growth, as in figure 71. 

As to the tune of pruning, about which there has 
been much discussion, it may be done on small stems at 
any time after the fall of the leaf, before the growth starts 
in the spring ; but for the removal of large branches, 
late in winter is regarded as the best time. It is a popu- 
lar idea that trees should not be pruned in excessively 
cold weather. A very sensible belief, as affecting the 
comfort of the pruner ; but rest assured, it in no way 
adds to the discomfort of the tree, either present or 
prospective. Pinching is, of course, done whenever it 
is needed during the summer months. 



Grapes can be grown in almost any soil, provided it is 
not a wet one. Although the Grape will take abundance 
of water when in a growing state, it must j)ass off quickly, 
or the growth will be impeded. If the ground is not 
naturally suitable {i. e., at least a foot in depth of good 
soil), a border prepared in the manner recommended in 
the chapter on '-'Cold Grapery" will well repay the 
trouble. It is imperative that the position wiiere the 
vine is planted be such as will enable it to get sunlight 
for the greater portion of the day. Twenty years ago I 
planted an arbor (with an arched top) one hundred feet 
long by sixteen feet wide and ten feet high, covering 
a walk running east and west. This gave a south and a 
north exposure. The crop has always been excellent and 
abundant (and is to-day) on the south side and top of 
the arbor, but on the north side (unless for the first and 


second years of fruiting, when there was not sufficient 
foliage to impede the light) it has been nearly a failure. 

There is much misconception as to what should be the 
age of a grape-vine when planted. Nine-tenths of our 
amateur customers ask for vines three or four years old. 
If a vine of that age could be properly lifted with every 
root unbroken, then there might be some advantage in 
its greater strength ; but as vines are usually grown in 
the nurseries closely together, with the roots all inter- 
laced, large plants can rarely be got with roots enough 
to support the vine and maintain its vigor after trans- 
planting. As a rule, it is better to plant one or two- 
year-old vines, which can usually be bought at half the 
price of those of three or four years old, and which, in 
all probability, will give a crop quite as soon as the large 
ones, if not sooner. 

The manner of planting the vine is similar to that 
of any other tree or shrub. The ground must be thor- 
oughly broken up, not in a mere hole only sufficient to 
hold the roots, but, if a regular border has not been 
made, the place where each vine is to be planted should 
not be less than three feet in diameter (and if double 
that, all the better), and of a depth of not less than a 
foot. On receiving the vine from the nursery, it may con- 
sist of one or more shoots, but on planting it should be 
cut back to only two or three eyes or buds. On starting 
to grow, all of these buds or eyes should bo rubbed off 
except one, selecting the strongest. Train this shoot 
perpendicularly to a stake the first year of its growth. 
The next fall, w^hen the leaves drop, cut it back to nine 
or ten inches from the ground. When the vine starts 
the next spring, rub off all eyes or buds except two, 
which during the season will form two canes, as in figure 
73. These, if they are canes half an inch in diameter, 
are in the fall to be pruned to three or four feet long, 
and the following spring trained horizontally, one to 



the right, the other to the left. -If, at the end of the 
second year, they are still small, it is better to delay 
laying down the arms until another year, and grow two 
upright shoots again, to get them sufficiently strong. 
These will form the base from which to start the upright 
shoots, as shown in figure 73. These upright growths 
will be the permanent fruiting canes, and should be from 
fifteen to eighteen inches apart, and pruned on what is 
known as the spur system, as shown by figure 74. There 
is nothing arbitrary as to the hight of these canes. It is 


a matter of convenience or taste whether they be trained 
to three feet or fifteen feet. Vines thus treated may be 
allowed to produce a few bunches the third year, and 
by the sixth year may be fruited to the hight of ten 
or twelve feet of cane, if desired. Not more than two 
bunches of fruit should be allowed to each shoot. We 
give this manner of training as one of the simplest, al- 
though the system of training has but little to do with 
the crop. My own Grape arbor planted twenty years 



ago. trained and pruned in this way, is still in excellent 
vigor, and looks as if it might remain so for twenty years 
longer. A top-dressing of rotted manure is placed on 
the border (nine feet wide on each side) every fall, and 
forked in in the spring. The same system of pruning and 
training is equally applicable to vines planted against 
fences or walls having an eastern or southern aspect. 

The distance apart at Avhicli grape-vines may be planted, 
except the Delaware and a few of the weaker growing 
sorts, is about eight feet. The Delaware may be set 
one-third closer if trained in the manner described ; but 


if planted in the open field, and trained to stakes and 
wires, as shown in figure 75, they may be planted, to begin 
with, at least three feet in the rows and six feet between. 
Although grape-vines are hardy in nearly all sections, 
yet in any locality where the thermometer falls to zero 
it is beneficial to lay them down close to the ground, 
and cover them up with rough litter, before the ap- 
proach of severe weather in winter, allowing it to remain 
on in spring until the buds begin to swell, when the 
vines are uncovered and tied up to the trellis or stake. 
If covered in this way they should be pruned before 
being laid down. Pruning may be dime at any time 
from November to March. It is a common belief that 
grape-vines should be pruned only at certain seasons. 
The weather must not be too cold, otherwise it is sup- 



posed they may be injured if then pruned. Again, they 
must not be pruned late in the spring, else the sap 
oozing from the cuts may bleed them to death. Let me 
say that both these notions are utter nonsense. The 


pruning of any tree or vine in the coldest weather cannot 
possibly injure it, and the " bleeding " or running of the 
sap after any ordinary pruning can no more hurt the 



vine than the blood flowing from a pin scratch would 
weaken a healthy man. This method of covering up the 
grape-vine is not commonly practised, but we are satis- 
fied that in exposed positions it is well worth the 
trouble. I have practised it witli vines now over 
twenty years old, embracing some twenty varieties. My 
soil is a stiff clay, very unsuitable for the Grape ; yet 
these vines have kept clear of mildew when my neigh- 
bor's vines, a few hundred yards off, have been seriously 
injured by it. I have long believed that intense cold, 
long continued, is hurtful to even such plants as we call 
hardy, and the wonderful vigor of these old vines, so 
treated, seems a good evidence of it. The litter used in 
covering (which has become well-rotted by spring) is 
spread over the border, acting both as a summer mulch 
and fertilizer. 

Mildew is the worst enemy to the vine. The same 
i-emedy we recommend in this book for mildew 
on Roses will be found equally efficacious for 
the Grape. On a large scale, dry sulphur is 
used, blown upon the vines by a bellows made 
for the purpose. 

Propagation of the Grape is done by nur- 
serymen in greenhouses similar to that used 
for propagating florists' plants ; but most of 
the varieties can be grown with fair success by 
cuttings in the open air. The cuttings (made 
from the young, well-ripened shoots of the pre- 
vious year's growth) may be made with two 
(figure 76) or three buds or eyes, planted in 
rows, say one foot apart and three inches be- 
tween the cuttings, and set so that the top eye 
or bud only is above ground. The situation 
where the cuttings are placed should be well 
exposed to the sun, the soil rich and deep, and of sandy 
or light character. Care must be taken that the cutfin^ 


Fig. 76. 



is well firmed in the soil ; and if sawdust or some other 
non-conducting material is sifted over them (covering all 
up but the buds), success will be greater, as this will pre- 
vent the sun from baking and drying up the soil. The 
cuttings may be made from the pruniiigs at any time 
during winter, and kept in a damp cellar or buried out- 
side in sand until planted in the cutting-bed in the spring. 


It is the most unsatisfactory part of works on gar- 
dening to name varieties. What are cultivated as the 
best to-day may ten years hence be entirely discarded. 
Moreover, what does well in one section may be less val- 
uable in another ; but lists must be given, and all we 
can do in the matter is to name such as we believe to be 
the best for general use at the date at which we write. 
The varieties are named in the order that we deem most 
desirable for private use. 

Concord is perhaps more universally cultivated than 
any other. It grows most luxuriantly, bearing bunches 
of large size abundantly. Color black, with a rich blue 
bloom. The flavor is of average quality. Eipens during 
the month of September. 

Moore's Early. — Eesembles the Concord in general 
appearance, but ripens two or three weeks earlier. Per- 
haps the best early black grape for family use. 

Worden. — Color black. Bunches and berries of medi- 
um size. Very early, ripening the last of August. Of 
excellent quality. A most desirable variety. 

Delaicare. — This is perhaps the richest in flavor of all 
hardy grapes, and (piite equal to most of the foreign 
kinds. The bunches are small, however, though borne 
in great abundance, so that the weight of fruit on a 
given space is equal to most of the larger kinds. Color 
red. Medium early. 




Brighton.— Color a rich copper red. Bunches large, 
and of excellent flavor. Ripens in September. One of 
the finest of red-colored grapes yet known. 

Magara.— So far believed to be the best tvJiite grape 
for the table. It is medium early, ripening in September. 
In flavor it is considered equal to the best of the foreign 
grapes of the Chasselas class. A most abundant bearer. 
See engraving (figure 77), taken from a photograph two 
years after planting. 

PocJcUngton.— Bunches and berries of large size. Color 
greenish amber, occasionally tinged with pink. It is of 
medium earliness, and good quality, but having a foxy 
odor which is objectionable to some. 

Wilder.— One of the Eogers's Hybrids. Bunch medi- 
u m, berries large, rich black. Flavor excellent. It ripens 
in September, and is unsurpassed in all good qualities. 

Agawam. — Color reddish bronze. Size of bunches and 
berries medium. Eipens in September. This is another 
of the Eogers's Hybrids, having a distinct and delicious 
flavor, similar to some of the hothouse grapes. 

Salem. — Color reddish bronze. Bunches and berries 
large. Eipens in September, and again, like all the 
Eogers's Hybrids, of excelleut flavor. 

Martha. — A strong-growing w^hite grape. Bunches 
and berries of medium size, borne in great profusion. It 
is medium early and very handsome in appearance. 

Merrimaclc. — Color deep black. Bunches and berries 
large. Late, ripening in October. One of the Eogers's 
Hybrids. Flavor excellent. 

The varieties named in this list have been selected 
with a view to have fruit in succession from August to 
October, and, besides, to have a selection of such colors 
as will be most desirable when dished on the table, 
which, in the great variety of shades which we now 
have in this delicious fruit, makes a most beautiful or- 





I KNOW of no addition to a country home from which 
such a large amount of satisfaction can be obtained at so 
small an outlay as from a grapery for growing the differ- 
ent varieties of foreign grapes. It has been proved that 
none of these fine varieties can be cultivated with any 
satisfaction in any part of the Northern or even Middle 
States, except under glass. In California and some other 
states and territories west of the Mississippi, the varieties 
of the European Grape have been extensively grown in 
the open air. There the conditions of climate are such 
as to make their culture a success equal to that attained 
any where in Europe. Besides the luxury of the Grape 
as a table fruit, xio finer sight can be seen, and there 
is nothing of which an amateur gardener may be more 
proud than a grapery in which the vines are loaded with 
ripe fruit. And as this can be obtained at a trifling 


original outlay, and with but little attention in the culti- 
vation afterward, I will briefly describe how to do it. 

Our climate is particularly well adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of vines under glass without fire heat, and the won- 
der is that cold graperies are not in more general use, 
even by people of moderate means, than they at present 
are. We built one for our own use on the plan shown in 
figure 78, which is adapted, if desired, for a greenhouse 

248 garde:n^ij^g for pleasure. 

as well as for a grapery. The dimensions are fifty feet long 
by twenty-five feet wide. It is finished in very good style, 
and cost but little more than 81,000 without artificial heat. 
If heated by hot-water pipes, as shown in the interior 
view, it would cost about 8500 more, or 81,500 complete. 
It was planted in June, and the third year from planting 
we cut upwards of 300 pounds of fruit from it. The next 
season it yielded nearly double that quantity. The build- 
ing was begun by setting locust posts four feet apart. 
On these was framed the sill, on the front of which were 
placed upright sashes two and a half feet in hight, and 
on these the gutter. From the gutter was sprung the 
bars, ten inches apart each way, running on the west side 
clear to the ridge pole ; on the east framed to within two 
feet of it, so as to give room for lifting sashes. These 
were two feet wide by six feet long. To these sashes, 
eight in number, were attached the patent ventilating 
apparatus, which, by turning a crank, opens these sashes 
from one to twenty-four inches, as desired. The front 
sashes may be made so that every alternate one can open 
outward. With the instructions given in the chapters 
on Greenhouse Structures, any intelligent mechanic should 
be able to build from this plan, though, whenever green- 
houses or graperies are to be erected on a large scale, it 
will always be found to be the cheapest and most satisfac- 
tory plan to have it done by a regular greenhouse archi- 
tect. If there is no city or hydrant water, j)rovision should 
be made by building a cistern inside the grapery, say four 
feet deep by eight feet in diameter, or of that capacity 
in an oblong shape would be better. This cistern can be 
supplied by water from the roof, having a waste pipe for 
overflow. These general directions for such a structure 
as is shown in the cut, figure 78, are equally applicable 
for almost any size or kind of grapery. Many are built 
in the form of a ^^ean to ;" that is, placed against any 
building or fence, using such for the back wall of the 



grapery. This would necessitate only the low front wall, 
which need not be more than one foot from the ground, 
if the width is but ten or twelve feet ; but a path would 
require to be sunk inside to give room to stand upright. 
The sketch, figure 79, shows an outline of a ^Mean-to" 
grapery twenty feet wide, nine feet high at back, and 
two feet in front. Such a structure (exclusive of the 
*^ border") may be put up roughly at a cost not exceed- 
ing four dollars per running foot, without heating ap- 

^0 ft ^^ 


paratus. Its aspect may be any point from east to 
southwest, though if due south all the better. 

I recollect that some twenty years ago a German jeweler 
in Jersey City, N. J., grew a splendid crop of Black 
Hamburghs on vines which had been planted against the 
rear fence of his city lot, by placing against the fence 
some old sashes eight feet long. It was rather a bung- 
ling sort of an arrangement and awkward to get at, but 
it served the purpose of ripening the Hamburgh grapes, 
which could not have been done without the glass. 

The border of the grapery we have in use was begun 
by excavating the natural soil to the depth of twenty 
inches and fifteen feet in width, for the length of the 
grapery on each side. The inside was left untouched, 


the borders being entirely outside. The bottom of the 
excavation was graded from the front of the building to 
the outside of the borders, with a fall of about an inch 
to a foot, so that thorough and rapid drainage would be 
sure to be attained. At the extremity of each border a 
drain was built to carry off the water. The whole bot- 
tom was then cemented over so as to prevent the roots 
from penetrating the subsoil. This pit was then filled 
to the depth of about two feet (four inches being allowed 
for settling) with a compost which was previously pre- 
pared by mixing about three parts of turf taken from 
the surface of a rather shaly pasture, one part of rotten 
stable manure, and one part of lime rubbish. In addi- 
tion, about one-twentieth part of rough or broken bone 
was added. 

It is one of the popular errors that vines for graperies 
should be two or three vears old. The asfe of a vine 
usually has but little to do with its size, and if grape- 
vines are properly grown the first year from cuttings, 
they will be quite as good for planting as if two or three 
years old. In fact, it is a question whether a vine grown 
from a cutting in March, and planted in June, is not 
quite as good as one a year older. Our experience has 
shown that there is hardly a perceptible difference in the 
two at the end of the season. As such vines, however, 
are too tender to be shipped far, we generally recommend 
buying one year old vines that may be planted in April, 
May, or June, having ripened shoots about three feet in 
length. These vines are all grown in pots the previous 
season, and when received the soil should be shaken off 
entirely, and the roots spread out in the border without 
injuring them. The root, it will be understood, is 
planted outside in the border, and the shoot taken inside, 
through an opening in the walls, which may be made of 
brick, stone, or wood, and should be left open at every 
three feet, the distance at which the vines should be 


planted. If the y^W is of wood, it can easily be cut to 
suit the size of the vine. The plants we used were strong 
one-year-old vines, and were set about June 1st. By 
October they had grown to over twenty feet in length. 
In November they were cut back to the bottom of the 
rafter, or about three feet from the ground, and quickly 
reached the top again the second year, with firm, well- 
ripened wood. In November following they were again 
pruned back to about five feet above the foot of the 
rafter, or eight feet from the ground. These shoots 
produced the 300 pounds of fruit referred to (the third 
year from the time of planting). The fourth year they 
reached the top of the rafter, when a much larger crop was 
taken. The varieties used were nine-tenths Black Ham- 
burgh, with a few Muscats and Frontignans, all of which 
have done exceedingly well, and have now been in bearing 
nearly twenty years. Since they liave been in full bearing, 
which was five years from the time of planting, they have 
averaged, one year with another, 1250 pounds of splendid 
grapes, or about one pound for every square foot of base 

Every December we lay the vines down alcng the front 
wall after being pruned, covering them completely with 
soil until May, when they are taken up and tied to the 
wires, which are one-sixteenth inch galvanized iron, and 
run across the rafters fifteen inches apart and fifteen inches 
from the glass. The training followed is what is called 
the ''spur" system, which is simply to allow one cane or 
shoot to each rafter (or three feet apart), and pruning 
the side shoots or "bearing wood'' annually back to one 
eye, which is the same plan advised for hardy grapes. 
In the summer treatment of the cold grapery, the prin- 
ciple must never be lost sight of, that to keep the vines 
m perfect health, a temperature of not less than seventy 
degrees at night, with ten or fifteen degrees higher dur- 
ing the day, is always necessary. Any rapid variation 


downward is certain to result in mildew. The floor of 
the grapery should be kept dashed with water at all 
times, unless in damp weather, from the time the buds 
start in May until the fruit begins to ripen in September, 
except during the period the vines are in flower, when it 
should be dispensed with until the fruit is set. If the 
weather is dry, copious watering is necessary for the 
border outside. The summer pruning consists simply in 
pinching off the laterals, or side shoots which start from 
where the leaf joins the stem, to one leaf. Every winter 
four inches of the best well-rotted stable manure is spread 
over the border, and over that six inches of leaves or 
litter. This is raked off in spring, and the manure 
forked in, the object being to feed the roots from the top 
of the border. This same treatment we give our hardy 
grapes with excellent results. 

I am a good deal of a utilitarian, and am very apt to 
make even my luxuries *^^pay" when it is practicable to 
do so ; and though I would hardly think of selling my 
grapes that have been grown for private use, yet I do not 
scruple to make the glass that shelters them do double 
duty by using it in Avinter to shelter our half-hardy Roses 
from November to May. Those that do not make rose- 
growing a business, as I do, can nevertheless profit by my 
example, and use the cold grapery for many purposes 
during the winter monfhs when it is not needed for the 
grape-vines. Besides Roses, all plants of a half-hardy char- 
acter may be kept there, such as Pomegranates, Oranges, 
figs, Crape Myrtles, Pampas Grass, Tritomas, Carnations, 
etc., care being taken that the pots or tubs in which they 
are planted are plunged in leaves, tan, or some such sub- 
stance, so that the roots do not freeze. The cold grapery 
makes an excellent poultry house in winter, only, if put 
to that use, care must be taken that the buried vines are 
secure against the scratching of the hens. In some sec- 
tions grape-vines are often attacked, when thus buried. 


by ground mice, which gnaw the bark, sometimes so as 
to completely destroy them. As a precaution, it is well 
to wrap the vines with hay, straw, or cotton batting, over 
which sprinkle a mixture of twenty parts flour to one of 
Paris green. This will poison the mice if they cub 
through the covering to get at the bark. Be careful not 
to use any greater proportion of Paris green than advised, 
as too much of it might injure the vines ; or the labor of 
wrapping the vines may be dispensed with by poisoning 
the vermin in the ordinary way. 



Whe"N" grapes are forced by artificial heat, probably 
the best plan is that of the *^ lean-to " structure shown by 
the illustrations, figures 80, 81, and 82. Figure 80 gives 
the plan, which, as in some former engravings, it is not 
practicable to show on the page at full length ; and it is 
accordingly * 'broken," a portion, as shown by the irregular 
lines, being taken out of each compartment. The figures 
give the proper proportions. Figure 81 is a part of the 
front elevation, and figure 82 a section at the division 
between the two houses. The house is one hundred feet 
long by sixteen feet wide, divided into two compartments 
for early and late forcing, each fifty by sixteen feet, and 
both heated by one boiler, with valves in the furnace pit 
to shut off and taps to draw the water from the pipes 
not in usQ, a matter to be looked to when vineries are 
not in use ; for if the water is not drawn out of the pipes 
it may freeze and break them. "When grapes are to be 
forced, it is essential that a suflicient covering of manure 
or leaves be placed on tlie border to prevent frost from 






reaching the roots, as to apply heat to the vines inside 
while the roots are frozen would seriously injure them. 
For very early forcing, when the vines are started as 





early as January, it is usual not only to put on covering 
enough to secure from frost, but also to slightly ferment, 
60 as to throw some warmth into the border. Ko matter 


at what season the grapery is started for forcing, the 
temperature should not run over fifty or fifty-five degrees 
at ni^ht, with a day temperature of ten or fifteen degrees 
higher, increasing ten degrees when the buds have 
opened, which will be in four or five weeks from the 
time of starting. In five or six weeks the fruit will be 
set, and the temperature is to be raised ten degrees 
more. In forcing, moisture is of equal importance with 
heat ; for if this is not attended to, you may expect red 
spiders and thrips, and then all your labor may be in 
vain. To keep up this moisture, tanks are usually placed 
on the hot-water pipes for graperies, and these are kept 
filled with water, keeping up a continued evaporation, 
except at the time the vines are in flower. It should 
then be discontinued until the fruit is set. When there 
is no such arrangement for evaporation, dash water over 
the floors and use the syringe. To secure fine berries 
and bunches, one-half of the berries should be thinned 
out when of the size of peas, using scissors made for this 
purpose. The rules for making the border, pruning, 
training, and general culture are the same for the forcing 
grapery as for the cold grapery. 



Of all small fruits, none stand so high in general 
favor as the Strawberry. Its culture is simple ; and as 
it grows freely in almost any soil, adapting itself to the 
climate of the extreme South as well as to our most 
Northern States, no garden of any pretensions should be 
without it. If a choice of soil can be had, nothing is so 
suitable as a deep, rich, but rather sandy loam, though it 
will yield returns suflQcient to warrant its cultivation on 


any soil, from almost pare sand to clay, provided it is 
drained naturally or artificially. In all soils, deep spad- 
ing or plowing is essential to the production of fine 
crops ; and this should not be less than a foot, and if 
eighteen inches, all the better. A coat of thoroughly 
rotted stable manure, at least three inches in thickness, 
should be dug in and well mixed with the soil to a depth 
of six or nine inches. In the absence of stable manure, 
any of the concentrated fertilizers mentioned in Chapter 
VI., '*How to Use Concentrated Fertilizers," used in 
the manner and quantities there described, will do as a 
substitute. AYhere muck from the swamps or leaf mold 
from the woods can be obtained, twenty bushels of either 
of these mixed with one bushel of ashes will make an ex- 
cellent fertilizer for Strawberries, and may be spread on 
as thickly as stable manure, and on sandy soils is prob- 
ably better. 

Strawberries maybe planted either in the fall or spring. 
If the plants are to be set in the fall, it should not be 
done, in this latitude, if it can be avoided, before the 
middle of September. This, of course, refers to the 
plants from runners taken up from the bed in the usual 
manner ; and there is nothing gained in time over plant- 
ing the next spring, as the plant must grow for one sea- 
son before it can bear a full crop of fruit. In private 
gardens it is much better to have the plants la3'ered in 
pots, as they may then be set at almost any time. These 
pots may be from two to three inches in diameter. When 
a lot of Strawberry plants are wanted for a new bed, all 
that is necessary to do is to fill these small pots with 
soil, and "plunge" or plant the pot just to the surface 
level, placing the unrooted "runner" of the Strawberry 
plant on the top of the soil in the flower pot, and laying 
a small stone or clod on it to keep it in place. This 
method of striking in pots is shown in figure 83. The 
runners so treated will form plants in two or three weeks, 



and may be planted out with safety any time from 
August to October. If Strawberry plants, treated in 
this way, are planted in x\ugust, and care taken that all 
runners that come from them be cut off as soon as 
formed, so that the whole force of the root is thrown 
into the main crown, a full crop of berries will be 
gathered the season following, or in nine or ten months 
from the time of planting. We have practised this sys- 
tem of layering Strawberry plants in pots, for what we 



need for our own use, for the past twenty years, and the 
results have been so successful that we have many con- 
verts to the system, not only among those who grow for 
their own private use, but many who grow this fruit for 
market now use no other method. Plants grown in this 
manner can be obtained from the nurseries, but the nec- 
essary labor and the expense of the pots make the price 
five times more than that of ordinary plants rooted in the 
usual way and known as 'Aground layers." 


When Strawberry plants are set out in the fall, unless 
under favorable circumstances, many will fail to grow, 
for the reason that each young plant or runner is sus- 
tained in part by the old plant, and when detached, feels 
the shock more than a rooted cutting or seedling plant 
does, that has been growing for weeks on its own ac- 
count. For that reason we have always advised all that 
were intending to plant fresh Strawberry beds, to prepare 
their plants a few weeks ahead by layering them in pots. 
Two to four hundred plants are all that an ordinary 
family will need, and two or three hours' work would be 
all the time required to layer the plants in the pots. 
One hundred plants so prepared will give more fruit the 
first season than a thousand planted in the usual way, 
and the i^lant forms a clump quicker, and much less time 
is expended in keeping them clean. The use of layered 
plants is recommended specially for summer and fall 
planting. The plants may be oljtained, by tliis plan of 
layering, as early as July, and the sooner they are set out 
the greater will be the crop of fruit the next season, al- 
though if, for any reason, the layered plants cannot be 
obtained to plant before September, they will even then 
produce a fair crop of fruit. Our own planting is 
usually done by the first week in August, and we rarely 
obtain less than a pint from each plant. 

In spring the use of potted plants would have no spe- 
cial advantage, as, if planted in April or May, they would 
have all the summer to grow, but, of course, little fruit 
can be expected the season of planting. For this reason, 
it will be seen that, to secure a crop quickly, the time to 
plant is in July, August, or September, and from plants 
that have been layered in pots. There is no arbitrary 
rule for the distance apart at which Strawberry plants 
should be set; but if the ground has been prepared as ad- 
vised, the finest fruit will be had by giving them plenty 
of room. For our own use we usuallv set four hundred 


plants annually in August, at two feet apart between the 
rows, and eighteen inches between the plants, and gather 
about two hundred quarts of splendid fruit. If the 
ground is limited they may be planted at half the above 
distances, particularly if set late in fall. There is no plant 
cultivated where the necessity for keeping the ground 
clean is so imperative as it is for Strawberries. It never 
can be made profitable under slipshod culture, for, 
from the nature of the plant, it cannot defend itself 
against weeds, and if neglected will quickly get over- 
whelmed and destroyed. Thousands of acres of Straw- 
berries are planted annually, which, from the Avant of 
prompt work at the proper time, are allowed to be de- 
stroyed by weeds. At a small cost in labor, at the 
proper time, such crops might have paid a handsome 

There is one very important point in Strawberry cul- 
ture that should never be neglected ; and that is, that 
the beds be entirely covered with hay, straw, or leaves, 
to the depth of three or four inches. This covering 
should not be put on, liowever, before the approach of se- 
vere weather, which, in this latitude, is about the middle 
of December. This covering should not be taken off in 
spring. It is only necessary to go over the beds as soon 
as growth begins, and pull the covering back from the 
plants just sufficient to expose the crown, allowing all to 
remain on the bed. This covering serves several purposes. 
It keeps the roots warm until the plants start to grow; 
it keeps the fruit clean when ripe ; it prevents the growth 
of weeds, and, finally, acts as a mulch to keep the soil 
from drying in hot weather. 

Although Strawberry beds will remain in bearing for a 
number of years, the fruit is always largest and finest the 
first season of bearing, gradually getting smaller as the 
plants get older ; hence it is desirable to provide for a suc- 
cession, if not every year, at least every second year. For 



garden culture in this, as in all other fruits, it is unwise to 
use any but fully tested varieties, five or six of which are 
sufficient. Here, again, as in almost every other fruit or 
flower, the advance in excellence compels us to name a 
different set every few years ; so that, of the kinds ad- 
vised in the last edition of this book written in 1875, 
not one can be named in 1887; and it may be that in 
another decade these too will have been superseded 
by others more desirable. 


There are hardly two sections of the country, one hun- 
dred miles apart, where the same varieties of Strawberries 


are grown. We can only offer those grown in the vicinity 
of New York as our standard. 

The Henderson (figure 84). This new Strawberry 
originated with Mr. George Seymour, South Xoiwalk, 



Conn., in 1883, who named it in honor of the author 
of this work. It is doubtful if there is another Straw- 
berry in cultivation having such a combination of 
good qualities as the Henderson. The fruit is of the 
largest size, rich, glossy crimson in color, looking as if 
varnished, early, and exceedingly productive ; but its ex- 
celling merit is its exquisite flavor and aroma. Whether 
for family or market use, the Henderson is almost 
certain to become a standard sort, particularly on light 
soils. It seems not to be so well adapted to heavy soils. 

Fi?. 85. — CBmsoN cltjstek strawberbt. 
It is a perfect-flowered variety, and, therefore, never fails 
to set its fruit. 

Crimson Cluster (figure 85). On the 10th of Juno, 
1886, I examined this Strawberry on the grounds of 
the raiser, Mr. E. W. Durand, and found 3,000 plants 
that had been planted on the 15th of August, 1885, 
which, in less than ten months from the date of planting, 
were producing a crop that would average fully a quart 
to each plant ; 3,000 quarts from the 3,000 plants, or at 
the rate of over 20,000 quarts per acre. The crop was so 
immense, and the size of the berries so large, that the 



pickers, who were paid two cents per quart, averaged 
twenty-five quarts per hour, or five dollars per day ; a 
fact beyond question, and which could be attested by a 
dozen affidavits. At the first picking, every yard of row 
yielded a quart of fruit. Wlien to this extraordinary 
production we add the further facts, that this Strawberry 
is of tlie richest crimson color, borne in immense clusters 
(hence the name), and that it is one of the earliest as 
well as the latest — as its great vigor prolongs its season 


of fruiting — combined with its excellent quality, there is 
every reason to think that it is bound to be the most 
valuable Strawberry ever raised by Mr. Diirand. 

On the 10th of July, one month after my first exami- 
nation, seventy quarts of splendid fruit were gathered 
from the 3,000 plants above referred to ; and furthermore, 
to show that it still kept on fruiting, Mr. Durand sent 
me a large cluster of berries in all stages of development 
on the 30th of July ; something entirely unknown in a 



Strawberry that had already given an immense early 

Mr. Durand says that the Crimson Cluster is so 
completely a pistillate variety that the stamens can 
hardly be seen, yet, he further says, it may be planted 
five miles away from any other Strawberry and never fail 
to produce enormous crops. He adds that he has grown 
it in frames under glass in early spring, where it could 


not possibly be impregnated witli any other variety, with 
the same results — an abundant crop. 

He thinks that this fact, to a great extent, upsets the 
very prevalent notion that perfect stamens and pistils on 
the same plant are necessary to produce a crop of fruit. 
Without having personally given the matter much atten- 
tion, I have long believed, from general observation, that 
there was more importance given to the necessity for 


''perfect flowers/' as they are called, in Strawberries 
than results warranted. From its free fruiting qualities 
I am inclined to believe that the Crimson Cluster will 
prove to be a grand forcing Strawberry. 

Jersey Queen (figure 80). This variety was sold for 
the first time in the fall of 1881, and is, perhaps, one 
of the very best late Strawberries thus far introduced. 
The size is immense, often measuring six inches in cir- 
cumference. Shape, roundish conical ; color, a beautiful 


scarlet crimson ; perfectly solid, and of excellent flavor. 
It is an enormous bearer, many plants averaging a quart 
of first quality fruit. It is one of the latest Strawberries, 
the crop in this vicinity being in perfection about the 
25th of June, while the average crop of Strawberries is 
at its best by the 15th of June. For this reason it is 
found to be one of the best kinds to grow at the summer 
liotels in the North. 

SharpJess (figure 87). With the exception of Jersey 
Queen and Crimson Chister. the largest and one of the 


heaviest berries of this collection. It is of fine flayer, a 
good bearer, and has now become a standard sort. 

Parry. — One of the earliest large berries, of great 
beauty, excellent quality, prolific, and one of the very 
hardiest and strongest growers. 

Jewell (figure 88). A comparatively new variety, orig- 
inated in 1880. It is of the largest size, perfect form, 
color bright red changing to crimson, of medium earli- 
ness ; an enormous cropper, sometimes reaching four 
hundred bushels per acre. 

The Hoffman. — This is now the most popular berry for 
the Southern States. It is of medium size, average flavor, 
but a most abundant bearer and strong grower, and, 
above all, has the requisite solidity or firmness essential 
for distant carriage. 


The three-quarter span greenhouses (already described 
and illustrated in the chapter on Greenhouse Structures), 
or the lean-to style, as advised for forcing graperies, are 
equally adapted, with slight modification, for the forcing 
of Strawberries. This modification i.s in having the 
benches or tables raised, so as to be as near the glass as 
it is practicable to have them, as shown by the sketch (fig- 
ure 89) of end section annexed. The proper preparation of 
the plants for Strawberry forcing is indispensable to suc- 
cess. This is best done by layering the runners in small 
pots, as described under the head of *' Strawberry Cul- 
ture." The layers may be placed in the pots at any time 
from the middle of July to September 1st. When the 
pot is filled with roots (which will be in about two or 
three weeks from the time the Strawberry runner is 
placed in it), it is taken up and shifted into a four-inch 
pot in soil four-fifths turfy loam to one-fifth rotted cow 
dung, to which may be added a sliglit sprinkling of pure 
bone dust — say a handful to every bushel of soil. 



When the Strawberry plants have been shifted from 
the pots in which they were layered into the four-inch 
size, they should be set in the open sunshine, standing 
the pots close together, and carefully watered as occasion 
requires, so as to induce the best possible growth. All 
runners should be carefully pinched off as they appear, 
so that the whole force of the roots may go to develop 
the main plant, or fruiting crown, as it is sometimes 
called. In four or five weeks the four-ioch pots will be 


filled with roots, and the plants must again be shifted into 
six-inch pots and treated as before, which will give, by 
the middle of October, the necessary strong plants for 
forcing. As the season of growth stops about this date, 
water should be withheld to some extent, so that the 
plants may get a season of rest. 

AVhen they are placed in the forcing-house they may 
either be planted out on the benches at six or eight inches 
apart, in soil five or six inches deep, or they may be 
forced in the pots, as may be desired ; but, in any case, 
twice as many plants should be prepared as will fill the 


house, for, if desired, two crops can easily be raised in 
succession. The first plants should be placed in the 
forcing-house about Xovember loth. These will produce 
ripe fruit by January or February. Plants put in in 
February will be ready by March or April. Of course, 
it will be necessary to keep the reserve plants of Straw- 
berries in a dormant state, which is best done in cold 
frames or pits, or even in a light or cold cellar, the pots 
being plunged up to the rims in dry leaves. 

The best rule to follow in forcing any plant is to keep 
as near as possible to its natural condition. We know 
that, as the Strawberry plant develops its leaves and 
flowers throughout May in this latitude in the open 
ground, the night temperature will average, perhaps, 
forty degrees for the first two weeks in May and fifty 
degrees for the last weeks, while for the first two weeks 
in June it will be about sixty degrees at night, and in all 
cases from ten to fifteen degrees higher in the day. This, 
then, is our rule for the forcing houses : Start slowly, 
increasing the temperature as the plant develops and 
ripens its fruit, just as Nature does in the field. 

Like Cucumbers, artificial impregnation is necessary 
for the Strawberry in the dull winter months. This is 
best done by using a camel's hair pencil, twirling it from 
one flower to another (particularly from the perfect to 
the pistillate flowers, if such varieties are forced) on clear 
days, and allowing all possible ventilation. Sometimes 
hives of bees are kept in Strawberry and Cucumber 
forcing houses, to assist in the impregnation. 

Some judgment is necessary in watering until there are 
indications of vigorous growth. Water at the roots spar- 
ingly; but, at the same time, do not allow the soil to get 
too dry, and be careful not to water the plants overhead 
when in bloom, as that will check the impregnation. 
When the fruit has "set," give water freely whenever 
necessary, and throughout the whole season of growth 


keep the atmosphere of the house well charged with 
moisture, in order to keep down the Eed Spider, the in- 
sect which is quickly destructive to both Strawberries 
and Cucumbers. 

The kinds of Strawberries which seem to have been the 
favorites for forcing are the Champion, a rather dark 
crimson berry of great beauty and of the largest size, 
with occasional trials of Jersey Queen, on account of the 
great size and beauty of the fruit. But the new variety 
Crimson Cluster, from trials made with it, is likely to 
prove the most valuable variety for forcing purposes. It 
is of the largest size, of beautiful form ; color, a rich 
shade of scarlet crimson, the surface looking as if var- 
nished. These peculiarities make it specially attractive, 
a necessity for forced Strawberries when retailed at about 
fifty cents a berry; for in the winter months, it must bo 
remembered, they sell at wholesale at six dollars per 
quart, and it takes only eighteen to twenty large berries 
to make a quart. 

To our rural readers this extraordinary price paid for 
fruit may seem incredible ; but all large cities contain 
people who are rich enough to afford these prices, not 
only for fruits, but for flowers, for it is no unusual thing 
for one dollar and even two dollars to be paid for single 
rosebuds of the rarer or finer sorts. At the same date 
tliat forced Strawberries are selling in Xew York at six 
dollars per quart, or forced Cucumbers at six dollars per 
dozen, both Strawberries and Cucumbers grown m the 
Southern States are selling at one-sixth these prices ; but 
the quality, of course, bears no comparison with the 
forced commodities. Besides its value as a fruit, as a 
beautiful feature in the forcing house nothing exceeds 
the Strawberry when fully ripe. A few dozen plants will 
fill the house with their delightful aroma. 



To have the Raspberry in perfection, the same prepara- 
tion of soil is necessary as for the Strawberry, only that, 
while, for the best results, the Strawberry bed must be 
perfectly clear of shade, the Raspberries will do very well 
in a little shade ; that is, in such a situation as will allow 
them one half or so of the sunlight. The canes or shoots 
of the Raspberry are biennial; that is, the cane or shoot 
that is formed one season bears fruit the next season, and 
dies off after fruiting, giving place to the young cane that 
is to fruit the following season, and so on. The distances 
apart to plant the Raspberry for garden culture may be, 
if in rows, four feet apart, with the plants two feet apart 
in the row; or, if in separate stools or hills, they may be 
set three feet each way; or, planted at distances of four 
feet aj^art, three plants may be put in each ^' hill," which 
will sooner secure a crop. They may be set either in 
fall or in spring. If in the fall, a covering of four or five, 
inches of dry leaves or litter should be spread over the roots 
to prevent them from getting too much frozen. Even 
when the plants are established and growing, it is neces- 
sary, in many cold sections, to bend down the canes and 
cover them with pine branches or some covering that will 
shield them from severe freezing. On a large scale the 
canes are bent down and covered with a few inches of 
earth, an operation that may be rapidly performed by two 
persons. One bends down the canes (using a pitchfork 
or other implement), as shown in the accompanying dia- 
gram (figure 90), while the other throws sufificient earth 
near the tips to hold the canes in place. After a rov/ is 
thus bent over, the two go back and cover with earth 
more completely. 

All the pruning that is necessary for the Raspberry is 
to thin out the shoots in each hill to four or six. This 
is best done in the summer after the fruit is gathered, 



and at the same time the old caries that have borne the 
fruit should be cut out, so that the young shoots, coming 
forward to do duty next season, may have room to 


grow freely, and develop and ripen the wood. On rich 
soils these shoots are very vigorous, and, if left to grow 
unchecked, would reach seven to eight feet in hight; but 
it is best to pinch out the tops of the young shoots when 


about six feet high. This makes the shoots stouter, be- 
sides keeping the plant at a convenient hight to pick the 
fruit. When the leaves drop in fall, the canes may be 



shortened down a foot or so, whicli will complete tlie 
pruning process. 

To get the full benefit of all the fruit, it is very neces- 
sary to stake the Kaspberry. This may be done either by 

tying the canes of each plant separately to a stout stake, 
driven two feet or so into the ground, or, if grown in rows, 
they may be tied to wires running along the rows. The 


wires should be stretched between two stout posts, one at 
each end of the row, and three feet, more or less, above 
the ground, according to variety. To prevent the wire 
from sagging, stakes should be driven into the ground 
directly under it, at intervals of six or ten feet. The 
wire is attached to these by means of staples placed over 
it and driven into the ends of the stakes. The diafrram 
(figure 91) shows the method of training to the wire. The 
longer canes at the right and left are the canes which are 
to fruit the current year. These are tied out as there 
shown, while the new shoots, which are to furnish canes 
for the next year's fruiting, grow up in the center, and 
as soon as tall enough arc tied to the wire. After the 
outer canes have fruited, they are cut away to give the 
others more room. 

The varieties are very numerous. Those named below 
are sucli as will be most satisfactory for private use in 
this section of the country. From one hundred to two 
hundred hills or plants, of all varieties, will usually be 
sufficient for most families. 

HansplL — One of the earliest of all the Red Raspberries. 
It is of large size, beautiful in a])pcarance, and has a rich, 
spicy flavor. Color a bright crimson. It is one of the 
hardiest varieties, and has for the past five years been 
considered one of the best for either family or market 
use. (Figure 92.) 

Cuthbert. — Somewhat larger than the Hansell. Color 
dark crimson; flavor sprightly and delicious. Comes in 
in succession to the Hansell. 

Golden Queen. — Found growing in a field of the Cuth- 
bert Raspberry, and is, in all probability, a *^ sj)ort," as 
it is technically called, from that variety. The berry is 
of the largest size. The color is a deep orange yellow, 
and, like all the yellow kinds, is richer in flavor than 



the reds, and far surpassing them in our opinion. Be- 
sides, the rich orange yellow color makes it a beautiful 


table ornament when placed alongside of the red and black 
varieties. (Figure 93.) 



Kave become very popular of late years, many persons 
preferring their peculiar flavor to that of the red or yel- 
low. They belong to a distinct species of Raspberry. 
The plants make no suckers, but propagate themselves by 
taking root at the ends of the long branches, which in 
the fall, if allowed to grow at will, bend over and reach 
the earth. They throw up shoots from the base of the 
plant, which take the place of those which have already 
borne a crop. In gardens, where there is no desire to 


propagate the plants, the growing shoots should be 
pinched off when they get three or four feet high, 
and any side shoots they may throw off are stopped by 
pinching when they are about eighteen inches long. The 
bearing wood is thinned out after the fruit is off. They 
are of the easiest culture, and even on light sandy or 
gravelly soils good crops can be raised. They should be 
planted about four feet apart each way, or five feet between 


rows and two feet between the plants, for garden culture. 
The Black Cap is the only Raspberry suitable for drying, 
and for that purpose it is now largely grown. 

Gregg. — This is now grown to nearly the exclusion of 
all other kinds of Black Caps. It is of the largest size, 
excellent flavor, and enormously productive. The cut 
(figure 94) shows a few berries of natural size. 

Erliart Everlearing. — This is also an excellent variety, 
nearly equal to the G-regg, with the property of bearing 
three crops during the season, the last crop being late in 
the fall. 


The cultivation of the Blackberry is nearly similar to 
that of the Raspberry, except that it should be planted 
about one-third farther apart, and being hardier, there 
is no need for covering it in winter in this latitude. As 
it has a more vigorous growth, it is sometimes set in any 
out-of-the-way corner, and in almost any soil ;. but it will 
amply repay generous cultivation with finer fruit. The 
manner of growth is the same as the Raspberry ; and 
when the fruit is picked, the old canes are to be cut out 
to give the new ones a chance. The new shoots grow 
vigorously, and when they reach the bight of five, or, at 
most, six feet, they should be stopped by pinching. 
This will cause an abundance of side shoots to start, 
which are to be pinched when about eighteen inches long. 
This treatment increases the productiveness of the plants 
and keeps the fruit within reach. The bushes should be 
kept tied to stout stakes or wires, as advised for the 

The following are a few of the popular kinds: 
Early Harvest. — This is not only a first-class Black- 
berry in every respect, but its great merit is earliness, 
coming right in to succeed the Strawberries, beginning 
in this section to ripen tlie first week in July, and per- 



fectiiig its entire crop before other kinds have ripened. 
It is enormously productive, a quart of fine fruit being 
easily picked from a single shoot. (Figure 95.) 

Wilsoji, Jr. — This comparatively new variety combines 
all the good qualities of the old Wilson Blackl)erry, and 
exceeds it in being of a more vigorous and liealthy 
growth, and, like the Early Harvest, produces immense 


CtArdenixg for plrasuke. 




quantities of fruit of the finest qualit}*. As will be seen 
by the illustration (figure 96), the fruit is of the largest 
size. Color, deep glossy black. 

Wachusetts Thornless. — A strong growing variety, al- 
most destitute of spines, which makes it, for that reason, 
much prized for the private garden. It is a late variety, 
beginning to ripen in midsummer, and continuing for a 
long time in bearing. Of unsurpassed flavor. 


Lucretia. — This belongs to the class of Blackberries 
known as Dewberries. They are of trailing habit, doing 
nicely along the foot of old walls or waste places, creep- 
ing in the grass. Of course, if given garden culture, 
which might be similar to that for Strawberries, the fruit 
will be finer. It is an interesting variety, and well 
worthy of a place in every garden. (Figure 9T.) 



Cry.^tal White- 


This seems, as Mr. Lovett says, '^a 
veritable albino," a white Black- 
berry, a novelty as rare as a white 
crow or a white blackbird among 
birds. It is of clear, translucent 
white, very sweet and pleasant 
in flavor. Well worthy, from its 
novelty, of a place in the fruit 
garden. It is less hardy than the 
black kinds, requiring the same 
protection as raspberries (lig.98). 


The Currant is useful both for dessert and for preserv- 
ing purposes. An immense weight of fruit is obtained 
for the space it occupies, and the ease of its culture 
makes it common in every garden. The red and white 
varieties may be planted three or four feet apart each 
way, the black at four or five feet apart. Pruning is 
done in the fall by cutting off about a third of the young 
growth of the previous summer, and thinning out old 
shoots when the plants get too thick. All are trained in 
low bush form, the whites and reds usually from three to 
four feet high and wide, and the black four to six feet. 
They can also be grown trained against fences or walls 
like grape vines, and will, in such positions, attain eight or 
ten feet in hight in five or six years from the time of 
planting, if the soil is deep and rich. Grown in this way, 
if care is taken in training, the fruit is larger, and when 
ripe, particularly if the black, white, and red varieties 
are placed in contrast, they form very attractive orna- 
ments for the garden. In many places, where the area 
for garden operations is limited, they can easily be 
trained against the fence.-. 

An insect known as the currant worm is often verv de- 



Fig. 99.— fat's prolific. 

Fii;. 10;>. —BLACK CHAMPION. 


structive. On its first appearance, if confined to a few 
leaves, these should be cut off, shoot and all, and de- 
stroyed. If they threaten to be troublesome, powdered 
White Hellebore or Persian Insect Powder, either dusted 
on or mixed four ounces to a pailful of water and applied 
with a syringe, will destroy them at once. Of course 
these poisonous remedies can only be used before the fruit 
is ripe. 

Fay^s Prolific. — Color reddish amber; berries and bunch 
large; flavor excellent. An abundant bearer, and a most 
beautiful and desirable fruit for dessert. (Figure 99.) 

Black Najyles. — This is the favorite black variety, and 
is used almost exclusively for jams and jellies. The 
black varieties are much less grown here than in Europe, 
but the taste for them is increasing. 

Black Champion. — An improved variety of Black Cur- 
rant, with dense clusters, very prolific, and decidedly 
superior in flavor to the preceding. The bunches, how- 
ever, are hardly so large. (Figure 100.) 

^Mlite Grape. — Berries large, of a yellowish-white 
color. The flavor of this variety is less acid than any 
other. Excellent for dessert. 

Cherry. — Berries larger than that of any other sort, 
but too acid for most tastes, and only suitable for jelly. 


The Gooseberry is a fruit better suited for the climate 
of Great Britain than for ours, and it is rarely seen here 
in the perfection it attains there. It ripens just when 
our hottest weather occurs, forcing it unnaturally to 
maturity, and hence the absence of the size and flavor 
it attains when ripened at a lo\ver temperature. The 
native varieties, though far inferior in size and quality, 
are usually more free from mildew, and are therefore 
most desirable for cultivation here, as the fruit with us 
is more used in the green than in the ripe state. Goose- 



berries are planted from three to four feet apart, and are 
treated in all other respects like Currant bushes. 
Industry. — A European variety that proves admirably 

adapted to our climate. Il is comparatively new. In 
size and flavor it is equal to many of the finest English 
sorts. Color a dark red. The cut (figure 101) is an ex- 
cellent representation of its average size. 


Doiuning. — A native variety of medium size, greenish- 
white when ripe, and of excellent quality. 

Houglitonh Seedling. — Also a native variety. Size 
medium, color red, flavor average. 

Of the foreign varieties among Reds may be named as 
loading sorts, Warrington, Champion, Waterloo ; of 
Greens, Green Globe, Melville, Green Gage ; of Yellows, 
Sulphur, Champagne, Golden Drop ; of Whites, Crystal, 
AVhitesmith, Dutch. 

There are a number of English and Scotch mechanics 
employed at the mills in Paterson, X. J., who make a 
specialty of growing English Gooseberries in their cottage 
gardens, and hold yearly exhibitions for prizes for the 
best sj^ecimens. By the following method they have 
attained nearly as good success as is met with in Eng- 
land. The soil (which is naturally a good strong loam, 
and one foot or more in depth) is trenched to a depth of 
fifteen or eighteen inches, and mixed with the subsoil, 
which U partly sand and partly clay. Through this soil 
is incorporated three inches of well-rotted cow duns:. 
The Gooseberry plants, which are all imported from Eng- 
land, are planted about three and a half feet each way ; 
and as soon as the hot and dry weather begins (usually 
about the middle of June), a heavy mulching, three or 
four inches deep, of well-rotted horse or cow dung is 
spread over the whole surface. This keeps the roots cool 
and moist, the necessary conditions for the perfection of 
this fruit. 


The Fig, on account of not being hardy in the Xorth- 
ern States, is but little cultivated, unless in tubs, which 
are placed in cellars or sheds to protect them during tlio 
winter months, or occasionally on the back wall of lean- 
to graperies : but in all parts of the countrv where the 

Ql'lNCE. 285 

thermometer does not get lower than twenty degrees 
above zero, they can be grown freely in the open air 
without protection. It is hardly ever necessary to prune 
the Fig, except to regulate its shape by cutting back any 
extra strong shoots. In sections of the country such as 
Maryland, West Virginia, or Delaware, where it may 
require slight protection when grown in the open air, it 
should bo planted against a wall or fence, and trained 
against it. On the approach of cold weather it should 
be laid down and covered as recommended for hardy 
grapes. When grown in tubs to be kept in cellars, 
sheds, or greenhouse pits, they should be placed under 
cover in this latitude early in November, kept as dry as 
possible without shrivelling, and set out in the open air 
again in May. The soil and general treatment for plants 
grown in the open air in pots or tubs will be suitable for 
them. There are numerous sorts in cultivation, from 
which we select the following : 

White Genoa. — Large, roundish, yellow skin ; flesh 
reddish pink, excellent flavor. 

Broion Turkey. — Pear shaped, average size, brown 
skin ; flesh red, rich flavor. 

Early Violet, — Skin brownish-red ; flesh reddish-crim- 
son, delicious flavor ; fruit rather small. One of the 

Brown Ischia. — Size large, skin yellowish-brown ; flesh 
violet, sweet and luscious. Very prolific. 


A few Quince trees should be planted in every garden 
where there is any pretension to a collection of fruits. It 
is a tree requiring but little attention, and for that reason 
is often neglected, and very unsightly specimens are seen. 
The tree ij very ornamental in flower and fruit ; and by 


a little attention to pruning, a handsome head may be 
formed, though equally luxuriant crops are seen on trees 
that have been untouched for years. They may be 
planted eight or ten feet apart. The following varieties 
are in most general use. 

Apple-shaped or Orange. — A large round variety, 
bright golden-yellow. 

Pear-shaped, — Color greenish-yellow, and its shape 
being more pear-like, readily distinguishes it from the 
other and better variety. 

Rea^s Seedling. — This variety is the largest and finest 
of all. 


The Cherry-tree begins to bear usually in two or tliree 
years after planting trees of the size sold at the nurseries, 
and continues to enlarge in growth and productiveness 
annually, until it often attains a larger size than most of 
our fruit-trees. The Cherry grows freely in almost any 
soil that is free from moisture, preferring, however, like 
most other fruits, a deep loamy soil. The tree may be 
trained as desired, either in pyramidal form or with a 
round top, by pruning and directing the shoots. The 
distance apart may be ten or twelve feet. Varieties : 

Blarh Tartarian. — Deep purplish-black, very large ; 
fine solid flesh. Season last of June. This variety has 
been in cultivation for over fifty years, and yet standi 
un equaled in quality. (Figure 102.) 

RocJcport.'—Yerj large, amber-yellow, dotted red ; flesh 
firm, sweet, and excellent. Eipens in June. 

Coe's Transparent. — Color pale amber-yellow, spotted 
with pink ; flesh tender, sweet, and of fine flavor. Ripens 
middle of June. 

May Duke. — Color dark red, size medium, quality ex- 
cellent. Ripens early in June. 



Morello. — A sub-acid variety of medium size, color 
bright red, changing to darker color when fully ripe. 


Hangs long on the tree, and is mainly used for pies and 


The cultivation of the Plum is rendered nearly useless 
in most places by the attacks of the Curculio, or Plum 
Weevil. An almost certain remedy is to use a teaspoon- 
ful of London Purple or Paris Green to six gallons of 


water, syringed on the trees every other day for fifteen 
days, beginning the operation as the flower begins to 
drop, as it is just when the fruit is forming that the in- 
sect deposits its egg. No danger need be apprehended 
from the small quantity of the poison used, as it will be 
all washed from the fruit long before it rij^ens. Another 
remedy, which will effectually save a crop in the districts 
infested by this insect, is to jar the tree in the morning 
or in cool days, first spreading sheets under the trees to 
catch the weevils, after which they may be burned. If 
this is begun as soon as the Plums ai-e formed, and per- 
sisted in every few days until they are ripe, a large share 
of the crop may be saved. This may be thought to be 
paying rather dear for a crop of Plums, but it is really 
the only way it can be secured. Many years ago the crop 
of a Plum orchard under my charge, numbering over a 
hundred large trees, was saved by this process, while all 
other Plums in the district, where the jarring of the trees 
was not resorted to, were completely destroyed. This 
plan was recommended nearly half a century ago, and no 
other practicable method has been presented until the 
recent use of Paris Green, applied as already described. 
It has been recommended by some to plant the trees on 
the bank of a pond or running stream, and train them to 
overhang the water ; also to jDave or cement around the 
roots, so that the insect cannot burrow; but these plans 
would be often impossible, and are practically useless in 
general culture. Trees upon stiff, clayey soils are more 
exempt from the ravages of the Curcuho than those upon 
light ones, probably for the reason that the insect in the 
grub or larvae state cannot penetrate them so readily, as 
they must enter the ground to become perfect insects. 
The average distance at which the Plum may be planted 
is from ten to twelve feet. The following are distinct 
and fine sorts. 

Smith's Orleans. — Color purple, with a rich blue 


bloom ; size medinm ; flesli deep yellow; flavor of first 
quality ; clingstone. Ripens in August. 

Washingto7i. — Color yellow, marbled witli red next the 
sun ; large size ; flesh firm, sweet, and rich ; freestone. 
Ripens first of September. 

Green Gage. — A well-known variety, rather small in 
size, but of exquisite flavor. Color greenish-yellow, 
spotted with red on the sunny side ; freestone. Ripens 
early in August. 

Imperial Gage. — Of large size, and similar in flavor to 
the Green Gage. Color yellowish-green. 

Columbia. — Of the largest size; color brownish-purple; 
flesh yellow, sweet, and finely flavored ; freestone. Ripens 
the last of August. 

Coe's Golden Drop. — A very old and well-known sort. 
Color golden yellow with red spots next the sun ; large, 
oval ; rich, sweet, yellow fleshc3d. Ripens the middle of 

Magnum Bonum. — Yellowish white, egg-shaped, of 
large size and having a rich spicy flavor. 


An entirely distinct species from the American Persim- 
mon, and is likely to become a valuable addition to fruits 
in the Southern States, but the Southern States only, as 
repeated trials have shown that it is not likely to prove 
hardy in any part of the country where the thermometer 
falls lower than fifteen degrees above zero. It has al- 
ready been grown, to some extent, in Florida and Cali- 
fornia, and the fruit from Florida is now finding its way 
into our Northern markets, and at this time brings the 
very high price of twenty-five cents each, while oran.i^es 
from the same section hardly bring one-sixth of that 



The culture is very similar to that for the Orange, ex- 
cept that the Japan Persimmon, like its American rela- 
tive, is deciduous ; that is, it drops its leaves in the 
winter months. The fruit in taste is somewhat be- 
tween a Fig and an Apricot, and when fully ripe is de» 
licious. It has been long grown in Japan, where the 
varieties are quite as numerous as Phims are with us. hi 
size and coloring some kinds resemble a red tomato, 

Fig. 103. — JAPAN PERSIMMON {Fi'om a Photograph). 

though there is a great difference in the various kinds, 
both in shape and color. Figure 103 shows a variety of 
medium size. 


The Peach prefers the light, dry, and warm soils 
known as sandy loams. The tree is short-lived in most 
sections, and attains its best fruiting condition usually 
when from fire to nine years old. The tree is greatly 
benefited by pruning. The growth of the previous sea- 

PEACH. 291 

Bon should be shortened about one-third. This, if an- 
nually followed from the time the trees are set, will give 
them compact heads instead of open, straggling ones, the 
branches of which will break down with the first full 
crop of fruit. In the Peach-growing districts the culti- 
vators do not expect more than three crops in five years ; 
and if they get two full crops in that time they are con- 
tent, and amateurs should expect no more. When a crop 
sets at all there is usually more fruit than the tree can 
carry and ripen. No fruit needs severe thinning more 
than the Peach. In bearing seasons half or two-thirds 
of the Peaches which set niay be removed with benefit to 
the rest. The fruit should be removed when about the size 
of hazel nuts. When a tree appears sickly with yellow 
foliage, dig it up at once. The distance the trees should 
be set apart may be from ten to twelve feet. Among the 
favorite varieties for garden culture may be named the 

Hale's Early. — A very early Peach, of fair size and 
great beauty, but has the fault that it in some localities 
rots just as it begins to ripen, a difficulty probably due to 
overbearing rather than to locality. Preestone, excellent. 

Columbia, — Large, round, color yellow and red, streaked 
wdth dark crimson ; flesh yellow, rich, and juicy ; flavor 
excellent. Freestone ; ripens in September. 

Craioford's Early. — Large, roundish, color yellow, 
tinged with red ; flesh yellow, rich, and sweet. Ripens 
last of August ; freestone. 

CraioforcVs Late. — Similar in appearance, but ripening 
three weeks later. 

Cooledge's Favorite. — Size medium, roundish oval, 
color clear white with crimson cheek ; flesh rich, juicy, 
and of first quality. Ripens in August ; freestone. 

Honest John, or Early York. — Large, roundish, white 


■with red cheek ; flesh white, very juicy, excellent flaror. 
Eipens the middle of August ; freestone. 

Morris WJdte. — A well-known variety, size medium, 
color greenish-white, flavor average. The variety mostly 
used for preserving. Eipens the middle of September ; 

Bed Cheeh Melocoton. — Fruit large, yellow, with dark 
red cheek; flesh orange-3'ellow, flavor excellent- Eipens 
the middle of September ; freestone. 


Nectarines are only smooth-skinned Peaches, requiring 
in all respects similar treatment to the Peach. They are 
but little grown in this country, as they are even more 
liable than the Plum itself to injury by the attacks of 
the Plum Curculio. The same treatment recommended 
for its destruction in Plums must be applied to the 
Nectarine. There is a peculiarity in the flavor of some 
varieties of Nectarines differing from that of any of the 
Peaches, and by some they arc greatly preferred to any 
Peach, in flavor. The varieties are not numerous. 

Early Newington. — Large, roundish oval, greenish- 
yellow, mottled red ; flesh yellowish-white. Eipens in 
September ; cling. 

Hunfs Taicny. — Large, round, amber-yellow^ with red 
cheek ; flesh orange, melting, flavor excellent. Eipens 
in August ; freestone. 

Boston. — Large, oval, yellow, with mottled crimson 
cheek; flesh yellow, quality excellent. Eipens in Sep- 
tember ; freestone. 


The Apricot is closely related to the Plum, but belongs 
to another species. It is a delicious fruit, and in cold 
latitudes succeeds best grown against a fence or the side 

APPLE. 293 

of a house. The blighting Curculio attacks the Apricot 
also, and its culture can only be successful by combating 
the difficulties that attend tliat of the Plum, unless in 
special locations that seem few and far between. It is 
now grown to a large extent in California, where it is 
preserved by canning in immense quantities. The fol- 
lowing are good varieties : 

Moorpark. — Size large as an average Peach, yellow 
with red cheek; flesh orange, sweet, and of exquisite 
flavor. Ripens in July. 

Orange. — Pale yellow with red cheek, size medium. 
Ripens end of July. 

Turkey. — Large, deep yellow, shaded orange ; flesh 
pale yellow, firm, rich, and sweet. Ripens in August. 


The Apple can only be grown in small gardens as a 
dwarf, either kept in a bush form or trained as a pyramid 
or other shap3. The dwarf trees are made so by grafting 
on dwarfing stocks, while the varieties are the same as 
those found in the large trees of the orchard. Two sorts 
of dwarfing stocks are used by nurserymen, the Doucin 
and the Paradise. Trees upon the Doucin will ultimately 
grow quite large ; and as the Paradise is the only stock 
which makes really dwarf trees, the amateur who wishes 
to grow dwarf apple-trees should make sure that they are 
worked on Paradise stocks. Of course, trees of this kind 
are not advised as a source of profit ; but there can 
scarcely be a handsomer object in the garden than a bush 
six feet high, and about the same through, loaded with 
enormous apples. Dwarf apple-trees may be planted six 
feet ai)art each way, while ordinary trees in the orchard 
are given fifteen to thirty feet, or even forty feet. The 
following sorts are recommended for garden culture. 


gardexi:n"g for pleasure. 

(For descriptions, see nursery catalogueG,) Baldwin, 
Gravenstein, Khode Island Greening, King of Tompkins 


Connty, Maiden's Blush, Esopus Spitzenberg, Early Har- 
vest, Northern Spy, Porter, and Fall Pippin (figure 104). 


Like Apples, Pears are grown as dwarfs and standards; 
the former being planted from eight to ten feet apart, the 
latter from ten to fifteen feet. The dwarfs, budded on 
the quince stock, are mostly used for garden culture, as, 
from their habit, they are more suitable, besides having 
the invaluable quality of coming quicker into bearing. 
Time was when the adage went, ^' He that plants Pears, 



plants for his heirs;" but this is now no more applicable 
to the Pear than to the Peach ; for we can have fine 
crops of Pears budded on the Quince in three to five years 
from the time of planting. The trees may be grown as 
pyramids (as in figure 105), or in the bush form ; or, in 
small gardens, Pear, Peach, and other trees can be suc- 

YiiX. 105. — IvEIFFER PEAR, 

cessfully trained in what is called the oblique cordon, 
v/hich allows a number of varieties to be grown in a 
small space. Only a general outline of the method can 
be given here, referring for fuller details to Barry's and 



other works on fruit culture. A trellis is built about 
eight feet high, by nailing a strong top and bottom rail 
to posts, which should be about eight feet apart. Slats 
of inch stuff are put on between the two rails at an 
angle of thirty degrees. These are fastened on with 
screws, as, when the trees have reached the top, the slats 
are to be brought down to forty-five degrees ; and they 
should be long enough to allow for doing this. Young 
trees are set in an inclined position in a line with these 
slats, which are three feet apart. Each tree is cut back 
to a few buds, and one shoot allowed to grow from the 


strongest bud, all the others beins^ removed. This shoot, 
as it grows, is kept tied to the slat, and when it throws 
out side shoots, as it soon will, they are pinched back to 
three or four leaves, whenever the shoot is sufficiently 
developed to allow the number of the leaves to Be seen. 
By growing in this inclined position, and by pinching 
every shoot back to three or four leaves, the tree is 
dwarfed and made to bear early, and, when properly 
managed, forms a perfect cordon or garland, with fruit 



Fig. 107. — BARTLETT FEAB. 


along its whole length. Figure 106 shows a portion of a 
trellis of this kind. 

The following varieties are recommended for either 
kind of training. (For descriptions, see nursery cata- 
logues.) BeuiTe d'Anjou, Seckel, Beurre Bosc, Sheldon, 
Summer Doyenne, Winter Nelis, D .ichesse d'Angouleme, 
Doyenne Boussock, Lawrence, Howell, Belle Lucrative, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, and Bartlett (figure 107). Beurre 
Bosc, Sheldon, and Winter Nelis on Quince stock should 
bd double worked. 






Before taking up the subject of vegetable culture, I 
■will relate an incident connected with cottage gardening 
that may interest, if it does not benefit, some of those into 
whose hands this book may fall. About twenty years ago 
I had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of a gen- 
tleman whose duties compelled him to be at his desk in a 
close office in the city of New York, from nine o'clock 
A.M. to four P.M. Being naturally of a weak constitution, 
his sedentary life soon made him the victim of dyspepsy 
to such a degree that he felt that he must soon resign his 
situation. He was then a man of forty, entirely ignorant 
of anything pertaining to country life, and it was with 
great misgivings and reluctance that, by the advice of 
his physician, he changed his home from a closely built 
part of New York to a cottage in the then country-like 
suburb of Jersey City Heights, N. J. His means enabled 
him to purchase a modest cottage built on a lot fifty by 
one hundred and fifty feet. He did not want the land, 
he said, but the cottage was such as he fancied, and the 
ground had to go with it. It was about this time that I 
formed his acquaintance, through some business transac- 
tion, and he asked my professional advice as to what he 
could do with his land, which he had already begun to 
consider somewhat of an encumbrance. I replied to him 
that, if I was not greatly mistaken, in his little plot of 
ground lay a cure for all his bodily ills, and that, besides, 
it could add to the comforts if not the luxuries of his 
table if he would only work it. ''I work it!" he ex- 
claimed. *^You don't suppose that these hands could 
dig or delve," holding up his thin and bloodless fingers; 

and if they could, I know nothing about gardening." 



I told him I tlionglit neither objection insurmountable, 
if he once began. 

The result of our conversation was, that he resolved to 
try, and try he did to a purpose. Our interview was in 
March, and before the end of April he had his lot all 
nicely dug over, the labor being done by his own hands 
during an hour and a half each morning. His custom 
was to get up at six o'clock, and work at his garden until 
half past seven. This gave him ample time to dress, get 
breakfast, and be at his desk in the city by nine. The 
labor of merely digging was (to him) heavy and rather 
monotonous ; but he stuck to it bravely, and when he 
again presented himself before me for plants and seeds, 
and information as to what to do with them, it was with 
some pride that I saw my prescription had worked so 
well, for my friend then looked more like a farmer than 
a pallid clerk. The regulating of his little garden was a 
simple matter, and was djne according to the following 

diagram : 

Cauliflower, Cabbage, and Lettuce. 

: Strawberries. 

Cucumbers, Onions, and Parsley. 


Beets, Carrots, and Parsnips. 


Peas and Bush Beans. 

Asparagus and Rhubarb. 

During his first season, of course, he made some blun- 
ders and some failures, but his interest in the work in- 
creased year by year. His family was supplied with an 
abundance of all the fresh vegetables and fruits his lim- 
ited space could admit of being grown; a supply that it 
would have taken at least one hundred and fifty dollars 
to purchase at retail, and stale at that. But the benefit 
derived from the cultivation of this cottage garden was 


health— strong, rugged health — that, for the six years he 
was my neighbor, never once failed him. 

I know this case is an extremely exceptional one, for I 
never knew anotlier man who so resolutely worked him- 
self into health. There are hundreds of business men, 
book-keepers, salesmen, clerks, and the like, who live in 
the suburbs of all great cities, many of whom can ill 
afford to pay for tlie keeping of the plots surrounding 
their cottages, but ^vho think they can far less afford to 
do the work themselves. As a consequence, in nine cases 
out of ten, the rear, at least, of their suburban plots is a 
wilderness of weeds. But this is not the leazt of the 
evils. The owner has a certain amount of muscular force, 
and this, be it more or less, being unused, its possessor 
pays the penalty of his laziness in dyspe|)sy and a host 
of other ills. The proofs are apparent everywhere that 
garden operations are conducive to health and longevity. 
The work is not unduly laborious, and when fairly en- 
tered into has a never-failing interest. The growing and 
the watching of the great variety of plants give a healthy 
tone to the mind,Avhile the physical labor demanded by 
cultivation takes care of the body. 



It is perhaps best that the space allotted to vegetables 
should be at one side of the garden, and that for fruits 
at the other, at least in the beginning, though a rotation 
of crops or change of position may be advantageous in 
course of time. Figure 108 gives a convenient plan for 
the Fruit and Vegetable Garden. I will give in brief the 



U i 'i ^ 


111 II li 



culture of each vegetable in general use, placing them 
alphabetically for easy reference, and enumerate the lead- 
ing varieties. 

ASPARAGUS {Asparagtis officinalis). 

Asparagus should be planted the first spring that 
the owner comes into possession of the land. In the 
latitude of IN'ew York any time from April 1st to May 



15th ; and if the house is yet to be built, let the Aspara- 
gus bed be planted at once, as it takes the roots two or 
three years to acquire sufficient strength to give a crop. 
For an ordinary family a bed of six rows of fifty or 
sixty feet in length, and three feet apart, will be suf- 
ficient, the plants in the rows being set nine inches 
apart. In planting it is customary to use two-year-old 
plants ; but it often happens that as large a plant 
is raised from seed in good soil in one year as in a 

Fig. 109. — ASPARAGUS. 

poorer soil in two years. In such cases the one-year- 
old plant is preferable. 

The preparation of the Asparagus bed should be made 
with more care than for most vegetables, from the fact 
that it is a permanent crop, which ought to yield as well 
at the end of twenty-five as of five years, if the soil has 
been well prepared. The Asparagus bed, to start with, 
should be on ground thoroughly drained, either naturally 
or artificially, and if choice cau be had, on a rather light, 



sandy loam. This should be 
trenched and mixed with suf- 
ficient manure to foi'm a coat- 
ing at least six inches thick 
oyer the bed. This manure 
should be worked into the 
soil by trenching to the depth 
of two feet, as the roots of 
the plant will reach quite 
that depth in a few years. 
In setting, the crowns of the 
plants should be placed at 
least three inches below the 
surface. Asparagus may be 
planted either in the spring 
or the fall. If in the spring, 
it should be done as early as 
the ground is dry enough to 
work ; and if in the fall, just 
as soon as the plants can be 
had, which is usually in the 
early part of October. We 
prefer fall planting on light, 
well-drained soils, for the rea- 
son that, if it is done then, 
young roots are formed which 
are ready to grow on the ap- 
proach of spring; but if the 
planting is done in March, 
April, or May, this formation 
of new roots has to take place 
then and causes a correspond- 
ing delay in growth. Plants 
are sold by market gardeners 
and seedsmen; and as it will 

Fig. iio.-PALMETTo ASPAEAGus. savc a ycar or two to pur- 


chase them, it is not worth while to raise them from 
seed in a private garden. 

The edible portion is the undeveloped stems, which, if 
cut away as soon as they appear, are followed by others, 
which start from the crown of the plant. The cutting, 
if continued too long, would finally exhaust the root ; 
hence it is customary to stop cutting as soon as early 
peas become plent}^ and allow the remaining shoots to 
grow during the rest of the season, and thus accu- 
mulate sufiicient strength in the plant to allow it to pro- 
duce another crop of shoots the next season. The en- 
graving (figure 109) represents a strong plant with the 
earth removed from the roots. The shoots are shown in 
diiferent stages of development, and it will be seen how 
readily careless cutting may injure the buds which are 
ready to produce a succession of shoots. 

The surface of the Asparagus bed should have a top- 
dressing of three or four inches of rough stable manure 
every fall (November), which should be lightly forked 
into the bed in the spring. The variety mostly grown- is 
the Colossal, although the new French variety, known as 
the Palmetto (figure 110), is likely to supersede it, its 
merit being that the shoots grow more uniformly large 
than the Colossal. 

In some localities Asparagus is attacked by an insect 
called the Asparagus Beetle. The best method of getting 
rid of this pest, that we have found, is to coop up a hen, 
and let the chickens eat the insects and their eggs. 

ARTICHOKE, GLOBE {Cynara Scohjmus). 

The portion used of this plant is the undeveloped 
flower cluster, or the portion which is known as the 
scales of the involucre. They are boiled and served with 
drawn butter ; but outside of France they do not seem to 
be very generally appreciated. The plants are propagated 



first by seeds, sown in a hot-bed in March, and planted 
out at distances of from two to three feet. It is not 

always hardy enough for 
our winters in the North- 
ern States, though it 
proves so in all latitudes 
south of Washington. 
Here it is necessary, on 
the approach of winter, 
to draw the leaves togeth- 
er and earth up around 
them, and later to cover 
the tops with litter. 

{Rclianthics tvberosus). 

This is an entirely dif- 
ferent plant from the pre- 
ceding; but as the two are 
sometimes confounded, 
we give engravings of 
both. The edible por- 
tion of this is the tuber. 

Fior. lll.~GLOBE AKTICnOKE. 

while that of the Glohe Artichoke is the scales surround- 
ing the flowers. The tubers of the Jerusalem Artichoke 
somewhat resemble the Potato in appearance, and the 


plant produces immense crops. But few persons in this 
country like the flavor, and it is rarely grown unless for 
stock or as a curiosity. Its culture is similar to the 



Potato. It has stems, leaves, and flov/ers macli like th^ 
common annual Sunflower, to which fr.mily it belongs. 

BEAN (Fhaseolus vvXgans var. nanus), BUSH, SNAP, OR KIDNEY. 

An indispensable vegetable, of easy cultivation, grow- 
ing freely in almost any soil, though in Avell-enriched 
land it will be more prolific in quantity and more tender 
in quality. It is a plant of tropical origin, and, like all 
such, shonld not be sown until the weather is settled and 
warm, and all danger from frost is past. In this latitude, 
the time of sowing should not be sooner than the fifth of 
May. Sow at intervals of two or three weeks all through 
the season, if wanted for use. Seed may be sown in drills 
eighteen to twenty-four inches apart, and three inches 
deep, dropping the seeds at distances of two or three 
inches in the drills, and covering to the general level. 
For such as use them all through the season, three or 
four quarts would be required, although a quart at one 
sowing would give an ample quantity for any average 
family. The varieties most in use at present are Red 
Valentine, Early Mohawk, Yellow Six AVeeks, Refugee, 
White Marrowfat, Black Wax, and Golden Wax. 

BEAN, POLE OR RUNNING, AND LIMA {Phaseolus lunatics). 

Pole Beans are usually cultivated in hills three or four 
feet apart. The poles (which are best made of young 
cedar trees) should be nine or ten feet high, and firmly 
fixed at least eighteen inclies deep in the ground, and the 
hills formed around them by digging up the soil and 
mixing it with a shovelful of well-rotted manure, or an 
ounce or so of guano or bone-dust, if the stable manure 
is not attainable ; but in either case let the mixing be 
thorough. The hills should be but two or tliree inches 
above the general level, and at least eighteen inches in 


diameter. The term '' bill" is an unfortunate one, as it 
often leads inexperienced persons to suppose that a tall 
heap must be made, and it is a common mistake to form 
miniature hills often a foot or more in bight, upon which 
to sow seeds or set plants. The effect of this is to confine 
t!ie roots to this small, high, and dry space. When the 
word 'Miill" is used in this work, it is to indicate the 
place plants are to occupy, and unless some bight is 
mentioned, it is not above the general level. After the 
hill has been properly formed around the pole, from five 
to six beans should be planted around it at a depth of 
two inches ; but the planting should never be done in this 
latitude before the 20th of May. In all our experience 
as seedsmen, we know of no seed that is so universally 
replanted as Lima Beans. I think it safe to say, that at 
least half of all the people who buy, plant before the 
ground is dry and warm, and then tell us that the seed 
must have been bad, because it rotted in the ground. In 
the hurry of business we have not always time to explain 
why they rotted, and would here state, for the sake of 
ourselves and cotemporaries, that the reason why the 
Limas fail to grow in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred 
is, that they are planted too early, and that it is no fault 
of the seed, which is rarely imperfect. The proper 
method of planting Lima Beans is to push each one 
singly into the soil, from one to two inches deep, with the 
eye down\vard. The embryo is so very broad and flat 
that it is difficult for it to turn itself as smaller seeds do 
when placed in a wrong position. From one to two 
quarts are used for an ordinary family. 

The Large White Lima is the variety that is most 

The Jersey Extra Early Lima is a new and excellent 
variety, nearly a w^eek earlier than the Large Lima, 
though not quite so large. 

The Scarlet Runner is a highly ornamental variety, 


producing dazzling scarlet flowers during the whole 
summer. It is used mainly as a snap bean. Lima Beans 
are usually planted only once in this latitude, as they 
take nearly the whole season to mature. 

All kinds of running or pole beans have been usually 
grown on poles eight or ten feet long ; but the new pea 
vine trellis (see ^'Implements"), introduced in 1887, is 
infinitely better and far more convenient. 

BEET {Bsta vulgaris). 

Sow in shallow drills twelve to eighteen inches apart 
in April or May, dropping the seeds so that they will fall 
an inch or so apart. When the plants have grown to the 
hight of about two inches, thin out, so that they will 
stand four inches apart. When the roots are three inches 
in diameter they are fit for use. Of course they are used 
when much larger, but the younger they are, the more 
delicate and tender. Four ounces of each kind will be 
sufficient for ordinary family use, unless successional 
crops are wanted, when double the quantity may be used. 
The kinds most used are Egyptian Turnip, Eclipse, and 
Long Smooth Blood. 

BORECOLE OR KALE {Brassica oleracea var.). 

The rather indefinite name of *' sprouts" is given to 
this vegetable about New York. It is sown here in Sep- 
tember, in rows one foot apart, treated in every way as 
Spinach, and is ready for use in early spring. Four 
ounces of seed are sufficient to sow thret' hundred feet of 
row. Two varieties of this, but little grown here, are 
the Scotch Kale, or Curled Greens, and the Dwaif 
German Greens. The former is of a deep green color, 
the latter bluish purple. Both varieties are much curled, 
almost like Parsley. The seeds of these arc sown in 
May, and transplanted in July, just as we do late Cab- 


bages, at distances of two feet apart each way. These 
'* Greens," of either variety, when touched by frost, are 
the most tender and delicate of all the cabbage tribe, and 
it has always been a matter of wonder to me why their 
cultivation has not been more general in this country. 
In Britain they are used very extensively as a wdnter 
vegetable. The most popular German variety is Purple 
Borecole. The most popular English variety is Cottager's 
Kale, very hardy and profitable, more weight of it being 
grown in the same space than of any other variety. An 
ounce of each kind is about the average quantity used. 

BROCCOLI {Brassica olcracen var.). 

We persist in growing under the two distinct names of 
Broccoli and Cauliflower, plants which at best are noth- 
jnof more than verv nearly related varieties. The main 
difference between them is, that what we call Broccoli is 
planted for fall use, while that w^iich we call Cauliflower 
is planted for spring or summer use ; though in this 
respect they are frequently reversed without seeming to 
mind it. For fall use a packet of seed should be sown in 
the early part of May, which will give plants large enough 
to be set out in July. Further south the sowii^ig of the 
seed should be delayed from four to six weeks later, and 
the plants be set out correspondingly later. Here we put 
them out in July, though further south it may be de- 
layed to August or September. In the mild autumn 
weather of those latitudes this vegetable may be had in 
perfection from November to March, while with us, if 
planted out in July it matures during October and 
November. The plants are set at two and a half to three 
feet apart, and as a hundred plants? are all that most 
families would use, it is usually cheaper to buy them, if 
in a section where they are sold, than to raise the plants 
from seed. Broccoli requires an abundance of manure. 
"The varieties are — 



TVhite and Pnr2:tle Cape.—ThQm is no difference in 
flavor, thoiL^li the white is the most pleasant looking 
vegetable when cooked. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS {Brassica oleracea var.). 

This vegetable, as the engraving shows, is a variety of 
the Cabbage which forms scarcely any terminal bud or 
head ; but the buds along the stem, which in the ordi- 


nary Cabbage remain small, are in this developed into 
small heads, which are the edible portion. Brussels 
Sprouts are much more used in Europe than with us. 
Though the plant is not sufficiently hardy to endure our 
northern winters, it will stand in this latitude until 


Christmas. Its cultivation is exactly similar in all re- 
spects to that of Broccoli, except that it may be planted 
closer, say from one and a half to two feet apart. 

CAULIFLOWER {Brassica oleracea var.). 

There is quite an ambition among amateur gardeners 
to raise early Cauliflower; but as the conditions necessary 
to success with this are not quite so easy to command as 
with most other vegetables, probably not one in three 
who try it succeed. In England, and most places on 
the Continent of Europe, it is the most valued of all 
vegetables, and is grown there nearly as easily as early 
Cabbages. But it must be remembered that the temper- 
ature there is on the average ten degrees lower at the 
time it matures (June) than with us; besides, their 
atmosphere is much more humid, two conditions essen- 
tial to its best development. I will briefly state how 
early Cauliflowers can be most successfully grown here. 
First, the soil must be well broken and pulverized by 
spading or plowing to at least a foot in depth, mixing 
through it a layer of three or four inches of strong, well- 
rotted" stable manure. The plants may be either those 
from seed sown last fall and wintered over in cold frames, 
or else started from seeds sown in January or February, 
in a hot-bed or greenhouse, and planted in small pots or 
boxes, so as to make plants strong enough to be set out 
as soon as the soil is fit to work, which in this latitude is 
usually the first week in April. We are often applied to 
for Cauliflower plants as late as the end of May, but the 
chances of their forming heads when planted late in May 
are slim indeed. 

The surest way to secure the heading of Cauliflowers 
is to use what are called hand-glasses, some of which are 
described in the chapter on *' Implement?." These are 
usually made about two feet square, which gives room 



enough for three or four plants of Cauliflower, until the}' 
are so far forwarded that the glass can be taken off. 
AVheii the hand-glass is used, the Cauliflowers may be 
planted out in any warm border early in March and 
covered by them. This covering protects them from 
frosts at night, and gives the necessary increase of tem- 
peratiiro for growth during the cold weeks of March and 
April ; so that by the first week in May, if the Cauli- 
flower has been properly hardened off by ventilating (by 
tilting up the hand-glasses on one side), they may be 


taken off altogether, and then used to forward Tomatoes, 
Melons, or Cucumbers, at which date these may be 
started, if under the protection of hand-glasses. If the 
weather is dry, the Cauliflowers will be much benefited 
by being thoroughly soaked with water twice or thrice a 
week; not a mere sprinkling, which is of no use, but 
a complete drenching, so that the water will reach to the 
lowest roots. If the ground is slightly sprinkled around 
the roots with guano before watering, all the better. 
The best varieties of Cauliflower we have found as yet are 
the Early Snowball (figure 114), introduced by me in 



1883, and, for succession, Early Paris or Algiers. These 
instructions refer to the early crop of Cauliflower. For 
late or fall crop sow the seeds in May, and plant out as 
for Cabbage in June or July. In our climate there is 
usually more success with late than early Cauliflower. 

CABBAGE {Brassica oleracea var.). 

The Cabbage is so easily raised that but little space 
need be devoted to it here. Like all of its tribe, it re- 
quires an abundance of manure for its full development. 

Fig. 115. — CABBAGE, SAVOY. 

The early varieties should be either raised in cold frames 
or in hot-beds, as stated foj Cauliflower, and planted out 
at distances of from twenty to thirty inches apart each 
"way, as early as the ground is fit to work in April. The 
best early varieties are the Early Wakefield and Early 



Summer. As a siiccessional variet}' the Winiiingstadt 
is yery popular. It has a sharply conical head, and 
sometimes grows quite large. 

For late varieties, the seed should be sown in May, and 
the plants set out in June or July at two to three feet 
apart. For winter use the Flat Dutch or Drumhead is 
usually grown, to the exclusion of all others ; and while 
the Curled Savoy is vastly better flavored, not one Savoy 
is planted for every thousand Drumhead. The flavor of 




the Savoy is as superior to that of tlie Drumhead, as that 
of a Bartlett is to that of a choke pear, and it is alto- 
gether the best late Cabbage for family use, and the 
wonder is how long it has taken for it to be appreciated 
here, though we f nd its culture is mcreasing rapidly. 

CARROT {Daucus Carota). 

Carrots are sown any time from April to June, in rows 
one foot apart, covering the seed two inches deep. If 


the soil is light, they will be better flayored. When the 
plants are an inch or so high, thin out to three or four 
inches apart. The varieties most in use are Early French 
Forcing, Early Horn, and Long Orange. Eight ounces 
of seed will sow three hundred feet of row, which, for 
most families, would be an abundance, both for summer 
and winter use. Carrots are much prized as food for 
horses and cows, and if wanted for this purpose in quan- 
tity, they should be sown with a seed-drill, in rows one 
and a half to two feet apart. About foui* pounds of seed 
per acre are required. 

CELERY (Aphtm graveolens]. 

If I am fitted to instruct on the cultivation of any veg- 
etable, it is this, as for many years I have cultivated 
nearly half a million roots annually, and this experience 
has resulted in greatly simplifying the operation. The 
seeds are sown on a well-pulverized, rich border, in the 
open ground, as early in the season as the ground can be 
worked. The bed is kept clear of weeds until July, when 
the plants are set out for the crop. But as the seedling 
plants are rather troublesome to raise, the small number 
wanted for private use can usually be purchased cheaper 
than they can be raised on a small scale (they cost from 
fifty cents to a dollar per hundred); and if they can be 
procured fresh from the seedsmen, market gardeners, or 
florists in the neighborhood, it is never worth while to sow 
the seed, as from three hundred to five hundred plants are 
ample for ordinary sized families. The European plan is to 
make a trench six or eight inches deep in which to plant 
Celery; but our violent rain storms in summer soon 
showed us that this plan was not a good one here, so we 
set about planting on the level surface of the ground, 
just as we do with all vegetables. 

Celery is a ^' gross feeder," and requires two or three 

CELERY. 319 

inches thick of well-rotted manure, which, as usual, 
must be well mixed and incorporated with the soil before 
the Celery is set out. If stable manure is not convenient, 
bone dust, guano, or other concentrated fertilizer may 
be sown on the rows about as thick as sand or sawdust is 
strewn on a floor, and well chopped in and mixed with 
the coil. Whether stable manure or a concentrated 
fertilizer be used, it should be spread over and mixed to 
at least twelve inches in width and six inches in depth. 
When the ground is thus prepared, we stretch a line to 
the distance required, and beat it slightly with a spade, 
so that it leaves a mark to show where to place the 
plants. These are set out at distances of six inches 
between the plants, and usually four feet between the 
rows. Great care must be taken in putting out the 
Celery, to see that the plant is set just to the depth of 
the roots. If much deeper, the "heart" might be too 
much covered up, which would impede the growth. It 
is also important that the soil be well packed to the root 
m planting ; and if the operation can be done in the 
evening, and the plants copiously watered, no farther 
watering will usually be required. 

If planted in July, nothing is to be done but keep the 
crop clear of weeds until September. By that time the 
handling process is to be begun, which consists in draw- 
ing the earth to each side of the Celery, and pressing it 
tightly to it, so as to give the leaves an upward growth 
preparatory to blanching for use. Supposing this hand- 
ling process is done by the middle of September, by the 
first week in October it is ready for *' banking up," which 
is done by digging the soil from between the rows and 
laying or banking it up on each side of the row of Celery. 
After being so banked up in October, it will be ready for 
use in three or four weeks, if wanted at that time. But 
if, as is usually the case, it is needed for winter use only, 
and is to be put away in trenches, or in the cellar, as 



will be hereafter described, all that it requires is the 
operation of '^landling," to straighten it up. If the 
Celery is to be left in the open ground where it was grown 
(as it' can be in any section of the country where the ther- 
mometer does not fall more than fifteen degrees below the 
freezing point), then a heavy bank must be made on each 
side of the rows, and as cold weather approaches— say 
by the middle of November — an additional covering of 
at least a foot of leaves or litter must be closely packed 
against the bank, to protect it from frost. 

Perhaps the best way to keep Celery for family use is 
in a cellar. This can be done by storing it in narrow 

Fig. 117. — " HAN'DLING " CELERY. 

boxes of a depth a little less than the hight of the Celery. 
A few inches of sand or soil are placed in the bottom of 
the box, and the Celery is packed upright, the roots being 
placed on damp sand or earth at the bottom, hvt none is 
to be put hehoeen the lieads; and be careful not to water- 
the Celery, as, if packed moderately tight, the air will be 
excluded, so that it will not wilt ; and the roots being 
on the damp sand or soil at the bottom of the box, the 
moisture there will sustain them. Boxes thus packed 
and placed in a cool cellar in November, will be blanched 
fit for use during January, February, and March, though, 
for succession, it will be better to put it in the boxes 



from the open ground at three different times, say 
October 25th, November 10th, and November 20th. Or, 
if boxes are not at htind, the Celery may be put away on 
the floor of the celhir in strips nine or ten inches wide, 
separated by spaces of the same width, and divided by 
boards of a hight equal to the hight of the Celery. The 
reason for dividing the Celery in these narrow strips by 
boards is to prevent ' 'heating,'' which w^onld take place 
if the plants were packed together in too thick masses. 
The dates above given apply, of course, to the latitude 
of New York. If farther south, do the work later ; if 
farther north, earlier. If one has no suitable cellar, the 

/ft ^1^ ^^ if J* 


Celery can be very readily preserved in the manner fol- 
lowed by market gardeners, thus : 

After it has been 'Mianaled" or straightened up, as 
before described, what is intended for use by Christmas 
should be dug up by about October 25th ; that to be 
used in January and February, by November 10th ; and 
that for March use, by November 20th, which latter 
date is as late-as it can be risked here. Although it will 
stand quite a sharp frost, the weather by the end of 
November is often severe enough to kill it, or so freeze 
it in the ground that it cannot be dug up. The ground 
in which it is to be preserved for winter use must be as 



dry as possible, and so arranged that no water can remain 
in the trench. Dig a trench as narrow as possible (it 
should not be wider than ten inches), and of a depth 
equal to the hight of the Celery ; that is, if the plant of 
Celery be eighteen inches high, the trench should be dug 
eighteen inches deep. The Celery is then packed exactly 
in the manner described for storing in boxes to be placed 
in the cellar; that is, stand it as nearly npright as possible, 
and pack as closely together as can be done without 
bruising it. As the weather becomes cold, the trenches 
should be gradually covered with leaves or litter to the 
thickness of six or eight inches, Avhich will be enough to 



prevent severe freezing, and enable the roots to'be taken 
out easily when wanted. Figure 119 represents this 
method of storing Celery in trenches for winter nse. 

The best varieties of Celery for family use I believe to 
be the four described below : 

White Plume, introduced by me in 1884, is now 
perhaps more largely grown than any other Celery, and 
possesses all the best qualities of the be^t of the old 
kinds. It has the great merit of being nearly self- 
blanching, as in its natural growth, without being 
earthed up, the inner stems and leaves are white, and 
nearly fit for use without being blanched artificially. 

CELERY. 323 

The flavor, however, is much improved by blanching, so 
that it is necessary to at least handle and earth up this 
variety to half its higlit to get the best results. Another 


great merit of the White Plume Celery is that, while 
being unsurpassed in flavor, it excels all other vegetables 


as an ornament for the dinner table, its graceful white 
leaves resembling somewhat an ostrich feather. We sent 
samples of it to all the leading hotels in New York the 
present season, from all of which we had the most flatter- 
ing testimonials of its excellence. 

Sandringham.— This is a dwarf, full-hearted kind, 
and, when it does well, is one of the very best, equaled 
by none in fact; but it has a great tendency to rust or 
burn, which impairs its value. A new sport from this, 
known as the Golde7i Self- Blanching, is somewhat of an 
improvement on the Sandringham. 

For general use the Golden Dwarf comes next in 
merit to the White Plume. It is a short-growing or 
half-dwarf sort, with yellowish heart, solid and crisp. 

A variety introduced by us in 1886, called the Rose, 
is the best of all the Red or Pink Celeries. The red kinds 
are used nearly exclusively in the London markets, as 
they are certainly more crisp and better flavored than 
any of the white kinds, besides being hardier and less 
liable to rot in winter ; but, so far, they are comparatively 
little used in this country. While we sell nearly a thou- 
sand pounds of seed each of such kinds as White Plume 
and Gclden Dwarf annually, we do not, as yet, sell one- 
tenth of that quantity of the Red. 

CELERIAC, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY {^Apium graveolms var .). 

This is grown almost the same as the common Celery ; 
and as it requires but little earthing-up, the rows may 
be nearer together. Its turnip-like root is used as a 
salad, mostly by the French and Germans. It is some- 
times stewed, but usually simply boiled, sliced, and 
dressed as a salad for the table. 

CORN-SALAD OR EETTICUS {Valerianella olitoHa). 

This is sold to a considerable extent in spring in i\\Q 
city markets for use as an early salad. For mode of cul- 


tivation, etc., see Spinach, as it is grown in exactly the 
same manner. 

CHIVES (^Allium Schcenoprasum). 

An entirely hardy, onion-like plant, of easy culture. 
It will grow on almost any soil for years without being 
transplanted. The leaves are the part used, and may be 
shorn off every two weeks during summer. It is propa- 
gated by tearing apart the old clumps and setting the 
divisions in rows a foot apart. 

CRESS OR PEPPER GRASS {Lepidium sativum). 

A spring and summer salad plant. Sow in early spring, 
and in succession every week or so if desired, in rows 
one foot apart. The curled variety is the best, as it can 
be used for garnishing as well as for salad. 

CRESS, WATER {Nasturtium officinale). 

A hardy aquatic plant, which can only be properly cul- 
tivated wliere there are running streams. If there is a 
brook on the place, all that would be wanted for private 
use may be had by setting a few plants or sowing seeds 
in spring on tlie margin of the water. There is a variety 
recently introduced known as '' Upland Cress," that can 
be grown in an ordinary garden. It is almost identical 
in flavor with the Water Cress. 

CORN {Zea Mays). 

The varieties known as "Sweet" are the kinds culti- 
vated to be used in the green state. Corn may either be 
planted in " hills" (dropping three or four seeds in a hill) 
four feet apart each way, or in rows live feet apart, drop- 
ping the seeds at distances of eight or ten inches in the 
rows. In this latitude it is useless to plant Corn before 
the middle of May. For successional crops it should be 




planted every two or three weeks until July first. After 
that date it will not mature here. Corn requires a rich, 
light soil to be earl}'. The leading yarieties are shown 
in figure 131. Three or four quarts are required, if 
successional crops are sown. If only one crop, two or 
three pints will be sufficient for an ordinary family. 

CUCUMBER {Cucumis satitms). 

In most places where the Cucumber is grown out- 
doors, it is more or less troubled with the '^Striped 
Bug ; " but if only a few dozen hills are cultivated, it is 
not a very troublesome matter to pick them off, which is 
about the only sure way to get rid of them. The safest 
method of raising Cucumbers, however, is to cover the 
seeds, when first sown, with the hand-glass described in 
the chapter on '^Iini^lements," which, by the time they 
are wanted for Cucumbers, are no longer needed over 
Cauliflowers. If such hand-glasses are not obtainable, a 
simple method is to use a light box ten or twelve inches 
square, and place it over the seeds after sowing, covering 
it with a pane of glass. This 
will not only forward the ger- 
mination of the seeds, but will 
protect the plants against the 
bugs until they are strong 
enough not to be injured by 
them. Bryant's Plant Protec- 
tor, a simple article, made of 
light strips of wood covered ^^^- ^^''^• 


With mosquito netting, may 

be used instead of a hand-glass. This uill be found 
equally valuable for protecting all plants liable to the 
attacks of flying insects, and against the light frosts 
so often injurious to tender plants. Light, sandy soil 
is rather best for Cucumbers. The "hills" should 


be prepared in the same manner as for Lima Beans, 
but set three feet apart, dropping five or six seeds in 
each hill. Cucumbers may be sown about the middle of 
May, and in succession, every three or four weeks, until 
July. The White Spine and Long Green Prickly are 
favorite varieties. The Gherkin or Burr is by some used 
for jDickling. 

Forcing Oltcumbers. — The forcing house shown at 
page 267 as suitable for Strawberry forcing, can be made 
equally available for forcing Cucumbers, either during 
the entire winter or spring season, or to succeed the 
early forced crops of vegetables or fruits in spring. 

If wanted for forcing Cucumbers during the fall or 
winter, the seed should be sown in the greenhouse in 
October or November, in small pots, three or four seeds 
in each, and thinning out to one strong plant. These, 
if grown in a temperature averaging seventy-five degrees, 
will in thirty days have become sufficiently strong to 
plant out at twenty-four inches apart on the south side 
of the bench, one row only. A trellis of galvanized iron 
wire is made with about a nine-inch mesh, diamond 
shaped. This, on the middle bench, should be kept two 
feet from the glass, but on the front bench it can only be 
kept one foot, owing to its nearness to the glass. The 
depth of soil should be, if on raised wooden benches, 
about five or six inches ; if on the solid center bed, 
ten to fifteen inches. The soil should be a sandy loam, 
with one-fifth well-rotted cow manure. The night tem- 
perature in the forcinor-house for the fall, winter, and 
spring months for Cucumbers, should range as near as 
possible from sixty to sixty-five degrees, with a tempera- 
ture on bright days of from ten to fifteen degrees higher, 
giving ventilation at all reasonable times. Cucumbers 
delight in a moist atmosphere, and whenever the weather 
is bright and clear, water should be sprinkled on the 
pipes, walks, and under the benches. A dry atmosphere 


is certain to develop the Eed Spider, which is fatal to 
success. It may also be here stated, if Cucumbers are to 
be forced during the winter months, that, to keep up the 
necessary high temperature, eight runs of four-inch pipes 
will be required in a greenhouse twenty feet wide. 

Although there is no necessity for artificial impregna- 
tion of the Cucumber flowers when grown in the oi3en 
air, where the insects and winds do the work, yet, when 
grown in the forcing house, it is absolutely necessary, 
particularly in midAvinter. This is best done with a 
camel's hair pencil, by detaching the pollen, or fertilizing 
dust, from the stamens and applying it to the stigma. It 
will also facilitate impregnation on bright days to slightly 
jar the wire trellis, so as to let the jwllen loose, which, 
in floating through the air, fastens on the stigma. Tl-o 
Cucumber and all plants of that class have the male ani 
female flowers separate on the same plant. Cucumbers 
from seed sown in October will give a continuous crop 
until June — of course, if well handled. When wanted 
only to succeed crops of forced Lettuce, Eadishes, or 
Strawberries in spring, the seed should not be sown 
until February or March. The variety for forcing which 
seems to be most favorably received in our markets is 
Selected Early White Spine, though, of late yearc, tlie 
beautiful long kinds, such as Telegraph and Rambler, 
which are almost exclusively used in Europe for forcing, 
are beginning to be favorably received. 

Although Cucumbers are now to be found in our 
markets at nearly all seasons of the year, grown at the 
south, yet they never have the fine appearance nor the 
delicate flavor of those grown by being forced under 
glass ; so that large areas of forcing houses for this and 
other vegetable and fruit crops are now profitably used 
in all our large cities, though coming in direct compe- 
tition with Southern products. 


EGG PLANT (Solanum Melongend). 

This is always an interesting vegetable to cultiyate, 
being worthy of a place as an ornamental plant, as well 
as being mucli prized for culinary nse. If is a native of 
the tropics, and peculiarly tender. AVe find the seeds 
will not germinate freely below a temperature of seventy 
degrees ; and even then often tardily, unless the condi- 
tions are just right. Nothing suits them so well as a 
warm hot-bed ; and to get plants of the proper size to be 
set in the open ground by the end of May, the seeds 
should be sown early in March, and the plants potted 
into small pots when an inch or so in hight. But as 
only a dozen or two plants are needed for a family, when- 
ever the plants can be purchased conveniently, it is never 
worth the trouble to attempt the raising of them from 
seeds, unless, indeed, there is room in a hot-bed, or a 
hot-house used for other purposes. Do not plant out 
sooner, in this latitude, than the 25th of May, unless 
tliey can be protected by hand-glasses. Set at distances 
of four feet apart, preparing the hills as described for 
Lima Beans. Each plant should average a dozen fruits, 
which will weigh from ten to forty ounces each. The best 
flavored variety, in our opinion, is the Black Pekin, but 
the most prolific is the New York Market. A pure 
pearly white variety is highly ornamental, and also of 
excellent flavor. There is also a beautiful scarlet variety, 
sometimes grown as a greenhouse ornament. The Egg 
Plant is usually fried in slices ; but there are other 
methods to be found in the proper authorities on such 

ENDIVE ( Cichorium Endivia). 

A plant related to the Lettuce. If sown in early spring, 
either in a hot-bed or in the open ground in April, it 
will be ready in May. Set out at distances of fifteen 


inches apart. It is mostly used towards fall, however, 
and when wanted at that time, should be sown in June 
or July, and set out in August or September. Nothing 
further is done after planting but hoeing to keep down 
tlie weeds, until it attains its full growth, which is from 
twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. It is then 
"blanched," either by gathering up the leaves and 
tying them by their, tops in a conical form, or by placing 
a slate or flat stone on the plant to exclude the liglit and 
eifect the blanching. It is used as a salad. The varie- 
ties are the Moss Curled and Plain-leaved Batavian. 


Thyme, Sage, Basil, Sweet Marjoram, and Summer 
Savory are those in general use. The seeds of all should 
be sown in shallow drills, one foot apart, in May, and the 
plants will be fit for use in September and October. 

* GARLIC {Allium sativum). 

This is used mostly by Europeans. It grows freely 
on any soil. The sets, obtained by breaking up the old 
bulbs, are planted in early spring in rows one foot apart, 
and five or six inches between the plants. When the 
leaves wither, the bulbs are taken up and hung in a dry, 
cool place. * 

HORSERADISH {Cochlearia Armoracea). 

For family use a few roots of this should be planted in 
some out-of-the-way corner of the vegetable garden. A 
dozen roots, once planted, will usually give enough for a 
lifetime, as it increases and spreads so tliat .there is never 
any danger of being without it. The trouble is, if it is 
once admitted into the garden, it is difficult to bo got 
rid of, if so desired. 



KOHLRABI. OR TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea var.\ 

This vegetable resembles a Turnip, but is regarded as a 
variety of the Cabbage, with a fleshy, edible stem. Seeds 
should be sown in rows fifteen or eighteen, inches apart, 
in May or June, and when an inch high, thinned out to 
nine or ten inches. It is a favorite vegetable with the 
Germans, and immense quantities are sold in the markets 
of Xew York. There are two varieties, AVhite and Purple. 

LEEK {Allium Porrum). 

Sow in April, and plant out in June or July, in rows 
one foot apart and six inches betAveen the plants. It is 
used mainly during the winter months. It is an entirely 
hardy plant ; yet, in order that it may be handy to get 
at in winter, it is better to put it in trenches or boxes, 
as advised for preserving Celery. 

LETTUCE {Lactuca sativd). 

Lettuce should be sown in a hot-bed or greenhouse, if 
wanted early. Seeds sown there in February will give 


nice plants to set out in April, to mature in May; or, if 
it is sown in the open ground in April and planted out in 



May, it will mature in June, and so on through the sum- 
mer season if suceessional crops are desired, as it only 
takes from live to six weeks to mature. The great excel- 
lence of Lettuce consists in its freshness, and it can rarely 
be purchased m perfect con- 
dition ; hence, those who 
would enjoy it in its best 
state should raise it them- 
selves. For early use, to be 
ready in May, the Curled 
Silesia and Boston Market 
are the best; while for sum- 
mer use the Salamander, 

New York, and Black-seed- 
ed Simj^son (figure 123) 
should be sown, as they 
do not readily run to seed. 
The Cos varieties are mainly 
used in Europe, and are by 
far the best flavored; but, from their tendency to run 
to seed in our warmer climate, are but little cultivated, 
though they miglit be safely grown in the cool weather, 
in spring or in fall. Although usually transplanted, the 
seed is also sown in rows, and the plants thinned out to 
twelve inches apart. An ounce of seed of each variety 
w^ill be ample. 

Fia;. 124. 


MARTYNIA {Marty nia proboscidea). 

The unripe pods, when perfectly tender, are used for 
pickling. They must be gathered every day or two, or 
some will become hard and useless. Sow in open ground 
in May, in drills two feet apart, and thin out to one foot. 

MELON, MUSK (Cucumis Blelo). 

The cultivation of the Melon is almost identical with 
that of the Cucumber, to which reference may be made. 



Tlie varieties are numerous, those named below being the 
most popular at the date I write. Early Hackensack, 


Baltimore (fig-ure 125), and Montreal Market (figure 126). 
(For illustrations and descriptions see seed lists.) 


:MEL0N, water {CitruUus vulgaris). 

The cultivation of the "Water Melon is in all respects 
similar to that of the Musk Melon, except that, being a 


larger and stronger growing plant, it requires to be 
planted at greater distances. Tlie hills should, not be 
less than eight feet apart each way. It delights in a 
light, sandy soil, and. will not grow satisfactorily on heavy, 
clayey soils. The leading sorts are named, as usual, in 


t!ic order of what I consider to be their excellence, and 
are of the kinds most approved at the date of writing. 
Phinney's Early, Rattlesnake or Gypsy, Ironclad Mam- 
moth, and Scaly Bark. '^ Green and Gold," an entirely 
new and excellent variety, with golden yellow flesii, will 
be sent out by us the ])rescnt season (1888). (For illus- 
trations and descriptions, see seed catalogues.) 

MUSTARD {Si7iapis alba). 

For use and cultivation see Cress. 


MUSHROOM (Agaricus campestris). 

Many who have a taste for liorticultural pursuits grow 
Mushrooms as much for the novelty of the thing as for 
use; for it is certainly very gratifying for an amateur 
to find that he has succeeded with a cro]) of this curious 
vegetable in mid-winter, when everything outside is 
frost-locked and snow-bound. I have said that the nov- 
elty is attractive ; for in growing all other plants the 
cultivator sees something tangible to start with, either 
seeds, plants, or roots, but with the Mushroom it may 
be said he sees none of these; for no seeds can be discov- 
ered either with the naked eye or with a magnifier, and 
it requires some faith to believe the minute, thread-like 
substance we call ^'^ spawn " to be either plants or roots. 

Mushrooms are always raised in the dark, and any cel- 
lar, stable, or an out-house of any sort, wherein a temper- 
ature of forty-five to sixty-five degrees can be commanded, 
will grow them. There are various methods followed by 
Mushroom growers, but I will only give two, premising 
that, if the directions given are strictly followed, success 
is just as certain as in growing a crop of Feasor Potatoes. 
Let horse droppings be procured from the stables each 
day, in quantities not less than a barrow load. To every 
barrow load of droppings add one-fourth the quantity of 
fresh loam from a pasture or sod land, or soil of any kind 
that has not been manured (the objection to old manured 
soil being that it may contain the spores of spurious 
fungi). Let the droppings and soil be mixed together 
day by day, as the manure can be j^trocured ; or, if they 
can be had all at once in sufficient quantity, so much the 
better. Let the heaj:) (which should be under cover, so 
as not to get wet) be turned every day, so that it is not 
allowed to heat violently until you have got together a 
sufficient quantity to form a bed of the desired size. 

From the prepared droppings and soil, begin to form 


the bed. A convenient width is four feet, and the length 
may be as great as desired. First spread a thin layer of 
the compost, pounding it down firmly with a brick or 
mallet, layer after layer, until it reaches a depth of eight 
inches. Be careful tliat the thickness is just about 
eight inches, as, if more, it would heat too violently, 
and if less, it would not heat enough. Into this bed 
plunge a thermometer. In two or three days the bed 
will heat, so that the thermometer will rise to one hun- 
dred degrees or over. As soon as the temperature de- 
clines to ninety degrees, take a sharp stick and make 

Fig. 128.— MUSHBOOMS. 

holes an inch or so in diameter all over the bed, at about 
a foot apart and six inches deep. Into these holes droj) 
two or three pieces of '"^ spawn," and cover up the holes 
again with the compost of which the bed is made, and 
beat it slightly again, so that the bed will present the 
same level surface as before the spawn was put in. Let 
the bed remain in this condition for ten or twelve days, 
by which time the spawn will liave run all through it. 
Now spread evenly over the surface of the bed about two 
inches of fresh loam, press it down moderately with the 


back of a spade, and cover up the bed with hay or straw 
to the thickness of three or four inches. 

If this operation is finished in November or December, 
and the place has an avei'age temperature of fifty-five de- 
grees, you may look for a crop in January or February. 
The bed will continue bearing about three or four weeks, 
and the crop is usually enormous, often producing a 
bushel on two square yards of space. After the first crop 
is gathered, a second, and even a third, can be taken, if 
desired, from the same bed without further trouble than 
to spread a little fresh soil on the surface, giving it a 
gentle watering, and covering up with hay as before. 
Great care must be taken that, after placing the spawn 
in the new^ly-made bed, the earth covering is not put on 
sooner than ten or twelve days. In my first attempt at 
Mushroom growing I failed two years in succession, be- 
cause I put on the soil when the spawn was first put into 
the bed. By so doing, the steam arising from the manure 
was prevented from passing off, and the result was, that 
the spawn rotted. I believe this very common error is 
the cause of most of the failures in raising Mushrooms. 

Another method of raising Mushrooms in winter in 
cold cellars, or other places where there is no artificial 
heat, is as follows, given by John Cullen, of Bethlehem, 
Penn., whose success in Mushroom growing has been 

*^My Mushroom cellar is a structure fifteen feet long 
and twelve feet wide. Formerly it was a water cistern, 
but with a little alteration was easily converted into a 
Mushroom cellar. My plan of culture is as follows : In 
September manure from horse stables is collected in a 
heap, and to that is added one-fifth of soil. To prevent 
overheating it is turned over three times a week for a 
month. By that time the violent heat is subdued. 

^'Making the Beds. — Having obtained a sufficiency of 
horse droppings for a bed, in the right condition, that is. 


rather dry, and turned so as to expel the violent heat, a layer 
four inches thick is placed on the floor of the cellar and 
beaten down firmly. Another layer of the same thickness 
is added, and the same beating process carried out, and 
so on till the bed is made of sufficient thickness. I make 
my beds fifteen inches in depth when artificial heat can 
be obtained of fifty degrees, but in cold cellars the bed 
should be at least eighteen inches. 

''^Spawning the Bed. — I spawn my beds when the tem- 
perature declines to eighty-five degrees at about three 
inches under the surface, though the heat in the centre of 
the bed may be one hundred degrees. The spawn is broken 
in pieces of about one and a half to two inches, and I 
insert them about seven inches apart each way, and so 
deep as to admit of being covered about an inch with the 
same material as the bed is composed of, firming it well 
about and over the spawn. 

^'Soiling the Bed. — This is done in eight days from 
the time of spavming. T i3ut two inches of fine loam all 
over the bed, making it firm by beating it well with the 
back of the spade, damping the surface, and passing the 
back of the spade over it at the last to give a smooth 
finish to it. As soon as the soil is placed on the bed a 
covering of hay is placed over it rather thinly, doubling 
it as the heat declines. 

''Gathering the Crop. — In six weeks from the time of 
soiling I usually gather my first crop of Mushrooms, 
and cut from ten to twelve pounds weekly from a 
space of two hundred square feet, or, for the whole 
crop, an average of about one pound per square foot, 
some of them measuring five inches in diameter. In 
ffatherin": I draw the Mushrooms out of the bed with 
a twist, so as not to disturb the roots remaining, after- 
ward filling tlie holes with some fresh loam. "Water about 
ten degrees warmer than the cellar is applied when the 
surface of the bed becomes dry." 


NASTURTIUM, INDIAN CRESS (Tropceolum majus). 

A highly ornamental plant, cultivated in flower gardens 
as well as in the kitchen garden. The shoots and flowers 
are sometimes used in salads, but it is mainly grown for 
its fruit or seed pods, which are pickled in vinegar and 
used as a substitute for capers. The plant is of the 
easiest culture. Sow in shallow drills in May. The tall 
variety will reach a hight of ten or fifteen feet if fur- 
nished with strings or wires, and makes an excellent 
screen for shade, or for quickly covering up and conceal- 
ing any unsightly place. The dwarf variety is grown 
like Peas, and staked with brush, or grown on the 
garden trellis. 

OKRA OR GUMBO {Ahelmoschus esculentus). 

A vegetable of the easiest culture. Sow in drills in 
May, three feet apart for dwarf and four feet for tall 
sorts, in drills two or three inches deep. The long pods, 
when very young and tender, are used in soups, stews, 
etc., and are very nutritious. 

ONION {Allium cepa). 

Onions are raised either from ''sets," which are small 
dry Onions grown the previous year, or from seeds. 
When grown from the sets, they should be planted 
out as early in spring as the ground is dry enough to 
work. Plant them in rows one foot apart, with the sets 
three or four inches apart. \V hen raised from sets, the 
Onions can be used in the green state in June, or they 
will be ripened off by July. When raised from seeds, 
these are sown at about the same distance between the 
rows, and when the young plants are an inch or so high, 
they are thinned out to two or three inches apart. It is 
important that Onion seed be sown very early. In this 
latitude it should be sown not later than the middle of 



April ; for, if delayed until May, warm weather sets in 
and delays, or rather prolongs the growth until fall, and 
often the bulbs will not ripen. We find that, unless the 
Ouion tops dry oft* and the bulbs ripen by August, they 
will hardly do so later. The best known sorts are Early 
Flat Red, Yellow Globe Dauvers, and South port White 
Globe. The Italian kinds best suited for the Southern 
States are White Queen and Red Giant Rocca. 
Two kinds are grown exclusively from bulbs. One of 

Fig. 129. — souTnpoRT white globe onion. 

these is the Potato Onion, or ''Multiplier," which in- 
creases by the bulb splitting up and dividing itself into 
six or eight smaller bulbs, which in turn form the sets 
to plant for the next crop. The other variety is what is 
called the Top Onion, which forms little bulbs on the 
stem in the place of flowers. These bulbs are in clusters, 
and about the size of hazel nuts. The bulbs are broken 


apart, and planted in spring at the same distances as the 
'•sets" referred to on page 340. All mature in August. 

PARSLEY (Apium retroselinum). 

But a Tery small quantity of this is usually wanted in 
the family garden. Sow in shallow drills in April or 
May. A good plan is to sow in shallow boxes as much as 
may be needed. They can be placed wherever there is mod- 
erate light and no frost, in the kitchen window or similar 
place. By this means a fresh supply may be kept on 
hand in hard winter weather, when it is most desirable 
to have it, either for garnishing dishes or for other uses. 
The best variety to grow is the Moss or Double Curled. 

PARSNIP {Pastinaca sativa). 

'For the mode of cultivation of Parsnips, see Carrot, 
as their culture is identical, except that this, being 
hardy, can be left out in winter, while in this latitude 
Carrots cannot. A portion of the crop may be dug and 
stored in the cellar or in trenches, and the remainder 
may be left until spring. The Hollow Crowned is best 
for general use. 

PEA (Pisum sativum). 

The Pea is indispensable in the garden, and there is 
more satisfaction in growing it on one's own ground 
than there is in raising any other vegetable. If too old 
when picked, or stale, which is too often the case when 
purchased from the dealers. Peas have but little resem- 
blance to those taken directly from the vines. For an 
early crop Peas should be one of the first things sown in 
the spring. We prefer to sow in double rows, which 
saves half the labor in staking or bushing up, and gives 
nearly the same crop to the row as if sown in single row^s. 




Double rows are made at eight or nine inches apart, and 
four feet from other rows. Set a line, and draw the 
drills three or four inches deep with a hoe. The seed 
should be sown, as nearly as possible, an inch or so 
apart. In order to have a succession of crops of Peas, 
they should be sown every two or three weeks until 
July. If successional crops are grown, an average quan- 
tity for a family would be twelve quarts ; if only first 
crops of early and late, from four to six quarts will 
be sufficient. 

The new Pea Vine Trellis, described in the chapter on 
*' Implements," is the most valuable acquisition to Pea 
growing ever introduced. We used it the past season on 
over two thousand feet of row in our trial ground with the 
most gratifying results, finding it not only much better 
for the purpose than the ordinary "pea stakes" cut from 
the woods, but far more sightly; and taking into con- 
sideration that the pea vine trellis may be used for a 
dozen years, it is actually cheaper. 

The varieties of Peas are almost innumerable, and new 
sorts — or at least sorts with new names — are sent out 
every year. They may be classed in two groups, the 
round and the wrinkled Peas. The round varieties are 
the earliest, but they are as much inferior to the v/rinkled 
or marrow kinds as field is to sweet corn. These two 
groups are subdivided according to hight. The earliest 
round Pea we have found to be a selection made by us, 
and sent out in 1883 under the name of First of All. 
The earliest wrinkled variety is the American Wonder 
(figure 130). 

These two are really all that are needed for private use 
for early, while for successio7ial or late kinds, Champion 
of England (figure 131) and Telephone seem 3'et the best. 
But all seed catalogues now give very full illustrations 
and descriptions of new kinds, which are being yearly in- 
troduced, and to which my readers are referred. 




PEPPER OR CAPSICUM {Capsicum annuum). 

The Pepper is sown and cultivated in all respects the 
same as the Egg Plant, whicJi may be referred to. The 
leading varieties are the Bull Nose or Bell (scarlet), the 
Golden Dawn (yellow), and the Long Red Cayenne. 

POTATO {Solanum tuberosum). 

Potatoes are grown by planting the tubers, either cut 
or whole, it makes but little difference which. If large, 
cut them ; if small, leave them uncut. They are usually 
planted in drills three feet apart, and four or five inches 
deep. The ground should be prepared by first spreading 
in the drills a good coat of stable manure, say two inches 
deep, upon wiiich are planted the tubers or sets, at dis- 
tances of eight or ten inches apart. In a warm exposure 
planting may be begun early in April, and the crop will 
be fit for use in June. Some of the small-leaved varieties, 
such as the Ash-leaved Kidney, w^ere formerly grown 
under hand glasses, or in frames, to forward them; but 
now this is hardly worth the trouble, as our supplies from 
southern latitudes are so early that it is no longer desir- 
able to force the crop. The generally favorite variety for 
early crops is still the Early Rose. Among other greatly 
improved sorts for the general crop are Early Puritan, 
Vanguard, and Beauty of Hebron; but there are scores of 
other varieties which have a special or local reputation. 

PU^IPKIN {CucurUta Pepo). 

Pumpkins are still grown in many gardens with a te- 
nacity that is astonishing, when it should long ago have 
been known that they have no business there, as their 
first cousins, the Squashes, are eminently superior for 
every culinary purpose whatever. The Pumpkin is a 
valuable product for the farm, as a food for cattle, but 


for nothing else. If people will waste valuable land in 
raising Pumpkins^ they may plant them the same as di- 
rected for Squashes. 

RADISH {Raphanus sativus). 

One of the first vegetables that we crave in spring is 
the Radish, and it is so easy of culture that every family 
can have it fresh, crisp, and in abundance. A garden 
patch of a few feet square will give enough for an ordi- 
nary family. It is sown either in drills or broadcast, care 
being taken that the seed is not put in too thickly; from 
one to two inches apart, either in drill or broadcast, 
being the proper distance, as usually every seed germi- 
nates. The best varieties are the Red and French 
Turnip, and the Short Top Long, Red or White. Some 
beautiful fancy kinds have been recently introduced, 
equally as crisp and well flavored as the older sorts, and 
which are very ornamental for the table besides. The 
most marked are the Round White-tipped Turnip Radish 
and the Long Chartier, white tipped. If wanted specially 
early, the above sorts are best for hot-bed forcing ; for 
summer and winter use the yellow and gray varieties are 

RHUBARB OR PIE-PLANT {Rheum Rhaponticum). 

Rhubarb may be planted in either fall or spring, using 
either plants raised from the seed, or sets obtained by di- 
vision of the old roots, taking care to have a bud to each. 
Set at distances of three or four feet apart each way. 
The place where each plant is to be set should be dug 
eighteen inches deep and the same in width, and the 
soil mixed w^ith two or three shovelfuls of well-rotted 
stable manure. Two dozen strong plants will be enough 
for the w^ants of an average family. If desired in winter 
or early spring, a few roots can be taken up and placed 



in a warm cellar or any such dark and warm place. The 
roots, if the cellar is dark, may be put in a box with 
earth around them, or, if in a light cellar, they may be 
put in the bottom of a barrel with earth, and the top 
covered. The only care needed is to see that the roots 
do not get too dry, though water is rarely necessary when 
the plants are placed in a dark cellar. The useful por- 
tions are the long and thick leaf-stalks, and these, when 

Fig. 132.— ST. martin's RHmBARB. 

forced, are much finer in flavor than when grown exposed 
to air and light in the open garden. The plants in the 
open ground should have the flower stalks cut away as 
they appear. In gathering do not cut the leaf stalks, as 
they will readily come away by a sidewise pull, and leave 
no remnant to decay. The varieties are Myatt's, Linnaeus, 
Victoria, and the new variety known as St. Martin's 
(figure 132), which has a distinct gooseberry flavor. 


SALSIFY OR OYSTER PLANT {Tragopogon porrifoUus). 

The culture of this vegetable is the same in all respects 
as for Carrots, whicli see. Like the Parsnip, it is hardy, 
and can be left out during winter in any district without 
injury fiom frost. It is rapidly becoming more popular. 
It is stewed like Parsnips or Carrots, is used to make 
soup, which has a decided flavor of the oyster, or is first 
parboiled and then fried. There is but one kind. 

SCORZONERA OR BLACK SALSIFY (Scorzonera Hispanica). 

This is somewhat different in flavor from Salsify, and 
is preferred to it by many. It has much broader leaves, 
but is cultivated and used in the same manner. 

SEA KALE {Oramhe maritima). 

Sea Kale is a favorite vegetable in European gardens, 
but here, as yet, almost unknown. Anticipating that at 
no distant day it may be as generally cultivated as it de- 
serves to be, I briefly describe the mode of culture. The 
seeds of Sea Kale should be sown in the greenhouse, or 
in a slight hot-bed in February or March, and when the 
plants are an inch or two in bight, they should be potted 
in two or three-inch pots, and placed in a cold frame to 
harden, until sufficiently strong to be planted in the 
open ground. They should then be set out in rows three 
feet apart, with two feet between the plants, on land en- 
riched as for any ordinary cabbage crop. If the plants 
and the soil in which they have been planted are both 
good, and cultivation has been properly attended to, by 
keeping the plants avcH hoed during the summer, they 
will have ^^crowns" strong enough to give a crop the next 
season. In the northern states it will be necessary to 
cover the rows with three or four inches of leaves, to pro- 
tect the plants from frost. Sea Kale is only tit for use 



when '^ blanclied ;" and to effect this, on the approach 
of spring the "crowns" should be covered with some 
light material, such as sand or leaf mold, to the depth of 
twelve or fifteen inches, so that the young shoots, being 
thus excluded from the light, will become blanched in 

growing through this covering. 
Sometimes cans made for the 
purjDose, or large flower pots, or 
even wooden boxes, are inverted 
over the plants, the object in 
each case being to exclude the 
light. If it is desired to force 
Sea Kale, or forward it earlier, 
the materials used to make hot- 
beds, leaves or stable manure, 
are heaped over the pots or cans 
in a sufficient quantity to gener- 
ate the proper heat to forward 
or force on the growth of the 
plants. The young shoots are cut from the plant before 
the leaves are developed, and Avhen cooked, have a flavor 
something betvreen Asparagus and Cauliflower, but by 
most persons much preferred to either. The engraving 
(figure 133) shows young shoots when ready for the table. 

Fig. 133.— SEA KALE. 

SHALLOTS {Allium Ascalonicum). 

A plant of the Onion genus, which is cultivated by set- 
ting out the divided bulbs in September in rows a foot 
apart, allowing six inches between them. It is entirely 
hardy, and fit for use in early spring. 

SPINACH {Spinacia oleraced). 

Spinach is a vegetable of easy culture. The seed may be 
sown either in spring or fall. If in the fall, the proper time 
is from the 10th to the 25th of September, in rows one foot 


apart. Sow rather thickly. Cover the plants with two 
or three inches of hay or leaves on the approach of severe 
frost in December. When sown in the fall, the crop, of 
course, is ready for use much earlier than when sown 
in the spring, as half the growth is made in the fall 
months. By the time the seed can be sown in the 
spring, the crop that has been wintered over will be com- 
ing into use. To follow the crop thus wintered, seeds 
should be sown in the same manner in the spring, as 
early as the soil can be worked, and another sowing may 
be made two weeks later. The variety known as Savoy- 
leaved is best for winter, and Thick-leaved for spring. 
About four ounces are enough for ordinary wants for 
either season's sowing. 


In the southern states, or even in our northern sum- 
mers, Spinach runs rapidly to seed if sown in hot 
weather, and several plants may be used as substitutes. 
Among these are Swiss Chard, a species of Beet, some- 
times called Spinach Beet, or Perpetual Spinach. Young 
plants of the ordinary Beet are by some preferred to 
Spinach. Ordinarily Beets need thinning, and the seed is 
sometimes sown very thickly, in order that there may be 
an abundance of thinnings to use as Spinach, or Beet 
greens. They are used with the young Beet attached, 
which should not be thicker than an ordinary lead pencil. 
If larger, the leaves will be too strong. Another substi- 
tute is 

NEW ZEALAND SPINACH {Tetragonia ezpansa). 

This is a remarkable plant, of low, branching habit, and 
grows with surprising luxuriance during hot weather. 
Single plants often spread from five to eight feet in 
diameter. The leaves are used exactly as ordinary Spin- 
ach. The seed should not be sown before warm weather 


sets in in May, and the plants should be set out in hills 
three or four feet apart each way. 

SQUASH (Cucurbita Pepo and C. maxima). 

The summer yarieties are, among others, the White 
and Yellow Bush and Summer Crookneck. As with all 
plants of this class, it is useless to sow the seeds before 
warm weather in May, and the directions given for Cu- 
cumbers and Melons are alike applicable to the Squash, 
except the distances apart of the hills, which should be 
from three to four feet for the bush sorts, and from six 
to eight for the other varieties, which "run "or make 
a lon^y vine. The fall or winter Squashes are planted at 
the same time, but are allowed to mature or ripen, while 


the summer varieties are used green. They are usually 
planted eight or nine feet apart, in hills prepared in the 
usual way. These Squashes are great feeders, and for 
the best results the soil should be well enriched, besides 
the special manuring in the hills, as the vines throw out 
roots at every joint to assist in feeding and maturing the 
heavy crop they usually bear. The popular varieties are 
the Essex Hybrid (figure 134), Hubbard (figure 135), 
Marblehead, and Mammoth Chili. (For descriptions and 



illustrations, see seed catalogues.) Most of the winter 
varieties, if kept in a dry atmosphere at a tcmioerature 
from forty to fifty degrees, will keep until May. A garret 

Fig. 135.— IIUCBARD SQUASn. 

room in a moderately well-heated dwelling house will 
often be a very suitable place for storing them. 

SWEET POTATO {Ijionma Batatas). 

It is useless to attempt to grow the Sweet Potato on 
anything but a light and dry soil. On clayey soils the 
plant not only grows poorly, but the potatoes raised upon 
such soil are watery and poorly flavored. The plants 
are raised by laying the roots on their sides on a hot-bed 
or the bench of a greenhouse, and covering them over with 
sand, about the first week in May. By keeping up an 
average temperature of seventy-five or eighty degrees, 
fine plants will be produced by June ]st, at which time 
they should be planted in this vicinity. Tlie plants arc 
set in hills three feet apart each way, or on ridges four 
feet apart, and twelve or fifteen inches between the 
plants, drawing the earth up to them as they grow, until 



the top of the ridge or hill is four or six inches above 
the level. The soil under the ridges should be highly 
manured, and as the vines grow they should be kept clear 


of weeds. When, late in the season, they show a disposi- 
tion to root at the joints, they must be moved every week 
or so. This is easilv done bv running a rake handle or 



other stick under the vines, and lifting them sufficiently 
to draw out the small roots upon the stem. As is the 
case with many other vegetables of which the plants or 
sets are raised in large quantities for sale, it is better and 
cheaper, when Sweet Potato plants are procurable, to 
purchase them, than to attempt to raise the small 
number required in a private garden. A hundred plants, 
not costing more than a dollar, are all that most families 
w^ould require. The Xansemond is the favorite variet}-. 

TOMATO {Lycopersicum csculentum). 

If any vegetable is grown in a family garden, it is 
almost certain to be the Tomato. Hundreds of people 
who have only a few feet of ground at their disposal, 
manage to cultivate a dozen or two of Tomato plants. 

Fig. 1. 



though they may have nothing else. So well is it known, 
that I think few of my readers will require to be told 
much about its culture. The Tomato will grow any- 
where, and under almost any circumstances, provided 


gardexixCt for pleasure. 

always that it has the necessary high temperature. It is 
essentially a plant of the tropics, and need never be sown 
in a hot-bed here before March, or planted in the open 
ground before the middle of May. When grown in pri- 
vate gardens, the Tomato should always be provided with 
some sort of trellis (see description of Pea Vine Trellis in 
chapter on "Implements," and also figure 136), or be 
tacked up against a fence or wall. By this treatment, 
not only will a heavier crop be obtained, but the flavor 
will be better. When the fruit rests on the ground it 

has often an inferior flavor, 
particularly when eaten raw, 
and is also more apt to decay. 
A few dozen plants usually 
suffice for an ordinary fam- 
ily; and if there are no hot- 
beds or other glass arrange- 
J ments on hand, the plants 
^ had better be purchased, as 
^ they are sold cheaply every- 
where. The favorite varieties 
are the new Mikado, Acme, 
Perfection (figure 137), Par- 
agon, Trophy (all scarlet or 
crimson), and the Yellow 
Trophy, besides the Red and 
Yellow Plum Tomatoes, used 
for pickling and preserves. 

TURNIP (Brassica campcstris). 

The Turnip, if wanted for 
an early crop, is sown in 
Fig.i38.-wiiiTE EGG TURNIP. ^^^,^^ spHug, as dlrcctcd for 

Beets. The best sorts are the varieties known as White 
and Purple-top Strap-leaved, White Egg (figure 138), 
and Early Milan (figure 139). If for winter or fall 


use, sowing should be deferred until July or August. 
The Ruta Baga or Swedes are sown in July, and the 


earlier winter sorts, such as Yellow Globe or Flat 
Dutch, in August. 


To get the full benefit of fresh vegetables during the 
entire season, it is necessary to sow or plant successional 
crops every two or three weeks, particularly with such 
crops as Bush Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Sweet Corn, 
Cress, Cucumber, Lettuce, Peas, Radish, Spinach, and 
Turnip. Even small areas of ground, if well manured, 
may double or treble the crop if judiciously sown or 
planted. For example, the ground first sown in Radishes, 
Spinach, Turnip, or Lettuce, in April, will have ripened 
these crops so that the ground can be cleared, dug up, and 
manured, and again used by the first of June, when such 
crops as Sweet Corn, Cucumbers, Peas, or Tomatoes can 
be planted, and so on all through the list, and thus from 
May to October the table can be daily supplied with fresh 
vegetables for a moderate sized family, even from a quarter 
of an acre of ground, if labor is given sufficient to sow 
one crop after another has been exhausted. 



In concluding the section of this hook devoted to veg- 
etable growing, we will add a few goneral instructions 
that may have been omitted in the details already giveu- 
In sowing all kinds of seeds, more particularly those of 
small size, be careful, if the soil is dry, to **firm" or 
press down the surface of the bed or roWj after sowing, 
with the feet, or a light roller, or the back of a spade, 
more especially if tlie weather is beginning to get warm. 
Crops are often lost through the failure of the seeds to 
germinate, for the simple reason that the soil is left loose 
about the tiny seeds, and the dry atmosphere penetrates 
to them, shrivehng tliem up until all vitality is destroyed. 
We sow nearly all vegetable crops in rows, and in every 
casey as soon as the seed is sown, if is pressed down in the 
drill with the foot, then covered 21 p level by the back of a 
rake drawn lengthways with the drills, and again firmed 
by tlie roller or back of a spade. Fur want of this simple 
precaution, perhaps one-fourth of all seeds sown fail to 
ger^ninate, and the seedsman is blamed, while the fault 
is owing entirely to the ignorance or carelessness of the 
planter. Again, for the same reason, when setting out 
plants of any kind, be certain that the soil is pressed 
close to the root. In our large plantings in market 
gardening, partieukirly in summer, we make it a rule in 
dry weather to turn back on the row after planting it 
with the dibber or trowel, and press the earth firmly to 
each plant with the foot. We iiave seen whole acres of 
Celery, Cabbage, and Strawberry plants lost solely through 
neglect of this precaution. 

Never work the soil while it is so wet as to clog. 
Better wait a week for it to dry than to stir it if wet. 

In no work in which men are en2fa£:ed is the adage, ''A 
stitch in time saves nine," more applicable than to the 
work of the farm or garden. The instant that weeds 


appear, attack them with the hoe or rake. Do not wait 
for them to get a foot high, or a twelfth part of it, but 
break every inch of the surface crust of the ground just 
so soon as a germ of weed growth shows itself. And it 
will be better to do it even before any weeds shoiu; for by 
using a small, sharp steel rake, two or three days after 
your crop is planted or sown, you will kill the weeds 
just as they are germinating. The newly developed 
germ of the strongest weed is at that time very tender. 
In my market garden operations I had one man whose 
almost exclusive duty it was to work in summer with the 
steel rake ; and in a few days after a crop was planted 
the surface was raked over, destroying the thousands of 
weeds just ready to appear. Had we waited for the 
weeds to be seen, so that they were too large to be de- 
stroyed by the raking, four men could not have done with 
the hoe the work accomplished by this man with the rake. 


The tool shed is an important and necessary appendage 
to a well-kept garden. The following list iocludes such 
implements as are generally needed in jjrivate gardens: 

The Wheelbakuovv (figure 140).— The wheelbarrow 

Figr. 140. 

is an important vehicle in the garden, for the moving of 
soils, carrying manures, and for conveying the products 



of the vegetable garden to the house or place of storage, 
and numerous other purposes. It may be purchased of 
different sizes and styles, or can be "home-made*' by 
those possessing a little mechanical skill. Iron barrows 
are becoming popular where known. They cost only 
about one-third more than wooden ones, and they are 
practically indestructible, quite light, and hang well. 

The Spade (figure 141).— The uses of the spade in a 
garden are too obvious and general to need description. 

rig. 141. Fig. 142. Fig. 143. Fig. 144. 

The best in use are the patent smooth back cast-steel, which 

are light, strong, and durable, and work clean and bright. 

The Shovel (figure 142).— The shovel is used for 

loading, and for mixing and spreading composts and 



sliort manures. They are made with long or short han- 
dles and round or square points. Those with soUd backs 
and straps on the handle, all in one piece, are the best 
and strongest, and are much superior to those with 
riveted backs. 

The Digging Fork (figure 143), or Forked Spade, is 
used instead of a spade to dig in manures, to loosen the 
earth about the roots of trees, or for taking up root 
crojDS, being less liable to cut or injure them than the 
spade. It is much easier to handle than the spade, and 
by its aid the soil can be more readily broken and pul- 
verized. These sjDades are made with four and five tines, 
the former being the one generally used. An improved 
pattern has the tines pointed, so that it can be inserted 
in hard or clayey ground with more ease. 

The Maxuke Fork (figure 144). — This is used for 
mixing, loading, and spreading manure, work which 
could not be efficiently done without it. They are made 
with either four or five tines, oval or diamond shaped. 
The oval tined fork is the light- 
est, and a careful man can handle 
it with more speed; but it is more 
easily broken than the diamond 
tined. The latter should be given 
to careless hands or used for 
heavy work. 

Rubber Hose (figure 145). — 
The usual garden size is three- 
quarter inch (inside diameter of 
bore), though one inch hose is 
sometimes used where a large 
quantity of water is wanted with "^^^^^ 
little force. A great deal of ro- 
guery is practised by hose man- ■ -^^si-.r -~^^^^> 
ufacturers, who put in composi- ^v?- ^45. 

tion material which easily rots, causing the hose to soon 



leak in places, though the hose, when new, can hardly be 
detected from pure fuller, unless examined by an expert. 
It is therefore advisable to buy only from those that you 
can depend upon to give you pure, or nearly pure, rubber 
hose. Although it costs a little more to begin with, it 
will outlast the other four times over. A recent intro- 
duction, known as ''Armored Hose," we have used for 
over a year. It has wire twisted around the hose, thus 
saving it from friction in dragging. It looks as if it 
would be six times more durable than common hose. 

The Hose Eeel (figure 145) will be found useful for 
transporting the hose to various parts of the garden or 
lawn. It also drains the hose in winding it up, making 
it last longer. 

Hand Cultivators (figure 146). — With these imple- 
ments a great variety of garden work can be done, such 
as hoeing, cultivating, weeding, making drills, earthing 

Hoeing iieiween Rows. 

Hoeiug Both Sides, 

Fig. 146. 

The "Planpt Jr." Double Wheel 
Hoe, Cultivator, and Plow. 

up, etc., and with greater speed and more ease than 
with an ordinary hand hoe. 

The CoMMOi^ or Draw Hoe (figure 147).— There are 
several patterns of draw hoes, but the one in general use 



is the common square hoe, as represented in the figure. 
Its uses in the garden are manifold, and it has frequently 
to do duty for several other implements. Its principal 

Fig. 147 

uses are to clean the surface of the grounds from weeds, 
to open drills for seeds, and to cover them. 

The Prong Hoe (figure 148). — This is one of the 
most useful of all garden tools, and is far superior to the 
blade hoe for stirring and pulverizing the soil. It can- 
not, it is true, be used where weeds have been allow^ed to 
grow to any considerable hight ; but then we claim that 

in all Avell-regulated gar- 
dens weeds should never 
be allowed to groAV so large 
that they cannot be de- 
stroyed by the prong hoe. 

The Dutch or Push 
Hoe (figure 149) is some- 
times preferred to the 
preceding for cutting the 
weeds between the rows of 
vegetables, a work which 
can be done very quickly 
by its aid. It is not so 

generally useful as the draw hoe, but is better for the 

special purposes of destroying weeds. 

The Warrex Hoe (figure 150) is a new pattern of 
real nierit. The blade is heart-shaped, and slightly 

Fiff. 148. 

Fijr. 149. 



curved, similar to the mold-board of a plow. It conse- 
quently always scours bright, and works nearly one-half 

Fig. 150. 

easier than the common draw hoe. For makino- drills 
and covering seeds it cannot be equaled. 

The Lawn Sprinkler (figure 151) is attached to 

Fiff. 151. 

Fiff. 152. 

three-quarter inch hose, and sprinkles the lawn a dis- 
tance of from twenty to forty feet in diameter, ac- 
cording to the kind of sprinkler or the force of the 



water. It is very valuable in dry weather, as it can 
be allowed to sprinkle for an hour or more in one place, 
and then be removed to another portion of the lawn. 
It is also a pretty ornament as a fountain. The illus- 
tration shows a small revolving sprinkler called the 
'^ Perfection," which is simply stuck in the ground. 
There are larger and more elaborate affairs with arms 
and ball and basket attachments, which keep a silvered 
ball continually dancing in the air. 

The Reel and Line (figure 152) are necessary in 
every well-regulated garden, enabling us to plant in 
straight and accurate rows. The best lines are those of 
braided linen, which will not stretch nor kink. Wind 
upon the reel when not in use. 

Pruning and Budding Knives (figure 153) are nec- 
essary to every gardener. They are of different sizes 

Fiir. 15:^. 

and shapes, for the various purposes of grafting, bud- 
ding, etc., and are made of the best steel. 

Grape Scissors (figure 154). — These are slender- 
pointed scissors, used for thinning out the berries of 
foreign grapes when they are about a quarter grown, so 



that those that are left may have room to develop. This 
operation should never be neglected if large berries and 
well-shaped bunches are desired. 

Flower Gatherers (figure 155). — A very useful 
article. The scissors cut off, and at the same time hold 
fast the flower or fruit after it is cut, thus enabling one 

Fiff. 154. 

Fisr. 155. 

to reach much farther to cut flowers or fruits than if 
both hands had to be used. It is particularly useful 
in gathering rose-buds, as the stem can be cut off with 
but little danger from the thorns. 

The Garden Trowel (figure 156) is used for setting 
the smaller kinds of plants when transferred from pots 

Fisr. 156. 

to the open ground, for transplanting annuals, and for 
many other uses. It is a very necessary little implement. 

Lawn Scythe (figure 157). — The lawn scythe is now 
but little used, the lawn mower taking its place, unless 

Fig:. 157. 

on hill-sides or among trees or shrubs, where the lawn 
mower cannot be worked. 

Lawn Mowers (figure 158). — The great improve- 
ments in Lawn Mowers during the past few years, and 
the low price at which they may now be obtained, have 



made their use common in every garden. They are of 
many sizes, from the small machine that can be easily 
worked by a boy, and admirably adapted for city garden 
plots, to the large horse mowers, that may be daily seen 
in use in our larger parks. In buying a lawn mower, 
always be sure that it is light running; that it will cut 
high grass; that all wear can be taken up, and that it is 
simple. "Side-wheel mowers'* are always to be pre- 

Fig. 158. 

ferred on ordinary lawns, as they run much easier than 
a "roller mower." The latter has one advantage only, 
and that is in cutting on a narrow border where a side- 
wheel mower would run off on the side. But the benefit 
derived by a lawn from the rolling received by a "roller 
mower" is in theory only, as the roller is not heavy 
enough to be of any actual benefit, while it is heavy enough 
to make the machine run hard. If you wish to roll your 
lawn, get a roller that will weigh not less than three hun- 


dred pounds. Grass Boxes can now be furnished on the 
new Henderson Lawn Mowers for collecting the cut grass. 
This is very desirable in some cases, particularly in tennis 
courts, croquet grounds, etc. ; but I do not advise this in 
other cases, especially if the lawn is fully exposed to the 
hot sun. The cut grass in this case acts as a mulch, and 
prevents the sun from drying the roots out. 

The Garden Roller (figure 159). — The benefit de- 
rived from using a roller on the lawn, especially in the 
spring, is not fully understood. The action of freezing 

Fig. 159. 

and thawing causes the ground to heave, and if it is not 
firmly pressed back with a roller before hot weather the 
grass is apt to be killed or injured, leaving the lawn full 
of bare spots. For use on the lawn always take a " tivo 
or three secfiofi,^^ as they can be turned without injuring 
the grass. '' 07ie section''' will be preferable for walks, 
as they leave no mark. Rollers having weights attached 
to the central shaft, that can be unhooked and removed 
when lighter weight is desirable, are the best. These 
weights always keep the handle up from the ground, and 
out of the way. 



The Lawn Rake is used for raking off lawns pre- 
vious to and after using the scythe or lawn mower, 
and for removing dead leaves and other rubbish. An 
improvement over the old 22-teeth wooden rake is 

the Steel Wire Rake (tigure 160). The teeth are so 
made that they will not catch in the roots. It rides 
over the grass in place of having to be held up, mak- 
ing the work easier. 

The Garden Rake (figure 161) is used to level the 
surface of the ground after it lias been spaded or hoed, 
and to prepare it for the reception of seeds or Dlants. 
Rakes are made of different sizes, for convenience in 
using between rows of plants, with from six to sixteen 
teeth. When a crop like cabbages is newly planted, we 

Fig. 161. 

use the rake in preference to anything else, as raking 
over the surface before the weeds start to grow, destroys 
the germ of the weed, never allowing it to appear at all. 
One of the best garden rakes made is the '*bow rake" 
(figure 162), which will not break, like an ordinary 
garden rake, where the handle is fastened in the center 
of the head. 



The Grass EDGii?"G Kxife (figure 163) is used for 
cutting the grass edgings of flower beds, its rounded 

Fig. 163. Fig. 163. 

edge fitting into curved lines, for which the spade would 
be unsuitable. 

The Grass Hook (figure 164). — This is a most 
useful implement for switching around 
and trimming off grass under hedges, 
bushes, fences, etc. 

Grass Edgij^g or Border Shears 

(figure 165). — JNo lawn looks finished 

unless the overhanging grass around the 

edges of the borders has been trimmed. 

Fig. 164. The shears here shown are the best for 

the purpose that we know of. They can be procured 

with a wheel at the heel of the blade, so that the 

Fig. 165. 

shears can be rolled along on the ground ; but old 
gardeners generally prefer them without. 

Hedge Shears (figure 166) are better fitted for clip- 
ping hedges than the Bill Hook sometimes used for the 
purpose, particularly in inexperienced hands. A line 


should be set at the bight to which the hedge is to be 
cut, as a guide to work by. The notch near the heel of 
the blade of all improved shears is to catch strong 
branches, which would otherwise slide oirt when an 
eUort was made to cut them. 

Hand-Pruning Shears (figures 167 and 1 G8).— These 
are very efficient and useful, and will cut off 
a small branch as clean as a knife. They are 
indispensable in pruning small trees and vines, 
and for use in grapery and garden. 

Fi.^-. 166. Fi^. 167. Fig. 168. 

Lopping or Branch Pruning Shears (figure 169). 
— These are powerful shears for cutting large branches. 
They have wooden handles from two to three feet long, 
which enable the operator to reach up a considerable 

Fi-. 169. 

distance. For thinning out and trimming up old shrubs, 
such as Lilac bushes, they cannot be equaled. Figure 
170 shows another style, called the Slide Cut Lopping 
Shears. These are so made that the cutting blade is 
drawn through the branch like a knife, which prevents 
bruising and crushing. 



Pole Tree Pruxer (figures 171 and 172).— With 
this implement branches of three-quarters of an inch 
and less in diameter can be trimmed from almost any 

Fig. 1?2. 

Fig. 170 

part of a tree without the trouble and risk 
of climbing or standing on a ladder. The 
newer patterns can be attached to poles 
of any length, and operated by a rope. 
A spring throws the knife back after the 
branch has been cut. 

Thistle and Weed Cutter (figure 173). 
— With this tool all sorts of weeds can be 
cut out of the lawn without breaking the 
surface of the sod. The projection on the 
side is to press the foot on for large roots, Fig. 173. 
and places where the scythe or lawn mower cannot be 
used, or where the place to be cut is small. 

Mole Traps (figure 174). — Where moles are prevalent 
in lawns, flower beds, and bulb beds, they can be effectu- 





ally got rid of by using a first-class trap. The one we 
here illustrate is, avt believe, the best we have ever used. 
It is called '' Hale's Perfect Mole Trap." To be success- 
ful, however, a person should know luliere to set a trap, 
as any **run" will not always do. Moles go through 
some '^ runs" regularly, and through others only once. 
To find a ** regular run," press the ridge down with your 
foot in various portions of the grounds. 
An examination next morning will show 
some depressions that have been raised, 
and will show where the regular runs are. 


'J J 

Fig. 174. Fig- 1^5. 

The {pruning Saw (figure 175) is used for cutting off 
branches that are too large for the knife, for removing 
dead ones, etc. It can be had of various sizes, from six- 
teen to twenty inches in length, and can be attached to 
a pole, so that the higher limbs can be reached. 



Garden- Syringe (figures 176 and 177). — The syringe 
is indispensable, and is in daily use in the greenhouse, 
conservatory, and garden. Syringing is necessary to keep 

ijongth of Barrel, 19 in, j diameter, IJ^. 

Fig. 176. 

the plants in a flourishing and healthy condition, and pre- 
A'ent the attacks of red spider, and with it fluid insecti- 
cides can be applied. They are made of several sizes and 

Leugth of Barrel, 18 in.; diameter, 1%. 

Fig. 177. 

patterns, and fitted with roses for dispersing water with 
varying force and fine or coarse sprays. 

The Water Barrel and Truck (figure 178). — A 
very useful combination for carrying water and other 
fluids. The barrel can be instantly detached, so that the 
truck can be used for conveying other barrels for various 
purposes. The barrel is exactly balanced over the axle, 

Fig. 178. 

and therefore no lifting or down pressure on the handles 
is needed in transportation. It is sometimes rigged up 
with a sprinkling attachment for sprinkling lawns, and 
a portable hand pump can be attached to throw water 
and insecticides over shrubs, plants, etc. The tires are 



two and a half inches broad, to prevent cutting into 
soft ground. A box can also be attached after the 
barrel has been removed, making a very convenient 
hand -cart. 

The G-arden Engine (figure 179) is an important 
adjunct to the garden. It is especially valuable for pre- 
venting the ravages of insects on trees where they can 
not be reached with an implement less powerful. The 
rapid increase of insects, worms, etc., in some portions 
of the country, whereby fruit is destroyed and trees 
injured, renders it necessary to wage continual war 

iig. 179. 

against them, and it can be successfully done by spray- 
ing with solutions of Paris green, London purple, kero- 
sene, and other mixtures, without injury to the fruit. 
The Garden Engine holds forty gallons of water, and 
will throw a stream sixty feet high or a spray forty feet 
high. It can be procured with a suction attachment, 
whereby it can fill its own box from a pond or cistern. 



Watering-Pots. — A watering-pot is indispensable in 
the greenhouse or conservatory, where it is daily needed. 
It is made of yarions sizes, from one to five gallons (the 
two-gallon size is convenient), wdth a rose for sprinkling, 
which may be detached at will. The new French pattern 
(figure 180) is much superior to the old style for ease of 
handling, especially for greenhouse work, as its flat shape 
allows it to be carried readily between the benches ; but 
its great merit is the handle, whereby it can be held in 
any position without straining the wrist. 

The Portable Hand Force Pump (figure 181) is a 
very compact and useful implement for greenhouse and 

Fig. 180. 

Fig. 181. 

garden work. It is easily operated, and throws a con- 
tinuous stream forty or fifty feet. It is very effective 
for watering shrubbery, gardens, or lawns, and especially 
valuable for applying fluid insecticides, such as Paris 
green water, to trees and bushes that are being ravaged 
by insects. 

Powder Bellows (figure 182).— For applying insect 



powders, such as hellebore, Persian insect powder, to- 
bacco dust, etc., to bushes and plants infested with 
insects, or sulphur to rose bushes and grape vines to 

Fi£?. 182. 

prevent and cnre mildew. The powders can be bettor 
applied with this than by any other metliod, as the force 
given it causes it to reach all crevices where insects hide. 

A Fluid Bellows or Vaporizer (figure 183) is sim- 


Fig. 183. Fig. 184. 

ilar in construction to the above, the receptacle holding 
fluids in place of powder, which is distributed in a fine 
mist over a large surface. It is valuable for applying 



such solutions as kerosene, fir tree oil, etc., to plants, 
etc., rendering their use perfectly safe. We also find it 
useful for spraying the foliage of plants before we dust 
powders on them. 

Plai^-t Sprinkler (figure 184). — Tliis is a very useful 
rubber ball, holding from half a pint to a pint of water, 
according to the size. By pressing the ball with the 
hand a very fine spray is forced out, suitable for watering 
cut flowers, bouquets, seedlings, etc. 

FuMiGATORS. — Figure 185 shows one of the most com- 
plete implements that I know of for smoking green- 
houses, conservatories, etc., without danger of fire, and 
without leaving a lot of litter behind, as is the case 
in the old way. This fumigator is arranged so that 
a handful of shavings or paper can be put on the 
grate, and on these the dampened tobacco stems. A 

Fig. 185. Fig- 1S6. 

sliding door in front regulates the draught, and a 
pan underneath catches the ashes and dirt. They 
come in various sizes. 

Ladies' and Children's Garden Tools (figure 
186).— In all flower gardens there is a great deal of 
hand-work to be done. This lot of small implements, 
consisting of a trowel, fork, rake, and hoe, will be found 
very useful in working on small flower borders. There 
are various sizes of these tools. Those with handles 
about three to four feet long are really very practical. 



Hand Weeders. — Indispensable little tools for garden 
work, such as weeding, loosening the soil around plants, 
etc. They save the fingers and work with great rapidity. 
There are now several styles, all of which are good. We 
give illustrations of the best. Figure 187, Hazeltine's ; 

Fig. 187. 

Fig. 188. Fig. 189. 

Fig. 190. Fig. 191. 

figure 188, Onion; figure 189, Noyes's; figure 190, Ex- 
celsior; figure 191, Allan's. 

Hakd Glasses (figure 192). — These have been men- 
tioned under Cauliflower, Cucumber, etc. Tliey are 
invaluable for starting and forcing young plants, protect- 
ing them from insects and frosts, and save much annoy- 
ance and care. Home-made hand glasses, being simply 
a small frame covered with a pane of glass, are very use- 
ful; but as they exclude some li^ht they are not equal 
to that shown in the illustration, wliich is a simple 
galvanized iron frame hinged at the top, so that it 
can be folded together, and a number packed away 
safely and in a small compass. The ends are of cloth, 
which admits sufiBcient air to keep the plants healthy 
and prevent burning. The glass is slipped in from 



the top. so that if one is broken it can be quickly 
ani cheaply repaired. 

Trellises, or supports f-r plants, are needed in the 
flower a::d ve^retuble 2-arden r.o: only for climbers, but 
ior keeping p.anrs v,-:,icn have weak stems within proper 

lis. 192. 

Fi-. i; 

bounds. Trellises for pots may be purchased ready made, 
as may those for climbing Rose- and such plants. They 
are nsnally made of rattan npun a frame of light wooden 
stakes, and some are made entirely of wire. A person 
of a mechanical tnm can readilv make all that will be 

needed. A few engravings are given here as suggestions. 
Figure 1&3 shows a useful support made with a barrel 
hoop ar- : ^v-.ves. The same plan may be carried out with 

Ga£DE>» Li£PT.F.¥£yiS. 


two or more hoops, and laths, if staTCS are too Iieavy. 
This win answer for Tomatoes, Baepbenies, and Tarioos 
other plants. A more permanent tomato trdlts is shown 
in figure 19-1:, in which slats are snpported bv \ ^ixped 
uprights. If pnt together with screws, snch a trellis 
may be carefully pat away in the fall and made to last 
several years. A rustic trellis, like that in figure 195, 
is often useful in the flower garden, or it may serve, 
when covered with climbers, to divide the flower from 
the vegetable garden. It is made of sticks of cedar or 
other durable wood, set as shown in the engraving, and 

tied, where the bars across one another, with strong 
tarred twine. With these examples as suggestions, one 
will find no difficulty in making more elaborate supports 
and with other materials. 

The White's Trellis (figure 196), before referred to 
in other parts of this work, I consider to be one of the most 
valuable of garden requisites. It is of simple construc- 
tion, so that it can be sold very cheaply, the price being 
from six to fifteen cents per running foot, according to 
size. Its original design was, that it should be used as 
a substitute for the ordinary pea brush or pea stakes; and 


qardeki:ng for pleasure. 

though for such purposes it will be mainly employed, yet 
it should be used for all plants requiring support, such as 
Lima Beans, Tomatoes, etc., and when space is limited, 
Cucumbers and Melons could be trained to fruit on it 
with little trouble; besides, there are scores of climbing 
flowering plants, both perennial and annual, which can 
be trained with the best results on the Pea vine trellis. 
We used this new trellis extensively in our trial grounds 
last season, and found it an admirable substitute for 
brush or strings in staking Peas, Toruatoes, etc. Its 
construction is such that the cultivator is 
enabled to pass freely between the rows. 

Fig. 196. 

Fiff. 197. 

thus simplifying the work of cleaning and picking; 
and, besides, it is at all times a neat and ornamental 
feature in the garden. These trellises are strongly made 
of galvanized wire, with staunch wooden uprights, neatly 
painted, and, with care, will last for a dozen years. 
They are so made that, after they are through with in 
the garden, they can be rolled up into a small compass 
and put away. 



Thermometers (figure 197). — There are many kinds 
of these that are useful, but none that can equal the one 
illustrated, which is known under the peculiar name of 
** sixes," or, jn'operly, **' self- registering." It will regis- 
ter both heat and cold, and is set by using a magnet to 
draw the steel needles down to the mercury. With this 
thermometer one can tell the coldest and hottest degree 
reached in the greenhouse during the night. 

Step Ladders (figure 198). — The step ladder is 
always useful in a garden and orchard, especially during 

Fiff. 198. 

the fruiting season. It is made in different sizes, vary- 
ing from four to twelve feet high. The illustration 
shows an improved pattern with extension top for hold- 
ing a basket for fruit. 



Tree Scrapers (figure 190).— A handy little tool for 
scraping rough or diseased bark from trees, thereby pre- 
venting insects from hiding and breeding, and making 

Fiff. 199. 

Fig. 200. 

applications of whale oil soap or other solutions very 

Bill Hook (figure 200), useful for trimming hedges, 
cutting brush, etc. 

Aphis Brush (figure 201).— xi splendid little brush 
for cleaning the leaves of plants infested with green fly 
and other insects. 

Gardej^er's Gloves (figure 202) of heavy tanned goat 

Fi^. 201. 

FijT. 202. 

or sheep skin. They enable one to work among thorny 
bushes without danger of having the hands scratched. 

Asparagus Knife (figure 203). — For cutting Aspar- 
agus below the surface of the soil. The saw-tooth edge 

Fig. 203. 

is to use where there is danger of injuring the knife edge 
|by cutting against stones. 



Although I have endeavored throughout the foregoing pages 
to be particular in stating the season or date at which each gar- 
dening operation should be done, still it may save time to the 
novice, and be otherwise of advantage, to briefly suggest what 
work should be done each month. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden.— But little need now be 
done in either. In the greenhouse care must be exercised with 
the fires to protect against frost, as this is usually the coldest 
month of the year ; it is also that in which there is the least 
sunshine. But little ventilating need be done; but when it does 
become necessary to do it, caution must be used. Be careful to 
raise the ventilating sash only so high that the heated air from 
the greenhouse will be able to drive back the outer air to such 
an extent as not to chill the plants. For example, occasionally, 
after a very cold night, where severe firing has been necessary 
to keep up the required temperature, say to sixty degrees, it 
happens that the sun comes out bright during the following 
day, so that by noon, or before, the temperature may be at a 
hundred degrees inside the greenhouse, though outside it may 
be nearly at zero. In such case the raising of the sashes an 
inch or two will rapidly lower the temperature of the green- 
house, so that an hour or so of such ventilating would be all 
that is required. If the greenhouse is heated by flue, or even by 
hot water or steam, examine nightly, that no combustible 
material is laid on tiie flue or thrown against the chimney of 
the boiler. As little fresh air can be given, insects are to be 
watched this month closely. By the use of fire heat a dry at- 
mosphere will be created, in which the red spider luxuriates. 
Nothing answers so well for its destruction as copiously syring- 
ing the plants at night, and splashing the paths with water, as 
it cannot exist to an injurious extent in a moist atmosphere. 
The Aphis, or "green fly," must also be destroyed, or it will 
soon cause great injury to the plants. Tobacco in almost any 
form is death to it, and may be either used by burning the 


stems or dusted on as snuff, or syringed on in liquid form. For 
full directions see body of the work. 

Hyacinths and other bulbs that have been kept in the cellar 
or other dark, cool place, may now be brought into the light of 
the greenhouse, provided they have filled the pots with roots. 
If not well rooted, let them remain until they are so, or 
select such of them as are best, and leave the others until 
ready. In the outside flower garden little can be done, except 
that shrubs may be pruned, or new work pushed on, such as 
making walks or grading, if weather permits. 

Fruit Garden. — Pruning, staking up, or mulching can be 
done if the weather is such that the workman can stand out. 
No plant is injured by being pruned in cold weather, though 
the pruner may be. 

Vegetable Garden. — Nothing can be clone this month in the 
northern states except to prepare manure, and get sashes, tools, 
etc., in working order; but in sections of the country where 
there is but little or no frost, the hardier kinds of seeds and 
plants may be sown and planted, such as Asparagus, Cabbage, 
Cauliflower, Carrot, Leek, Lettuce, Oaion, Parsnip, Peas, 
Spinach, Turnip, etc. In any section where these seeds can be 
sown in the open ground, it is an indication that hot-beds may 
be begun for the sowing of such tender vegetables as Tomatoes, 
Egg and Pepper Plants, etc., though, unless in the extreme 
southern states, hot-beds had better not be started before the 
first of February. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — The directions for Jan- 
uary will in the main apply to this month, except that now 
some of the hardier annuals maybe sown, and also the propaga- 
tion of plants by cuttings may be done rather better now than 
in January. For instructions in such matters, see chapter on 
" Propagation." 

Fruit Garden. — But little can be done in most of the northern 
states as yet, and in sections where there is no frost in the 
gi-ound, it is likely to be too wet to work ; but in many southern 
states this will be the best month for planting fruit trees and 
plants of all kinds, particiilarly Strawberries, Raspberries, 
Blackberries, Pear, and Apple, while Grape-vines will do quite a 
month later. One of the greatest wants, in many parts of the 


south, is reliable nurseries, where such things can be procured ; 
and as all such plants are at this season frozen solid in nurseries 
at the nortli, orders for such things cannot usually be shipped 
before April. Still, though something may be lost by this cir- 
cumstance, if proper attention is given to planting, watering, 
and shading (when practicable), good results may be obtained by 
planting trees from the north, as it is always better to take 
plants of any kind from a cold climate to a hot one, than from 
a hot to a cold. 

Vegetable Garden. — Horse manure, leaves from the woods, 
or refuse hop;? from the breweries, when they can be obtained, 
ma}' be got together towards the latter part of the month, and 
mixed and turned to get "sweetened" preparatory to forming 
hot-beds. For detailed instructions see article on " Hot-beds." 
Manure that is to be used for the crops should be turned and 
broken up as fine as possible ; for it sliould be known that the 
more completely manure of any kind can be mixed with the 
soil, the better will be the crop, and, of course, if it is dug or 
plowed in in large, unbroken lumps, it cannot be properly com- 
mingled. Cauliflower, Cabbage, and Lettuce seeds for early- 
crops should be sown in hot-bed or greenhouse this month. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden.— Brighter sunshine and 
longer days will now begin to show their effects by a rapid 
growth of plants in the gi'eenliouse, and also in those of the 
parlor or window garden. Examine all plants that are grow- 
ing vigorously and are healthy, and if the roots have struck to 
the sides of the pot and matted the "baU" of earth, then they 
must be shifted into larger sized pots. If this is long neglected 
the plants are certain to suffer in consequence. For details of 
operations see chapter on "Potting." The plants propagated 
last month may now need shifting also, and propagation should 
continue of all plants that are likely to be wonted. If propaga- 
tion is put off much later, most plants would not be large enough 
if needed for bedding purposes in the flower garden in summer. 
The hardier kinds of annuals may now be sown. It is best 
done in boxes, as recommended in chapter on "Propagation by 
Seeds." Lawns may now be raked off and top-dressed (if it 
was not done in the fall) with short manure or rich garden 


earth mixed with one-tenth part of bone dust or similar fertil- 
izer, where manure is not obtainable, and on light soils flower 
beds may be dug up so as to forward the work preparatory to 
the coming of the busy season. 

Fruit Garden.— In light, diy soils planting may be safely 
done in many sections, but we again caution the inexperienced 
not to get impatient and begin to plant before tlie ground is 
dry. It is bad to do so even in hght, sandy soils, but in stiff 
and clayey ones it will be utter destruction. Again at this 
season, kltbough a tree or plant will receive no injury when its 
roots are in the soil, should a frost come after planting, yet the 
same amount of freezing would greatly injure the plant if the 
roots were uncovered and exposed. Thousands of trees and 
plants fail every year from this cause. Thoy are exposed for 
sale in our markets with no protection to the roots, and even 
the experienced purchaser rarely has sufficient knowledge to be 
certain whether the roots of a tree have been injured by bemg 
frozen or dried up b> the cold winds of March. It is always 
best, when it can be done, to purchase direct from the nearest 
reliable nurserymen. They well know the importance of hav- 
ing the roots properly protected, while in two cases out of three 
the market huckster neither knows nor cares. 

Vegetable Garden.— This is a busy month. Hot-beds must 
now be all started, and all the seeds of the hardier vegetables 
may be sown in the open ground in locations where the frost is 
out and the ground dry. The list given for the southern states 
in January may now be used at the north, while for most of 
the southern states the tender kinds of vegetables may now be 
sown and planted, such as Egg-Plant, Okra, Melon, Sweet Po- 
tatoes, Squash, Tomatoes, Potatoes, etc. For early crops north, 
all these tender vegetables shoUd now be sown in the hot-bed 
or the greenhouse. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden.— Plants, whether grown 
in the greenhouse or in windows, will require increased ventila- 
tion and water this month ; and as they will now be growing 
rapidly, due attention must be paid to shifting into larger pots 
when necessary, and also increase the space, if possible, by put- 
ting the hardier sorts out in frames. If plants are crowded at 
this season in the greenhouse, they will grow spindling and 


weak. It is better to throw away the common or coarser 
plants if there is not room for the finer sorts to develop 
properly. Towards the end of the month it may be necessary 
to partly shade the glass of the greenhouse. This may be done 
either by sheeting hung on rollers from the top, or, more 
simply and cheaply, by making a very thin whitewash of lime. 
This may be spattered over the glass very lightly at first, just 
to mark the glass with white spots as thick as if a slight shower 
should leave the marks of its drops. The wash is to be spattered 
on thicker every week or two, as the season advances. The 
planting of all kinds of hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs 
may now be done in the flower garden. Bulbs and all tender 
plants that have been covered for protection in winter may now 
be stripped, and the beds slightly forked and raked. Sow 
tender annual flower seeds in boxes in the greenhouse, hot- 
bed, or sitting-room, and the hardier kinds in the open border. 

Fruit Garden. — Strawberries that have been covered up by 
straw or leaves, should now be relieved around the plant, only 
leaving the covering between the plants. See chapter on 
•' Strawberries." Raspberries, Grape-vines, etc., that have been 
laid down may now be uncovered and tied up to stakes or 
trellises, and all new plantations of these and other fruits 
should now be made. 

Vegetable Garden. — The covering of Asparagus, Rhubarb, 
Spinach, etc., should now be removed, and the beds hoed or dug 
lightly. The hardier sorts of vegetable seeds and plants, such 
as Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower. Celery, Lettuce, Onions, Pars- 
ley, Parsnip, Peas, Potatoes, Radishes, Spinach, Turnip, etc., 
should all be sown or planted by the middle of the month, if 
the soil is dry and warm, and in all cases where practicable be- 
fore the end of the month; for if these varieties of vegetables 
are delayed until the hot weather in May, they will not be so 
early, and in most cases will not produce so fine a crop. It 
is quite a common practice with many amateurs to delay 
garden operations of all kinds until May, but all the hardier 
sorts of vegetables arc likely to be later and inferior in conse- 
quence. Any one expecting to get fine eavJij Cabbage, Cauli- 
flower, Lettuce, or Radishes, if planting or sowing is delayed 
until the time of planting Tomato and Egg-Plants m May, is 
certain to be disappointed. 



Greenhouse and Flower Garden.— The majority of plants 
in the greenhouse or window garden should now be in their 
finest bloom. Firing may now be entirely dispensed with in 
the greenhouse, though care must yet be exercised in ventilating 
in the first part of the month, as we still have cold winds in this 
section. By the end of the month all of the plants that are 
wanted for the summer decoration of the flower borders may be 
planted out. In doing so, when the ball of earth has been com- 
pletely matted with roots, it will be better to bruise it slightly 
between the hands, so that, after being planted, the water will 
pass freely through the "ball," as it often happens that it 
is so hard and dry as to prevent the water from penetrat- 
ing it, and the growth is impeded in consequence. Water 
once copiously after planting if the weather is dry. When 
the greenhouse is not to be used during the summer months, 
Camellias, Azaleas, and plants of that character should be 
set out-doors under some shade ; but most of the other 
plants usually kept in the greenhouse or window garden 
in winter, may be set in the open border, where the pots 
should be plunged to the rim in ashes or sand, kecpmg them 
slightly apart from each other, to prevent crowding. Where 
there are indications that the pot has become filled with roots, 
the plant should be shifted into a size larger, just as it is 
done inside the greenhouse. As the plants make growth, they, 
with few exceptions, should be pinched back to cause a stout 
and branching form. Lawns should now be mown and edgings 
trimmed nicely, and all flower beds hoed and raked ; for if 
weeds are not kept down as they first appear, treble the labor 
will be required to eradicate them next month. Annuals that 
have been sown in the greenhouse or hot-bed may now be 
planted out, and seeds of such sorts as Mignonette, Sweet 
Alyssum, Phlox Drummoudii, Portulaca, etc., may be sown in 
the borders. Cuttings or young plants of Chrysanthemums, if 
started now, will give fine plants for fall flowering. 

Fruit Garden. — Where it has not been convenient before, 
most of the smaller fruits may yet be planted the first part of 
the month. Ply the hoe or cultivator vigorously to keep down 
weeds. If any of the numerous varieties of caterpihars, slugs, 
or worms make their appearance on the young shoots of vines or 
trees, a free application of tobacco dust mixed with Pyrethrum 


or Persian insect powder will dislodge most of them. It is best 
to use it as a preventive; for if they once get a foothold, the 
crop may be ruined. 

Vegetable Garden. — Thin out all crops sown last month, 
that are now large enough, and hoe deeply all planted crops, 
such as Cabbage, Cauliflower, Lettuce, etc. Plant out all tender 
vegetables, viz. : Tomatoes, Egg and Pepper Plants, Sweet 
Potatoes, etc. Plant seeds of Lima Beans, Corn, Melons, Okra, 
Cucumbers, etc., and successional crops of Peas, Spinach, Let- 
tuce, Beans, etc, 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — ^The greenhouse may 
now be used for hot-house or tropical plants, if such are desired 
during the summer months. It sliould be well shaded, and fine 
specimens of fancy Caladiums, Dracaenas, Palms, Ferns, and such 
plants as are grown for the beauty of their foliage, will make 
it very attractive. Hyacinths, Tulips, and other spring bulbs 
may now be dug up, dried, and placed away for next fall's 
planting, and their places fJled with such plants as Geraniums, 
Coleus, Achyranthes, and the various "white-leaved plants" 
that are suited for late bedding. Lawns will now require to be 
mowed weekly in all well-kept places. It is as much an indi- 
cation of slovenliness to see a door-yard that has any preten- 
sions to be called a lawn wiih the grass uncut, as it would 
be to sea a dust-begrimed carpet in the parlor. 

Fruit Garden.— If Strawberries have not been mulched 
with hay or straw in winter, the cut grass from the lawn is 
a convenient thing to place between the rows to keep the 
fruit from getting sanded by dashing rains. Nearly all the 
small fruits, such as Gooseberries, Raspb'rries, etc., are much 
improved by having a mulching of some sort placed around 
the roots, which should be done this month. For such fmits 
as require to be thinned, see instructions for next month. 

Vegetable Garden.— This is usually the busiest month in 
the garden. Crops mature and have to be gathered, and while 
doing so weeds are apt to steal a march on you, and may de- 
stroy entirely some of your hard work of former months, unless 
you attack them in their embryo stage, that is, just when 
breaking through the soil. A man will hoe and rake over six 
times the surface of soil when the weeds are in this stage that 


he would if the weeds were six inches high, and in this matter, 
more than anything else I know of in gardening, does a ' ' stitch 
in time save nine." Beans, Peas, Beets, Corn, Cucumbers, Let- 
tuce, etc., may still be sown for successional crops, and late 
plantings of Irish Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes will yet do well 
in suitable soils. Tomatoes should be tied up to trellises or 
stakes, if fine-flavored and handsome fruit is desired. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden.— But little need be said 
of the greenhouse this month. Watering, ventilating, and fu- 
migating (or the use of tobacco in other forms for destruction of 
Aphis), must be attended to. Keep tho atmosphere of the green- 
house moist. The plants from the greenhouse that may have 
been plunged out-doors, must be watched when they require 
repottmg ; and where the roots have run through the pots, tliey 
should also be occasionally turned round, to break them off; for if 
this is not done now, it would seriously injure the plant in the 
fall when the roots have run through the pot and deep into the 
soil, as they often do. Plants such as Dahlias, Roses, Gladio- 
luses, as well as many herbaceous perennial and annual plants, 
will now require staking. Be careful to proportion the size 
of the stake to that of the plant, and do not tie it too tightly. 
Stakes painted green look best, and the square are nearly as 
good as the round ones, and much cheaper. Carnations and 
other plants that are throwing up flower stem?, if wanted to 
flower in winter, should be cut back. Top Chrysanthemums to 
make them bushy. 

Fruit Garden. — If there are any signs of mildew on the 
grape-vine leaves, dust them over with dry sulphur, choosing a 
still, warm day. The fruit will now be gathered from the 
Strawberries ; and if new beds are to be formed, the system 
recommended of layering the plants in small pots is the best. 
See "Strawberries." Where Apples, Pears, Peaches, etc., have 
set fruit thickly, thin out one-half or two-thirds of the young 
fruit, as by doing so you will get at least an equal weight and 
much finer fruit. The same is true of grape-vines and ail 
other fruits that have set thickly. Where thinning out is prac- 
ticable, it will always be beneficial to practise it. 

Vegetable Garden.— Plants of Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Cel- 


ery, and all similar varieties of vegetables wanted for fall or 
winter use, are best planted this month, though in some sec- 
tions they will do if left until next. See directions given under 
these separate heaJs. Sweet Corn, Beans, Cucumbers, and 
Lettuce may yet be sown for late crops, and in some sections 
Ruta-baga Turnips for the main winter crop. Tomatoes should 
be kept tied up to stakes or trellises, and Sweet Potatoes must 
be hoed or moved to prevent the vines from rooting at the joints, 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — The instructions for 
July apply with but little variation in these departments this 

Fruit Garden. — Strawberries that were planted in spring, 
and also those that have fiTiited, will now be making "run- 
ners '' or young plants freely. All runners should be kept cut 
off close to the old plant, so that the full force of the roots is 
expended in maturing the " crowus'' or fruit buds for the next 
season's crop. New plantations of Strawberry plants should 
now be made from pot layers, though they will do as late as the 
end of September ; but the sooner they are planted after they 
are rooted in the pots, the heavier will be the crop. If plants are 
wanted for fresh plantations, about the required number can be 
allowed to run, but should be layered in pots, as recommended 
under "Strawberries." Cut away the old stems of Raspberries 
and Blackberries that have borne their fruit, and thin out the 
young shoots to three or four canes to each hill or plant. If 
tied to stakes and topped when four or five feet high, they will 
make stronger canes for fruiting next year. 

Vegetable Garden. — Planted crops, such as Cabbage, Cauli- 
flower, and Celery, should be hood deeply. AVe do not recrm- 
mend the earthing up of Celery this month. Onions will in 
many sections now be ready for harvesting. This condition 
will bo known by the tops becoming yellow and falling down. 
They are best dried by placing them in some dry shed in thin 
layers. For Sweet Potatoes, see directions of last month. 
Spinach may be sown for early fall use, but it is yet too early 
to sow for the winter crop. Red-top, White Globe, and Yellow 
Aberdeen Turnips should now be sown. Ruta-baga Turnips 
sown last month will need thinning. 

394 gaedeni:n^g for pleasure. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — Towards the end of the 
month, in many sections, the more tender plants will require to 
be put in the greenhouse, or housed in some way ; but be care- 
ful to keep them as cool as possible during the day. They 
would be better outside yet if it were safe to risk them. Cut- 
tings of all bedding plants may now be made freely, if wanted 
for next season, as the young cuttings rooted in fall make 
better plants for next spring's use than the old plants. This is 
true of what is known as bedding plants, such as Geraniums, 
Fuchsias, Verbenas, Heliotropes, etc. ; but with Roses and other 
plants of a woody nature, larger plants are usually the best. 
Holland bulbs, such as Hyacinths, Tulips, etc., and most of the 
varieties of Lilies may be planted this month. See detailed in- 
structions under " Holland Bulbs." Violets that are wanted for 
winter will now be growing freely, and the runners should be 
trimmed off as recommended for Strawberries last month. 
Seeds of Pansies, Daisies, Mignonette, Sweet Alyssum, Candy- 
tuft, etc., should now be sown in the early part of the monih. 
The early part of this month is as late as Chrysanthemums 
should be pinched back. 

Fruit Garden. — New plantations of Strawberry plants may 
still be made from the runners that have been layered in pots. 
The sooner in the month they are planted, the stronger they 
will be for next season. These plants will soon make runners, 
which must be trimmed off to throw the strength into the 
crowns for next season's fruiting. Attend to Raspberries and 
Blackberries as advised last month, if not then done. 

Vegetable Garden. — Seeds of Cabbage, Cauliflower, and 
Lettuce, to raise plants to be placed in cold frames, should be 
sown in this latitude from the tenth to the twentieth of this 
month. The main crop of Spinach or Sprouts that is wanted 
for winter or spring use, should be sown about the same dates. 
Celery may now have the earth drawn to it with the hoe pre- 
paratory to earthing up by the spade. Onions that were not 
dried ani harvested last month must be done this, or it will be 
too late. The early or fiat sorts of Turnips may yet be sown 
the first week of this month. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — In almost all northern 
localities, tender plants yet outside should be got under cover 


the early pan of this month. Avoid the use of fire heat as long 
as possible. Unless the nights become cold enough to chill the 
plants inside of the house, they are better without fire heat, 
though the greenhouse at this season should never be allowed 
to fall below fifty degrees at night. When there is indication 
that the night is likely to be cold, let down the sashes that 
have been raised for ventilation, early in the afternoon, 
and thus shut up the heated air until next day. If there 
is a cold frame or pit at hand, the hardier sorts of plants, 
such as Roses, Carnations, Camellias, Azaleas, etc., will do 
better if placed there until the middle of November, than in 
the ordinary greenhouse. Treated in this manner they make 
strong, healthy roots, that enable them to withstand the forcing 
process better when placed in the greenhouse. Look out for 
and destroy insects. See methods already given in chapter on 
** Insects." The planting of fall bulbs of all kinds, such as Hya- 
cinths, Tulips, etc., may continue during this month. Dahlias, 
Tuberoses, Gladiolus, Cannas, Caladiums, Tigridias, and all ten- 
der bulbs or tubers that are planted in spring, should be taken 
up before the end of the month, dried, and stowed away in 
some dry place free from frost during winter. 

Fruit Garden. — Strawberries that have been layered in pots 
may yet be planted early this month. Great care should be 
taken to trim off runners from early plantings. All kinds of 
fruit-trees and shrubs may be set out. If planting is deferred 
to the last of the month, the ground around the roots should 
be mulched to the thickness of three or four inches with 
leaves, straw, or rough manure, as a protection to the roots 
against frost. 

Vegetable Garden. — This is one of the busiest fall months 
in the kitchen garden. Celery will now be in full growth, and 
will require close attention to earthing-up, and during the last 
part of the month the first lot may be stored away in trenches 
for winter. See Celery. Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Squash, Sweet 
Potatoes, and all other roots not designed to be left in the 
ground during winter, should be dug by the end of the month. 
The Cabbage, Cauliflower, and Lettuce plants from the seed 
sown about the middle of last month, should now be pricked 
out in cold frames. If Lettuce is wanted for winter use, it may 
be Qow planted in the greenhouse or cold frames, and will be 
ready for use by Christmas. Rhubarb and Asparagus, if wanted 
for use in winter, should be taken up in large clumps and 


stowed away in pit, frame, shed, or cellar for a month or two, 
when it may be taken into the greenhouse and packed closely 
together under the stage, and will be fit for use from January 
to March, according to the temperature of the house. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — All plants should now 
be in-doors. A sharp lookout must be kept for cold snaps. 
These often come very unexpectedly in November, and as many 
plants are injured by frost in this as there are in the colder 
months, when the enemy is more closely watched for. "When 
fire heat is freely used, be careful to keep up the proper supply 
of moisture by syringing, sprinkling the paths, etc. In the 
flower garden nothing is now to be done except to clean off dead 
stalks and straw up tender Roses, vines, etc., and wherever 
there is time, to dig up and rake the borders, as it will greatly 
facilitate spring work. All beds where Hyacinths or other fall 
bulbs have been planted, had better be covered with rough 
litter or leaves to the depth of two or three inches. If short, 
thoroughly decayed manure can be spared, a good sprinkling 
spread over the law^n will help it to a finer growth in spring. 

Fruit Garden. — In cold sections the hay or straw mulching 
recommended in the chapter on the "Strawberry" may be put 
on during: the last of this month. Grape-vines and fruit-trees 
generally should be pruned ; and if wood of the vine is wanted 
for cuttings, or cions of fruit trees for grafts, they should be 
tied in small neat bunches, and buried in the ground until 

Vegetable Garden. — All Celery that is to be stored for 
winter use should be put away before the end of the month in 
all places north of Richmond, Va. South of that it may be left, 
in most places, in the rows where grown, if covered up. Direc- 
tions for storing Celery for winter are given under "Celery." 
The stalks of Asparagus beds should be cut off; and as Aspara- 
gus sometimes becomes a w^eed by the seeds dropping, it is bet- 
ter to burn the stems if there are berries on them. Spread a 
heavy dressing of rough manure three or four inches thick on 
the beds. All roots that are yet in the ground, and not de- 
signed to b3 left there all Avinter, must be dug up in this lat- 
itude before the middle of the month, or they may be frozen 
in until spring. Onions, Spinach, Sprouts, Cabbage, or Lettuce 


plants that are outside should be covered with two or three 
inches of leaves, salt hay, or straw, to protect them during 
winter. Cabbages that have headed may be usually preserved 
against injury by frost until the middle of next month, by 
simply pulling them up, and packing them close together in a 
dry spot in the open field with the heads down and roots up. 
On the approach of cold weather in December they should 
bo covered up with leaves as high as the tops of the roots ; or, 
if the soil is light, it may be thrown over them if leaves are 
not convenient. Cabbages so packed will keep until March, if 
the covering has not been put on too early. Where small lots 
only are grown, these and Cauliflower may be hung up in 
a cool cellar, and will keep for months. Whenever it is practi- 
cable, all empty ground should be dug or plowed this month, 
trenching or subsoiling, whenever time will permit. All such 
operations, when performed in the fall, not only benefit the 
soil, but greatly facilitate work at the hurried season in the 
spring. The cold frames where Cabbage, Lettuce, or Caul- 
iflower plants have been planted will now require regular 
ventilation by lifting up the sashes in warm days, and on 
the approach of very cold weather, straw mats or shutters 
would be a great protection to the plants. For the CauU- 
flower this protection is absolutely necessary here. 


Greenhouse and Flower Garden. — We are now fairly into 
winter, and close attention must be given to protecting all 
tender plants. It is one of the commonest complaints, es- 
pecially from ladies, that their plants "looked so nice until 
one cold night in December " defeated the whole care of the 
year by killing or wounding hundreds of the cherished favorites 
of the greenhouse or windo%v garden. There is no rule but 
vigilance ; and as extra strong fires will be kept up, look out 
again nightly for all combustible matter near the flue or 
chimney. If, by sundown, you find the thermometer in the 
greenhouse or parlor where your plants are kept, falling down to 
thirty-four or thirty-fi^e degrees, the chances are that there will 
be frost in the house before morning unless the fires are kept up. 
If there are not sufiicient heating arrangements, the best pro- 
tection, in such cases, is either to set the plants under the 
benches or on the walk if in the greenhouse, or move them from 


the cold point if in the parlor. If the plants are low and uni- 
form in hight, covering them with paper or sheeting will usually 
save them from injury, even if the thermometer falls to twenty- 
six or twenty-eight degrees. Another plan, where the heating 
apparatus is not sufficient, is to dash water on the pipes or 
flue in the greenhouse on cold nights, when the steam, rising 
to the glass, freezes there, and stops up all crevices. All 
mulching, strawing up, or other modes of protecting against 
frost in use in the flower garden, must be fmished this month. 

Fruit Garden. — Grape-vines, Raspberries, etc., in sections 
where protection from severe frost is of advantage, should be 
attended to this month, by laying them down as near the 
ground as possible, and covering them with rough Utter or 
leaveS; or with a few inches of soil, and Strawberries mulched. 

Vegetable Garden. — The final covering of Celery in trenches 
or roots in pits ; the Spinach crop in the ground, or any other 
plant in need of protection, must have it done before the end 
of this month. Manure and compost heaps should now be for- 
warded as rapidly as possible, and turned and mixed so as to be 
in proper condition for spring. Snow that accumulates on cold 
frames or other glass structures should be removed, particularly 
if the soil that the glass covers was not frozen before the snow 
fell. If frozen, it may remain on the sashes longer ; for the 
plants if frozen are, of course, dormant, and would not be 
injured by being deprived of light for eight or ten days. 


Amaryllis, Plantiug 58 

Angle Worm 206 

Anuual Seeds, How to Sow 110 

Flowers, List of 109, 1 10 

Ants.. 204 

Aphis, How to Destroy .202 

Ground or Blue .20;3 

Apple, Culture of.. .293 

Varieties of.. 291 

Apricot, Culture of 292 

Varieties of 293 

Aquatic Plants. See ''Water 

Lily" 118 

Aquatic Plants, Hardy. .111 

Articholie, Globe 307 

Artidioke, Jerusalem. .308 

Asparagus 301 

Culture of-. ..305 

Varieties of .807 

Beetle 307 


Baskets, Hanging 112 

Baskets, Hanging, Plants for.. 113 
Bean, Bush, Snap, or Kidney.. 309 

Bush, Culture of .309 

Bush, Varieties of 309 

Pole or Running, and Lima-309 
Pole or Running, and Lima, 

Culture of ...309 

Pole or Running, and Lima, 

Varieties of ...310 

Bedding, " Caii)et Style " of .32, 35 

Bedding Plants 33, 34 

Beet, Culture of ..311 

Varieties of 311 

Spinach ..351 

Bermuda Easter Lily 47 

Blackberry 276 

Blackberrj', Varieties of 276 

Black Cap Raspberry 275 

Black Cap Raspbeny, Varieties 

of... 276 

Blind Shoots 66 

Blood and Bone 19 

Bone Dust 17 

Bone Flour 19 

Borecole or Kale. '.311 

Borecole or Kale, Varieties of .311 


Boxes for Seeds 62 

Broccoli, Culture of ..312 

Broccoli, Varieties of 313 

Brussels Sprouts 313 

Bryant's Plant Protector 327 

Budding C9 

Budding, Various Methods of. 79 

Bulbs, Fall or Holland 44 

How to Grow in Pots 44 

How to Grow in Moss 45 

Tropical 80 

Bush Bean .309 


Cabbage, Culture of 316 

Varieties of.. 317 

Turnip-rooted 332 

Caladiums 81 

Calendar, IMonthlv. See"Month- 

ly Calendar". ...383 

Calla, or Lily of the Nile 55 

Camellias, Crafting.. _. 74 

Propagating 66 

Carpet Style of Bedding 32 

Carrot " 317 

Culture of 318 

Varieties of .317 

Cauliflower, Culture of 314 

Varieties of 315 

Celeriac 324 

Celery 318 

Culture of 319 

Raising Young Plants 318 

HandUng 320 

Varieties of. ;i22 

Tuniip-rooted 324 

Cellar and Greenhouse Com- 
bined 186 

Chard, Swiss 351 

Cherry, Culture of 286 

Varieties of 286 

Chives.. 325 

Chiysanthemura 147 

Culture of 148 

House Culture. 149 

Pinching and Disbudding. 150 

Early Varieties 151 

Late Varieties. .151 

Climbers, Hardy, List of 191 

Cold Grapery 247 

Color in Flowers, La^^of 215 



Cordon Trainins: of Pear Trees .296 

Corn, Culture of .825 

Varieties of 326 

Salad or Fetticus 324 

Conservatories attached to 

Dwellin": 164 

Cottage Gardeuii]g 301 

Cress or Pepper Grass 325 

Indian. -'. 340 

Water 325 

Crocuses, Planting 44 

Cucumber, Culture of 327 

Forcing 328 

Varieties of 329 

Curculio or Plum Weevil 287 

Currant, Culture of - . -280 

Varieties of 282 

Worm 280 

Cuttings, Propagating Plants by 64 

Proper Condition for 65 

Cyclamen, Planting 59 


Deciduous Shrubs, Hardy, List 

of 189 

Designs for Gardens .27-30 

Dewberry 279 

Drain, Board 12 

For Road Bed 16 

Rubble 11 

Tile---- 11 

Drainage for Garden .-- 10 

Methods of 10 

Drive . - - - 15 

Width of .--- 15 


Egg Plant, Culture of 330 

Varieties of 330 

Endive, Culture of 330 

Varieties of 331 

Evergi-een Shi-ubs, Hai-dy, List 

of 190 

Trees, Hardy, List of 191 

Feraeries 159 

Fertilizers, Adulteration of 20 

Concentrated 18 

Cost of --- 19 

Special.-.. - - 20 

Fetticus or Com Salad -324 

Figs---. ---284 

Culture of-... 285 

Varieties of 285 

"Fii-ming" the Soil. Its Im- 
portance - - 358 

Flower Beds, Planting 31 

Flower Beds, " Carpet Style" 32-35 

Designs for 31-43 

Ribbon Lines 38 

Massing in Colors 38 

Flower Stand 157 

Flowers, Annual 109 

Annual, List, of 110 

Law of Color in 215 

That Grow in the Shade.- -199 

Flues, Heating by - 179 

Folding Plant Stand 157 

Forcing or Hot Grapeiy .253 

Frozen Plants, Treatment of ..208 


Garden Culture of the Rose . . - 91 

Designs 27-30 

Drainage of 10 

Implements. .359 

Location and Soil 9 

Prepai*ation of Ground for. 13 

Protection by Hedges 9 

Shelter Important 9 

Vegetable -303 

Vegetable, Plan for - 304 

Veranda 115 

Walks, How to Malie 14 

Gardening, Cottage -301 

Parlor.- -153 

Window 116 

Garlic 331 

Gas Tar on Pipes Injurious 177 

Gladiolus, Planting 57 

Glass and Glazing"-- --.169 

Glasses for Hyacinths . - 47 

Globe Artichoke 307 

Gooseberry 282 

Culture at Paterson, N. J. -284 

Varieties of 283 

Grafting and Budding 69 

Grafting, Cleft ". 76 

Side 77 

Whip 77 

The Camellia 78 

Wax . - . - 77 

Grape Cuttings -- 243 

Grapes, Hardv- .-- 238 

Hardy, Planting - .239 

Hardy, Covering 241 

Hardy, Pruning and Train- 
ing 239-241 

Hardy, How to Propagate. 243 

Hardy, Varieties of 244 

Hot-house, Pruning ._251 

Mildew on 243 

Grapery, Cold 247 

Hot-house or Forcing 253 



Grapery, Lean-to ...249 

Grasses, Hardy Oruamental ...198 

Grass Seed for Lawu 24 

Gieenliouse and Cellar Com- 
bined.. 187 

Greenhouse Plants, List of 155 

Greenhouses Attached to Dwell- 
ing 161 

Detached 165 

or Pits Without Artificial 

Heat 184 

Green Flv or Aphis, How to 

Destroy 202 

Ground Not to be Worked when 

Wet 13 

Guano, How to Use 17 

Mixing: with Earth 18 

Peruvian 17 

Quantity to Apply 19 


HanG:inQ: Baskets 112 

JFilliuo: .-114 

Hardy Aquatics. See Water 

Lilies... .141 

Shrubs, Climbers, and Trees 

.... 189 

"Hay Seed" for Lawn ^ 

Heating by Flues 179 

by Hotbeds 182 

by Hot Water ..176 

by Steam 176 

Hedges for Protecting Gardens . 9 

Herbaceous Perennials, Hardy 19 J 

Perennials, Hardy, List oif-196 

Herbs, Sweet o31 

Hoiticultm-e, Humbugs in 216 

Horseradish 331 

Hotbeds, Heating by 182 

Hotbeds, Covering and Venti- 
lating .183 

Hothouse or Forcing Grapery. 253 

Plants 87 

Plants, General Treatment. 81 

House, Approach to 15 

Humbugs in Horticulture 216 

Hy acin ths in Pots 44 

in Glasses 47 

in Moss 45 

Planting 55 


Implements, Garden 359 

AUan's Hand Weeder 379 

Aphis Brush 384 

Asparagus Knife 384 

Bill Hook 384 

Budding Knives.. 365 

Implements, Carder), Coniinwcl. 
Children's Gai-den Tools.. 378 

Digging Fork 361 

Draw Hoe 363 

Dutch or Push Hoe 363 

Excelsior Hand Weeder... 379 

Flower Gatherer .366 

Fluid Bellows or Vaporizer 377 

Fumigator 378 

Garden Engiue 375 

Garden Rake 369 

Garden Holler 368 

Garden Syringe. 374 

Garden Trowel 366 

Gardener's Gloves b84 

Grape Scissors 365 

Grass Edging or Border 

Shears. .\. ....370 

Grass Edging Knife . 370 

Grass Hook 370 

Hand Cultivators 362 

Hand Glasses .379 

Hand Pruning Shears 371 

Hand Weeders 379 

Hazeltine's Hand Weeder. 379 

Hedge Shears ..370 

Hose Reel 362 

Ladies' Garden Tools 378 

Lawn Mowci-s 266 

Lawn Rake 369 

Lawn Scythes . . 366 

La^vn Sprinkler 364 

Lopping or Branch Pruning 

Shears 371 

Manure Fork ..361 

Mole Traps 372 

Noyes's Hand Weeder 379 

Onion Weeder 379 

Pea Vine or White's Trellis '^m 

Plant Protector 327 

Plant Sprinkler 378 

Pole Tree Prunor 372 

Portable Hand Force Pump 376 

Powder Bellows 376 

Prong Hoe 363 

Pruning Knives 365 

Pruning Saw - .373 

Push Hoe 363 

Heel and Line 3(>5 

Rubber Hose 361 

Shovel 860 

Sickle 370 

Spade - 360 

Step Ladder :^3 

Thermometers 383 

Thistle and Weed Cutter.. 3?2 

Tree Scraper 384 

Trellises 380 

Warren Hoe 363 



Implements, Garden, Continued. 
Water Barrel and Truck. .-374 

Watering Pot 376 

WheelbaiTOAv 359 

White's Trellis 381 

Indian Cress 'i^ 

Insects, Angle Worm 206 

Ants...^ 204 

Asparagus Beetle 307 

Brown and White Scale 205 

Curculio or Plum Weevil- -287 

Green Fly or Aphis 202 

Ground or Blue Aphis 203 

Injurious to Plants 200 

Mealy Bug 205 

Eed Spider 204 

Eose Bug IOC, 201 

Eose Chafer 201 

Eose Slug 201 

Thrips 205 

Instructions, General S58 


Japan Persimmon 289 

Jardinieres 159 

Jerasalem Artichoke H08 

Jonquils, Planting 44 


Kale or Borecole 311 

Kohlrabi or Tm-nip-rooted Cab-^ 

bage 332 

Kidney Bean 309 

Lath Screens 212 

Law of Color in Flowers 215 

Lawn 22 

Ants on 26 

How to Prepare a 23 

How to Eenovate 26 

Grass Seeds for a 24 

Sodding a 23 

Weeds in ^26 

Mowers £66 

Lawns on Sloping Banks 25 

Planting 31 

LaTering, Propagatino: by 68 

Leek..::.— .r. 3o2 

Lettuce ^32 

Culture of 333 

Varieties of 333 

Lilies, Planting 44-54 

Water. See "Water Lil- 
ies" ----118 

Lily, Berumda Easter, Forcing- 47 

of the Nile or Calla 55 

of the Valley, Forcing 50 

Lima Bean 309 

Location of Garden 9 


Manures, See also "Fertiliz- 
ers" 17 

Manure, Stable 17 

Martynia 833 

Mealy Bug 2C5 

Melon, Musk, Culture of Sc3 

Musk, Vaiieties of .034 

Water, Culture of 3^ 5 

Water, Varieties of 335 

Mildew 206 

on Grapes 243 

on Roses 99 

Monthly Calendar of Opera- 
tions 385 

January £85 

February £86 

March 387 

April 388 

May 390 

June 391 

July 393 

August £93 

September. £94 

October 394 

November 896 

December 397 

Mulching, its Objects and Meth- 
ods 209 

Mushi'oom, Culture of c36 

Forcing in Cellars, etc 338 

Musk Melon 333 

Mustard . . .. 335 


Narcissus, Planting 44 

Nasturtium 340 

Nectarine, Culture of '*i92 

Varieties of. 292 


Okra .340 

Onion, Cultm-e of £40 

Insect Enemies of 104 

Varieties of 341 

Potato 341 

Orchids, Culture of 101 

Select Lists of . 101-102 

Oi-namental -leaved Plsnts 107 

Parlor Gardening Accessories. .157 
Conditions "Necessai-y fur 
Success 153 

List of Plants for 155-156 



Parsley 343 

Parsnip .34:i 

Pea, Culture of 342 

Grovvn ou Pea Vine Trellis-345 

Variotic's of .344 

Viue Trellis .;J44 

Peach 293 

Culture of .201 

Varieties of 291 

Pear-. '^94 

Culture aud Traiuiug 294 

Varieties of .293 

Pear Trees, Cordon Training ..2-X 

Pepi)er 346 

Pepper Grass or Cress. .325 

Perennials, Hardy Herbaceous. 193 
Hardy Hei-baceous, List of. 196 

Winter-flowering 85 

Perpetual Spinach 351 

Pershnmon, Japanese 289 

Peruvian Guano 17 

Pit, Sunken ._ 185 

Pits or Greenhouses Without 

Artiilcial Heat 184 

Plant Protector, Bryant's 327 

Plant Stand, Folding 157 

Plants, Bedding 33-34 

by "Saucer System" 66 

for Sninmer Decoration ...106 

for Wardian Cases 160 

for Shady Places 199 

Frozen 208 

from Cuttings 64 

from Seed 5 61 

from Layers 68 

Greenhouse 86 

Hothouse or Tr.jpical 87 

How to Pot 83 

in Ivooais... 153 

i'l Rooms Not Unhealthy .155 

Ornamcntal-luaved 107 

•Potting from the Open 

Ground 154 

Repotting 84 

Temperature for 156 

Unhealthy 104 

Planting in Circles 32 

Flower Beds 31 

Lawns 31 

Plum 287 

Culture of 288 

Varieties of 288 

Plum Weevil or Curculio 287 

Pole Beans 309 

Potato, Culture of 3-16 

Varieties of 346 

Potato, Sweet :]53 

Potato Onion 341 

Pots, Draining 89 

Pots, Plunging 154 

Proper Size for Plants 89 

Potting Plants 83 

Propagating by Layering- 08 

by Cuttings 64 

by "Saucer System" iiij 

by Seeds 61 

^v'oody Plants 66 

"Protecting Cloth" 185 

Prunmg 233 

V/iiere to Cut 235 

For Shape 237 

Grajje \ mes 239-242 

Hotiiouse Grapes 251 

Spur.. 240, 251 

Pumpidu 346 


Quince 285 

Culture of-.. 286 

Varieties of 286 


Radish. C alture of 347 

Varieties of 347 

RasiDberry 270 

Time to Plant. ..270 

Pruning 2?'0 

Winter Covering .271 

Varieties of- 273 

Black Cap or Thimbleberry 275 

Varieties of 276 

Red Spider 204 

Re-pottlng Plants 84 

Rhubarb, Culture of 317 

Varieties of 348 

Road Drain 16 

Room Plants, How to Grow.. .153 

Not Unhealthy 158 

Rose Bug 100,201 

Chafer 201 

Slug 201 

Rose, Garden Culture of. 91 

Rose Growing in Winter 94 

Soil aud Benches 95 

Distance to Plant 95 

Ventilation 96 

Watering and Mulching... 96 

Pruning 98 

Varieties to Force 98 

Mildew 99 

Bug. - 100 

Roses, Propagation of 06 

T a or Monthly 93 

Hybrid Tea 92 

Perpetual 93 

Soil and Cultivation in the 

Garden 93 

Running Bean 309 




Salsify or Oyster Plant 349 

Black, or iScorzouera 849 

Saucers for Pots 157 

Scale, Brown and White -205 

Scorzonera 349 

Screens for Plants 212 

Sea Kale, Cultui*e of 349 

Seed Boxes 62 

Seeds, Annual, How to Sow 109,110 
Propagating Plants from.. 61 

Tropical , 82 

Seedlings, Damping off 63 

Shade, Flowers adapted for 199 

Shadmg 211 

With "Protecting Cloth ".185 

Different Kinds of 215 

Shallots 350 

Shelter for Garden 9 

Shingles for Shading 211 

Shoots, Bhnd ". 66 

Shrubs, Hardy, List of 189 

Side Grafting 77 

Snap Beans-- 309 

Snowdi'ops, Planting 44 

Smoke Flue 179 

Soil for Potting 83 

For Seeds- 62 

Importance of " Firming " 358 
Must not be Worked when 

Wet S58 

Special Fertilizers 20 

Spinach 350 

Culture of 351 

New Zealand 351 

Peii^etual 351 

Substitutes for 351 

Squash, Culture of- - .352 

Varieties of 352 

Strawberry 256 

Forcing 266 

[Manures for 257 

Runners in Pots 258 

Soil for 256 

Varieties of 261 

Strawberries. When to Plant- --257 
Successioual Crops of Vegeta- 
bles 357 

Sunken Pit 185 

Sweet Herbs, List of 331 

Sweet Potato 353 

Best Vaiiety 355 

Pi-opagation and Culture- -353 

Swiss Chard - 351 

Temperature for Growing 

Plants 86, 156 

Thimbleberry- - - -275 

Thrips- - 205 

Tobacco for Destroying Insects 202 

Tomato 355 

Culture of 356 

Time to Sow Seed 356 

Varieties of 856 

Trees, List of Evergreen 191 

Pruning Fruit-" 2c3 

Tropical Bulbs 80 

Plants 87 

Seeds 82 

Tuberose, Planting and Forc- 
ing 53 

Tulips, Planting 44 

Turnip 356 

Time to Sow Seed 356 

Varieties of 356 

Tumip-rooted Cabbage or Kohl- 
rabi 832 


Unhealthy Plants, Treatment 

of 104 


Vegetable Garden -303 

Plan for 304 

Vegetables, Successional Crops 

" of-.! 357 

Veranda Garden 115 


Walks, Garden, How to Make . 14 

Wardian Cases 159 

Watering Potted Plants 85 

Water Cress 325 

Water Lilies US 

Enemies of 126 

Hardy, List of 141-147 

In Central Park 124 

In Tubs and Basins 125 

Soil for 125 

Tropical, List of 12^141 

Water Lily Bed 126 

Garden 121 

Tank, How to Make 118 

Tank, What to GroAV in It, 

.... 118-119 

Water Melon 335 

Wax, Grafting 77 

Weeds, W^hen to Kill 359 

Whip Grafting T7 

Whitewash for Shading Glass. .214 

Window Boxes 116-117 

Gardening 116 

Winter-flowering Plants 85 

Temperature for 86-156 

Woody Plants, Propagation of. 66 

Worm, Angle - . - 206 

Currant 280 

Alphabetical Catalogue 

-♦ ® B 

-V — yw 

0. Jfldd Co., David W. Judd. Presi 


All Works pertaining to Rural Life. 

Agriculture^ Horticulture, Etc. 

Allen, R. L. and L. F. Xcw Amcricui F.nm Book... S'250 

American Farmer's Hand Book .." 2.50 

Asparagus Culture. Fiox.cioiii 50 

Bamford, C. E. Siikcuiture. rnpcv ';j(j 

Barry, P. The Fmit GanliMi. New and Revised Edition ... 2.'oa 

Bommer. Method of Making Manures 25 

Brackett. Fa nn Talk. Paper 50c. Cloth '75 

Brill. Farm-Gardening and Seed-Growiiii,^ 1.00 

Cauliflowers 2^ 

Broom-Corn and Brooms jm 


Curtis on Wheat Culture. P^^pei so 

Emerson and Flint. Manual of Agriculture 1.50 

Farm Appliances- lOO 

Farm Conveniences i-'O 

Farming for Boys i^» 

Farming for Profit 3.75 

FitZ. t5\v^et Potato Ciiliiire. New and Eiilar<;e(l Edition. Cloth GO 

Flax Culture. Paper .30 

French. FaimDraiua^^e , l.^.O 

Fuller, A. S. Pincilcai Forestry 1.50 

Propagation of Plants — 1.50 

Gregory. On Ca!)ba;4i;s 30 

On Carrots, Mangold Will tzuls, etc 30 

On Fertilizers 40 

On Or.ioii Raising ... .30 

On Squashes 30 

Harris^ Joseph. Gardenim: for Young and Old 1.25 

Talks on Manures. New and Revised Edition. .. 1.75 

Henderson, Peter. GardeningforPleasure. New. enlarged edition. 2.00 

Gardening for Protit. New and Enlitrg'ed Edition. 2.00 

Garden and Farm Topics 1-50 

Hand Book of Plants 3.00 

Practical Floriculture. New and Enlarged Edition.... 1.50 

Henderson & CrOZier. How tlie Farm Pays 2.50 

Hop Culture. New ami Revised Edition. Paper 30 

Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. Vols. i. ii. in. 

and IV. Each 5.00 

Johnson, M. W. HowtoPlant. Paper 50 

Johnson, Prof. S. W. How Crops Feed 2.00 

How Crops Grow 2.00 

Jones, B. W. The Peanut Plant. Paper 50 

Lawn Planting. P'lpei- 25 

Leiand. Farm Homes, In-Doors. and Out-Doors. New Edition 1.50 

Long, Elias A. Ornnmental Gardening for Americans 2.00 

Morton. Fanner's Calendar 5.00 

Nichols. Cliemistryof Farm and Sea 1.25 

Norton. Elements of Sciemillc ALiricnlture 75 

Oemler. Tmck-Farmingat the South 1.50. 

Onions. How to Raise tliem Profitably 20 

Our Farm of Four Acres. Pipi so 

Pabor, Wm. E. Colorado as an Agricultural Siate. 1.50 

Parsons. On the Rose 1-50 

Pedder. Land Measurer for Farmers. Cloili 60 

Plant Life on the Farm -00 

Quinn. M<niey in the Garden 1.50 

Riley. Potato Pests. Paper... 50 

Robinson. Facts for Farmers 5.00 

Roe. Play and Piofit in my Garden 159 

Roosevelt. Five Acres Too Much 1.50 

Sheehan, JaS. YourPlants. Paper 40 

Silos and Ensilage- New and Enlarged Edit' jn 50 

Starr. Farm Echoes 100 

Stewart, irrigation for the Farm, Garden and Orchard 1.50 


Stewart. Sori^hnm and Its Products l.."0 

Ten Acres Enough i.oo 

The Soil of the Farm i.oo 

Thomas. Farm implements and Machinf-rj- 1.50 

Tim Bunker Papers; or, Yankee Farming 1.50 

Tobacco Culture. Paper 25 

Treat, injurious lusecls of the Farm r.nd Garden 2.00 

Ville. Scliool of Chemical Maiuiie- 1.25 

Ilii;li FarmiiiLj wiilioiit Manures 25 

Ariilicial M:iuiin-s G.OO 

Waring. Book of the Farm 2.00 

Draining lor Profit and Health 1.50 

Waring. Elements of Agriculture 1.00 

Farmers' Vacation 

Sanitary Drainage of Houses and Towns 2.00 

Sanitary Condition in City and Country Dwellings 50 

Warington. Chemi-try of the P^arm l.CO 

White. Gardening for the Soutti 2.00 



American Rose Culturist 30 

American Weeds and Useful Plants 

Bailey. Field Notes on Apple Culture. T3 

Black. The Cultivation of the Peach and the Pear on the Delaware 

and Chesapeake Peninsula 1.50 

BouSSingault. Rmal Economy l.CO 

Chorlton. Gia))e-Giower's Guide. New and Enhum-d Edition 75 

Collier, Peter. Sorirlmm, its culture and Manuractme 3.'.H) 

Common Sea Weeds. Boards 50 

Downing. Fi nit- and Fruit Trees of America. Now Edition 5.00 

Rural Es<a.vs 3.00 

Elliott. Hrind Book lor Fruil-Growers. Pai)er JiOc. Cloih 1.00 

Every Woman her own Flower Gardener 

Fern Book for Everybody 

Fuller, A. S. Gmp.,- Cuiturist 

lllus'rali'd Strawberry Cultuiist 25 

Small Fruit Culturist. New Edition 1.50 

Fulton. Penc'i Culture. New and Revised Edition 1.50 

Heinrich. window Flower Garden T5 

Hibberd, Shirley. The Amateur's Flower Gnnleu 2.5(1 

Tiie Amtiteiir's Greenliouse and Cousei vaioiy. 2 50 

The Amateur's Rose Book 2 HO 

HOOpeS. Book of Evergreens 3.00 

Husmann,Prof.Ceo. American Grape growing and WineMakiiig l.rO 

Johnson. Winter Gieeueiies at Honn; 1-CO 

Meech, Rev. W. W. Quince Culture 

Moore, Rev. J. W. Orange Culture 100 

My Vineyard at Lakeview ^ '-^^ 

Origin of Cultivated Plants ^ '•s 

Quinn. Pear Culture Ipr Profit. New and Revised Edition. 100 


Rivers. Miniatuie Fruit Garden l.OO 

Rixford. Wine Press and Cellar .. 1.50 

Robinson. Ferns in tlieir Homes and Ours 1.50 

Roe. Success Willi Small Frnils 2.50 

Saunders, insects injurious to Fruits 3 00 

Thomas. American Fruit Ciillnri?t 2.00 

Vick. Flower and Veiietable Garden. Cloth 1.00 

Webb, Jas. C.ipe Cod Cranberries. Paper 40 

White. Cranberry Calture 1.25 

WiiliamSf B. S. Orchid Grower's :\Iannal.. G.50 

Wood, Samuel. Modern window Gardening ,. 1.25 

Cattle, Dogs, Sheep, Swioe, Pooltry, Etc. 


Allen, L. F. American Cattle. New and Revised Edition 2.50 

Armatage, Prof. Ceo. EveryMun His Own Cattle Doctor. 8vo,. 7.50 

Armsby. Manual of CattleFeediui,' 2.50 

Cattle. The Varieties, Breedinir, and ManaLrement 75 

Coburn, F. D. Swine Husi)andry. New and Revised Edition 1.75 

Clok. Diseases of Sheep 1.25 

Dadd, Prof. Ceo. H. American Cattle Doctor. 12nio I.,o0 

American Cattle Doct(>r. 8vo. Cloth 2.50 

Fleming. Veterinary Obstetrics G.OO 

Cuenon. OnMilcliCows l.UO 

Harris, Joseph. On thePig i so 

Heatley, C. S. Every Man his Own Veterinarian. 12mo 2.5) 

Jennings. On Catlle and their Diseases 125 

On Sheep, Swine, and Poultry, 1.25 

Jersey, Alderney, and Cuernsey Cow i.50 

Keepmg One Cow • i.oo 

Macdonaid. Food from the Far West 1.50 

McClure. Diseases of the American Horse, Cattle, and Sheep 1.25 

McCombie, Wm. Cattle and Cattle Breeders 1.50 

Martin, R. B. Ho,i;-Rai sing and Pork-Making,' 40 

Miles. Stock Breeding 1.50 

Powers, Stephen. The American Merino for Wool and Glutton. 

A praelicil and valuable work. 1.50 

Quincy, Hon. JOSiah. On Solllnu Cattle 1.25 

Randall. Fine Wool sheep Husbandry 1.09 

• Practical Shepherd 2.00 

ReaSOr. OntheHoo; I,.o0 

Sidney. Ou^hePig 50 

Sheldon, J. P. Dairy Farming, peini: the Theory. Practice and 

Methods of Dairying. With 25 Cplpred Plates. 4to. Full Gilt S.OO 

Shepherd, Major W. prairie Experience in Handling Cattle... 1,00 

Stewart, Henry. Shepherd'sManHal. New and Enlarged Edition.. 1.50 


Stewart, E. W. FeedingAnimnls 2.00 

The Sheep. lis Varieties and Miiiia<,'oiuent. Boards 75 

Willard, X. A. Practical Dairy Husbandry, gvo. Cloih 3.00 

Practical Butter Book. A C<'mi)lete Tre:iti>e on 

Biiiter-Makin'4. 12mo. Ciolh i.OQ 

Youatt. On Sheep l.UO 


Burgess. American Kenncl and Spoitin;? Field. 8vo 3.00 

Dog-The Varieties and Management 50 

Dogs of Great Britain, America, and Other Coun- 
tries, CompiieU IVoiii Stouelienye and otlier Staiuiard Writers. The 

nlu^<I Complete Work ever Publislic 1 on llie Do^'. 12mo . . 2.00 

Floyd, Wm, Hints on Do;,' Breakini:. 12ino .50 

Forrester, F. The Do-::, by Dinks, M.iyliew, and Hutchinson. Svo.. 3.00 

Hailock, C. DojjT Fanciers' Dirccioiy and Medical Guide. I81110 .25 

Hammond, S. Do;; Trainlm;. 12mio l.OU 

Hlli, J. W. Manai,'emeut and Diseases of the Doy. 12mio 2.00 

Hooper, J. J. Do<,'andGun. Paper .30 

Hutchinson, G. N. Do;,'Breakin,;,'. 8vo 3.00 

IdStOne. Tlie Do^^ illustrated. 12ino 1.2.") 

Laverack, E. The Setter. 4to 3.00 

Mayhew, E. Dojfs ; Their Manajement. Ifinio 75 

Points for Judging Different Varieties of Dogs. 

Paper 50 

Richardson. Do^^s; Their Origin and Varieties. Papr30c. Cloth .dO 

Shaw, T. VerO. Illustrated Book of the Do-.'. 4to 12.50 

Stables, Gordon. Our Friend the Dog. Svo 3.00 

Practical Kennel Guide l..">0 

Ladies' Doi:s as Companions 2.00 

Stoneheng©. The Doi^ in Health and Disease. Svo 3.00 

Do;,'s of the Biitisii Islands. Svo 6.O0 

'I'he Greyhound 5.50 

Youatt. On the Dog. Svo 2.50 


Anderson, E. L. Modern Horsemansliip. Svo 7.00 

TheGallop. 4to. Paper 100 

Armatage, Geo. Every Man His Own Horse Doctor, together wiih 

Blaine's Veterinary Art. Svo. | morocco 7.50 

Armatage. Geo. Ilorse Owner and Stableman's Companion. 12mo 1.50 

Baucher, F. New Method of Horsemanship. 12ino 1.00 

Battersby, Col. J. C. The Bridie BIip. a valuable little work 

ou horsemanship. Fully illustrated. 12m' > • 100 


Bruce. Stnd-Book. 4vols 35.00 

Chawner, R. Diseases of the Horse and How to Treat Them. 12ino 1.'.'5 

Chester, Complete Trotting ami Pacing Record 10.00 

Dadd, G. H. American Reloriiied Horse Book. 8vo 2.50 

Modern Horse Doctor. 12mo 1..50 

Day, W. Tiic R;i(:c Horse in 'J'rainin^-. 8vo 4.09 

Du Hays, C. Perclieron Horse. New and Revised Edition. 12ni<).. 1.00 

Durant. Horseback Ridin-- 1^25 

Famous Horses of America, cioiii. 4to i.50 

Fleming, George, F. U., C. V. S. The Practical Horse Kjeper. 

Uuiu. Colli 2.00 

CleaSOn, O. R. How to Handle and Educate Vicious Horses 50 

Going J. A. Veterinary Dictionar}'. 12mo 

Heatiey, Ceo. S. Every Man His Own Veterinarian 2.50 

Helm, H. T. American Roadsters and Trot tint: Horses. 8vo 5.00 

Herbert, H. W. Hints to Horse Keepers. 12mo 1.75 

Horse, The; its Varieties and Man.-iizemeiit. Boards 75 

Howden, P. How to Buy and Sell tlie Horse. 12mo 1.00 

Jennings, R. Horse Training Made Eas\'. 16mo 1.25 

Tlie Horse and His Diseases. 12mo 1.25 

LehndorfT, G. Horse Breeding Recollections. Hamlsomely Illus- 
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Manning. Tiie Illustrated stock Doctor 5.00 

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' " Horse Doctor. 8vo 3.00 

McClure R. Diseases of American Horses. 12mo 1.25 

Anu'iicau Gentleman's Stable Guide. l-2mo 1.00 

Miles W. On tiie Horse's Foot. 12iuo 

Rarey. llorso Tamer and Farrier. IGmo .50 

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Riley, H. Un the :MiiIc. l-2ino l.r.O 

Russell. Scientific Horse-Shoeing 3.00 

Saddle Horse The. Complete Guide to Riding ami Training — 1.00 

Saunders. Horse Biveding. 12rao 2.00 

Stewart, R. American Farmer's Horse Book. 8vo 3 00 

StOnehen'^e. Every Horse Owner's Cyclopaedia, gvo 3.75 

^ On the Horse in the Stable and the Field. Englisli 

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Edition. 12mo 2 00 

Tejlor. Diseases of Live stock. C|oili. 2..50; Slieep 3 00 

Wallace. Americ:in stud Book. Per Volume IC.CO 

Williams. Veterinary Medicine 5.00 

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Woodruff. The Trotting Horse in Ami rica. 12mo 2.50 

Woods, Rev. J. G. Horse and M.m 2.50 

Youatt & Ski/iner. The Horse. 8vo 1.75 

Youatt & Spooner. " " i2i"" 1«> 



Cook, Prof. A. J. Bee-Keeper's Guide 01- Manual of the Apiary.... 1.25 

Cooper, Dr. J. W. Game Fowls "'' 500 

Corbett. Poultry Yard ami Mailiet. Paper ^50 

Felch, I. K. Poultry Culture [ ]'r,Q 

Johnson, C. M. S. Practical Poultry Keeper. P.ipcr .^o 

King. Bee-Keeper's Text Book 100 

LangStrOth. Ou the Honey ami Hive Bee 2.G0 

Poultry. BrciMliiiij, Reariii--. Feediuij etc. Boards; 50 

Profits in Poultry and their Profitable gyianage- 

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Quinby. -^lysteriesorBee-KeepingExplaiueil (Edited l)y L. C. Rooi), 1.50 

Renwick. Tliennostatie Iiiciil)ator. Paper 36c. Clo'li 56 

Root, A. I. A, B. C, ofBee-Cuittiro I.05 

Standard Excellence in Poultry 1.00 

Stoddard. An Eiru-Farm. Revised and Eiilar;2;(d 50 

Wright. Illustrated Boole of Poultry 5. 00 

Practical Poultry-Keeper 2.00 

Practical Fi^^eon Keeper 1.50 

Our Sportsman's Books 


Burgess, J. T. Practical Guide to Bottom Fishin-, Trolling, 

8p:uiiinj, Fly, and Sea Fishiug. 8vo ° 50 

Fish Hatching and Fish Catching. By Roosevelt and 

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1 50 

Forester, F. Fish and Fishing. New Edition. 8vo ... 2.50 

Fishing with Hook and Line. Paper 05 

Fysshe and Fysshynge, from the Boke of st. Albans 1.00 

Hamilton, M. D. Fly Fishing. l-2mo I.75 

Harris. The Scientific Angler— Foster 150 

Henshall, J. A. A Book of the Black Bass. 8vo 3.OO 

Keene, J. H. Fly-Fishing and Fly-Making. lOmo. Just Published.. l.'JO 

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